作者: 朱荣贤
简介: The research of rational crisis and reconstruction still remains very hot in the academia.The crisis of rationality lies in many factors,of which its inherent defects are an important aspect.The dissertation does the research from three perspectives and makes a conclusion that the future development of rationality depends on its returning to context once more:firstly,to consider according to the development history and reflection of rationality and its logical expectation of its future trend;secondly,to do the research according to the development trend of modern sciences and postmodern study of sciences;thirdly,through empirical cases,namely,by analyzing the relationships between the above-mentioned three kinds of rationality and their relationship with society,to verify the outcome of the research.The research is carried out according to a historical development of rationality.The special physical structure of human brains constitutes an important substance of human rational thinking.Besides,it not only makes human rational thinking generally similar in form and content,but also special and contextualized.Ancient people also favor logical characteristics in terms of their rational thinking,but they do not differentiate“subject and object”in their thinking,making their rationality show the property of context.Since ancient Greece,logical rationality has become the important characteristic of western rationalism,which can be explained by the unique western“intension to move forward”and their culture to fight a-gainst the nature.After ancient Greece,mathematical and logical rationality got a salient development,getting rationality decontextualized gradually.After medieval times,scholasticism began to apply rationality to explaining religions,which is still a logical approach.The development of modern science made scientific rationality salient and made it experience the change from“essentialism”to“existentialism”in its understanding;in viewpoint of the world it has established a common mechanical view of the nature;in methodology it has formed a logical mathematical method,making modern scientific rationality become“a closed and absolute rationality of scientism”.So rationality began to show its one-sided,rigid and abstract shortcomings,which made a potential for its future crisis.Meanwhile,it made it possible for it to convert to the opposite.Two industrial revolutions and market economy have provided a consistent and stable cases in a long-term and broad time and space,and have provided a practical basis for the abstraction of technological rationality.The defects of modern scientific rationality and the overextension of technological rationality have made value rationality salient and promoted.The future development of sciences will take place in more macro and micro fields,and take as research objects the bifurcation,chaos,random and other uncertainties of things.Postmodern sciences differs from modern sciences not only in terms of their methods to deal with objects,but they can absorb or abandon the paradigms of modern sciences with new paradigms of tolerance,understanding,cooperation,creation,selfdiscipline and heteronomy.Before modern and postmodern sciences,the priori,abstract,and metaphysical characteristics of modern rationality have been exposed.In a certain sense,they provides a momentum for rationality to turn to context.As for the reconstruction of rationality,the West has put forward an idea to change“from rationality to reasonability”,“from authoritative rationality to critical rationality”,and“from priori rationality to practical rationality”,all of which contain the contextualization of theoretical reconstruction.Horizontally,the dissertation makes a Chinese-western comparison of the basic connotation of rationality.Especially,it makes a definition of the various rationalities through classification and the choice of appellations.Meanwhile,it puts forward two points:the overextension of rationality in form makes it contextualized in formal meaning;the scientific rationality,technological rationality and value rationality constitute the main form of human rationality.The dissertation puts forward the concept of“the view of broad-sense logic”to answer the reasonability for rationality to exist in the future context,and proposes that it be necessary to reconstruct a logical view which contains intuitive,deontic and multi-valued logics in a certain context.Rationality has its property of ecological existence,and rational ecology has its particular structure and social function.In the future,the rational ecosystem will become more complex,and the reasonable criteria of the three kinds of rationality will tend to be more contextualized and embedded.The harmony of rational ecology has a special meaning to the sound operation of society.At present,China's rational ecology has shown its unharmonious aspect.The technological rationality has been overextended,and scientific rationality and value rationality have been lessened.The overflow of multivariant ideas against the mainstream social concepts has exerted a negative influence upon the sound operation of Chinese society.To construct a harmonious rational ecology should focus on:taking the scientific rationality as the basis,strengthening the guidance of value rationality,and restraining the overextension of technological rationality;setting up a reasonable coexisting system of concepts for the multivariant and mainstream ideas.Wenchuan earthquake and the disputes between Chinese and western medicines can provide materials for people to understand the research objects and the characteristics of postmodern scientific research,and meanwhile they can provide realistic materials for people to understand the con-textualization shown by the three kinds of rationality in practice and their inner relationship with society,i.e.ecological property.The research outcome shows that rationality must be combined with a specific practice and specific context,and only under this condition can rationality have its significance of existence.
关键词: 本质和现象  研究  


作者: 张涛
简介: 起始于20世纪中叶并延续至今的现代科学革命,是科学领域内部几乎涉及所有具体学科的一次重大变革,其实质是对传统科学简单性信念的反思以及对世界复杂性的自觉与探索。马克思恩格斯的辩证法是通过对近代哲学与科学的简单性观念的批判而确立的,承认世界的复杂性不仅是现代科学革命的主旨,也是马克思恩格斯辩证法的题中应有之义。本书通过对科学领域的复杂性探索进行历史性考察,对其中蕴含的带有哲学性质的本体预设与方法论思想进行了概括。在此基础上对马克思恩格斯的相关论述进行梳理,将他们辩证法的复杂性思想概括为“系统整体联系的思想、全息建构的非线性思想、 自组织生成与演化的思想、生成与演化的不确定性思想”四个方面,形成了对马克思恩格斯辩证法复杂性思想的系统表述。
关键词: 马克思主义  唯物辩证法  研究  


作者: 蒙本曼
简介: 对知识本性的讨论是当前科学哲学研究领域中的一个重要问题。全书较系统地梳理了知识地方性问题的研究基础,较全面地阐述了地方性知识的重要性和存在价值,深刻剖析了知识地方性何以突显、强势科学与弱势科学的地方性博弈、本土科学与地方性知识的科学审视、非科学的地方性知识及其价值、另类科学实践中的知识地方性、知识地方性问题的深远意义等深层问题,对知识地方性和地方性知识两个相互关联又各有特质的论题进行了可贵的探索。
关键词: 知识  研究  


作者: 唐震
简介: 作者
关键词: 个体  研究  


作者: 周德义
简介: 凡是从自我出发的人生都是没有任何幸福与快乐可言的——作者自题
关键词: 对立统  规律  研究  


作者: 王永昌
简介: 人何以为人?人何以要改变世界?人又何以能改造世界以及何以能合理地改造世界?这是古今中外无数哲学家、思想家苦思冥想、追问不绝的哲学基本问题之一。不同时代的不同追问方式及其答案,便构成了不同时代的哲学基本精神。本书作者在我国哲学界最早提出了“实践观念”这一重要命题,引发了我国上世纪八、九十年代哲学思想界诸多相关重大问题的讨论。作者以其独特的哲学视角,回答了人及其活动的本质和特征,分析了过去哲学理论的缺憾,阐述了人变革对象世界和行为活动的主客体内在逻辑,并热情讴歌人类应以利、真、善、美相统一的尺度去改造世界和塑造自身。本书是作者根据硕士论文和博士论文修改提炼而成的。书中的基本论点虽经历了时间的洗礼,却历久弥新,对当今哲学研究依然具有重要借鉴意义。真正有见地、有价值的哲学思想,是有活的生命的。它们也许会应时间变迁而被人们渐渐淡忘,但那是因为它们已融入了时代前行的步伐。
关键词: 实践论  研究  


作者: 熊文
简介: 对于马克思辩证法思想的性质、具体规律、理论来源等问题的争论在马克思生前就开始了,并一直延续至今。通过对国内外相关研究的历史和现状的回顾与分析,本书认为,系统地论证马克思的辩证法是实践辩证法,正确地阐述实践辩证法思想,不仅有利于深入推进马克思辩证法思想的研究,而且对于更好地理解和坚持马克思创立的实践唯物主义具有重要的现实意义。目前对马克思实践辩证法思想的研究主要存在三个问题:一是对传统的辩证唯物主义体系采取历史虚无主义的态度;二是在对实践辩证法的解释上重新造成了人与自然、自在之物与为我之物的对立;三是有意无意地割裂了实践辩证法的历史联系。针对以上问题,本书从以下四个方面着手,力图切实推进对马克思实践辩证法思想的研究:第一,深入研究马克思实践辩证法思想与黑格尔辩证法思想的关系。本书认为马克思对黑格尔辩证法的批判有着两条清晰的逻辑线索:一条以《黑格尔法哲学批判》为标志,马克思对黑格尔辩证法,特别是体现在《逻辑学》中的辩证法的神秘形式展开了有针对性的批判;另一条以《1844年经济学哲学手稿》为标志,马克思对黑格尔辩证法,特别是体现在《精神现象学》中的辩证法的神秘主体展开了有针对性的批判。这两条批判的线索的汇流以《神圣家族》为起点,而《德意志意识形态》标志着马克思对黑格尔辩证法的批判基本完成。第二,深入研究马克思实践辩证法产生的逻辑进程。本书认为,马克思实践辩证法思想的产生经过了三个内在联系的阶段:第一阶段是自我意识辩证法时期。这一时期的思想主要体现在其博士论文《德谟克利特的自然哲学和伊壁鸠鲁的自然哲学的差别》及其笔记中。第二阶段是人本学辩证法时期。这一时期的思想主要体现在《1844年经济学哲学手稿》中。第三阶段是实践辩证法时期。这一时期的思想主要体现在《德意志意识形态》、《哲学的贫困》等著作中。这三个阶段不是截然分开的,而是有着内在的必然联系。第三,深入研究马克思实践辩证法的构成要素。本书认为,马克思实践辩证法的基本要素是对黑格尔辩证法相关内容的合理继承。它们主要包括三个方面:一是居于中心地位的自在自为性;二是自在自为性的纵向规定性,包括否定生成性和具体历史性;三是自在自为性的横向规定性,包括关系反思性和对象中介性。黑格尔重视自在自为的规定,具有强烈的历史感,始终把真理看作是具体的,认为真理是自我否定、自我生成的结果。同时,否定、关系、反思、中介等范畴在黑格尔的著作里被大量运用,它们是理解黑格尔辩证法的核心范畴。马克思在实践唯物主义的基础上对黑格尔辩证法进行了改造,赋予了黑格尔辩证法的基本形式以新的生命。第四,深入研究马克思实践辩证法的具体内涵。本书认为,马克思的实践辩证法并不是抽象的、孤立的东西,它具有丰富的内涵,包括自然辩证法、历史辩证法和思维辩证法。自然辩证法与实践辩证法是统一的,这种统一性源自人与自然、人的活动与自然活动、自在自然与人化自然的统一。历史辩证法是实践辩证法的直接现实,是狭义的实践辩证法。马克思的历史辩证法思想在《德意志意识形态》时期初步确立,后逐步发展成熟。思维辩证法是被人的头脑改造过的实践辩证法。思维辩证法从根源上脱胎于实践辩证法,但也有其相对独立性和特殊性。 关键词:马克思 辩证法 实践唯物主义
关键词: 暂无关键词


作者: 谢江平
简介: “意识形态”一词最早由法国哲学家特拉西提出,他将意识形态界定为“思想的科学”或“观念的科学”。特拉西的观念学试图以科学的方式重建整个知识体系。在特拉西那里,意识形态并不只是一种纯粹的知识论研究,它还是“理性政治学”,特拉西的观念学是要建立一个理性的社会,以实现人类的解放。最初特拉西的想法得到了拿破仑的赏识,拿破仑宣称,“我们想要一个建立在真正自由、公民平等和国家代表基础上的共和国,我们应该拥有”意识形态这门科学。460583但是,由于政治观点的差异,特拉西与拿破仑发生了分裂,在拿破仑那里观念学也因此成了一个贬义词,拿破仑轻蔑地称特拉西是“意识形态家”、“险恶的形而上学家”,并在此基础上展开了对意识形态的批判,拿破仑认为,意识形态“把政治、立法建立在一种从第一原理推论出来的种种玄妙原理的形而上学上面”460584,而不是基于现实的和历史的教训,是一种抽象的形而上学。至此,意识形态就染上了玄学的恶名,成了人们批判的对象。在意识形态批判史上,马克思的意识形态理论有着里程碑式的意义。在马克思恩格斯之前,人们是在认识论的意义上批判意识形态的,他们将意识形态当作单纯的主观认识错误,因此致力于研究人
关键词: 意识形态  研究  
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