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在不确定性中前行:基于不确定性容忍度的研究

作者: 黄仁辉
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:13次
简介: 本书在对不确定性容忍度的研究梳理和作者有关不确定性容忍度对个体行为选择的影响系列研究基础上提出不确定性的应对之道,以求为人们在不确定性中更好的生活提供一些心理学视野下的建议。本书共分为上、中、下三篇,三篇层层递进。上篇介绍国内外不确定性容忍度的相关研究,为中篇本书作者进行的“不确定性容忍度对个体行为选择的影响”系列研究提供文献依据和研究视角,下篇在前两篇基础上提出不确定性的应对之道。具体而言,上篇包括三章。第一章回顾不确定性容忍度的概念发展历程和测量方法;第二章介绍不确定性容忍度的神经机制;第三章概述了不确定性容忍度对情绪、认知、行为的影响。中篇共分八章,详细介绍了本书作者所做的不确定性容忍度对风险决策、模糊决策、跨期决策、延迟决策、创业意向、医疗决策的影响及对研究结论的综合讨论。下篇从接纳不确定性、提升不确定性容忍度、合理预期应对不确定性、简化不确定性、积极行动应对不确定性等角度提出不确定性的应对之道。
关键词: 主观能动性  不确定性  容忍度  

《资本论》的逻辑何以可能:马克思主义辩证法思想研究

作者: 白音女
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: 本书以探讨列宁在《哲学笔记》中论述关于《资本论》的逻辑所蕴含的辩证法的“三者一致”问题为根本的理论旨趣。辩证法是马克思主义的活的灵魂。我们对“辩证法”的通常理解,是把它理解为一种“方法”,一种可以用来解释任何问题的最根本的、最重要的“方法”。在这种习惯性的理解中,我们却淡化甚至遗忘了“辩证法”的生命根基和根本要求--“具体问题具体分析”,因而走向了“辩证法”自身的反面--脱离思想内容的“变戏法”。而辩证法之所以被人们嘲讽为“变戏法”,是因为“辩证法”变成了“可以用来套在任何论题上的刻板公式”,变成了“可以用来在缺乏思想和实证知识的时候及时搪塞一下的词汇语录”,也就是把“辩证法”变成了没有思想内容的“辩证词句”。那么,更深层的原因是什么呢?就是不理解辩证法是“辩证法、认识论和逻辑学”三者一致的内涵逻辑。

回到语境的理性

作者: 朱荣贤
出版日期:2016-09-01
浏览次数:55次
简介: The research of rational crisis and reconstruction still remains very hot in the academia.The crisis of rationality lies in many factors,of which its inherent defects are an important aspect.The dissertation does the research from three perspectives and makes a conclusion that the future development of rationality depends on its returning to context once more:firstly,to consider according to the development history and reflection of rationality and its logical expectation of its future trend;secondly,to do the research according to the development trend of modern sciences and postmodern study of sciences;thirdly,through empirical cases,namely,by analyzing the relationships between the above-mentioned three kinds of rationality and their relationship with society,to verify the outcome of the research.The research is carried out according to a historical development of rationality.The special physical structure of human brains constitutes an important substance of human rational thinking.Besides,it not only makes human rational thinking generally similar in form and content,but also special and contextualized.Ancient people also favor logical characteristics in terms of their rational thinking,but they do not differentiate“subject and object”in their thinking,making their rationality show the property of context.Since ancient Greece,logical rationality has become the important characteristic of western rationalism,which can be explained by the unique western“intension to move forward”and their culture to fight a-gainst the nature.After ancient Greece,mathematical and logical rationality got a salient development,getting rationality decontextualized gradually.After medieval times,scholasticism began to apply rationality to explaining religions,which is still a logical approach.The development of modern science made scientific rationality salient and made it experience the change from“essentialism”to“existentialism”in its understanding;in viewpoint of the world it has established a common mechanical view of the nature;in methodology it has formed a logical mathematical method,making modern scientific rationality become“a closed and absolute rationality of scientism”.So rationality began to show its one-sided,rigid and abstract shortcomings,which made a potential for its future crisis.Meanwhile,it made it possible for it to convert to the opposite.Two industrial revolutions and market economy have provided a consistent and stable cases in a long-term and broad time and space,and have provided a practical basis for the abstraction of technological rationality.The defects of modern scientific rationality and the overextension of technological rationality have made value rationality salient and promoted.The future development of sciences will take place in more macro and micro fields,and take as research objects the bifurcation,chaos,random and other uncertainties of things.Postmodern sciences differs from modern sciences not only in terms of their methods to deal with objects,but they can absorb or abandon the paradigms of modern sciences with new paradigms of tolerance,understanding,cooperation,creation,selfdiscipline and heteronomy.Before modern and postmodern sciences,the priori,abstract,and metaphysical characteristics of modern rationality have been exposed.In a certain sense,they provides a momentum for rationality to turn to context.As for the reconstruction of rationality,the West has put forward an idea to change“from rationality to reasonability”,“from authoritative rationality to critical rationality”,and“from priori rationality to practical rationality”,all of which contain the contextualization of theoretical reconstruction.Horizontally,the dissertation makes a Chinese-western comparison of the basic connotation of rationality.Especially,it makes a definition of the various rationalities through classification and the choice of appellations.Meanwhile,it puts forward two points:the overextension of rationality in form makes it contextualized in formal meaning;the scientific rationality,technological rationality and value rationality constitute the main form of human rationality.The dissertation puts forward the concept of“the view of broad-sense logic”to answer the reasonability for rationality to exist in the future context,and proposes that it be necessary to reconstruct a logical view which contains intuitive,deontic and multi-valued logics in a certain context.Rationality has its property of ecological existence,and rational ecology has its particular structure and social function.In the future,the rational ecosystem will become more complex,and the reasonable criteria of the three kinds of rationality will tend to be more contextualized and embedded.The harmony of rational ecology has a special meaning to the sound operation of society.At present,China's rational ecology has shown its unharmonious aspect.The technological rationality has been overextended,and scientific rationality and value rationality have been lessened.The overflow of multivariant ideas against the mainstream social concepts has exerted a negative influence upon the sound operation of Chinese society.To construct a harmonious rational ecology should focus on:taking the scientific rationality as the basis,strengthening the guidance of value rationality,and restraining the overextension of technological rationality;setting up a reasonable coexisting system of concepts for the multivariant and mainstream ideas.Wenchuan earthquake and the disputes between Chinese and western medicines can provide materials for people to understand the research objects and the characteristics of postmodern scientific research,and meanwhile they can provide realistic materials for people to understand the con-textualization shown by the three kinds of rationality in practice and their inner relationship with society,i.e.ecological property.The research outcome shows that rationality must be combined with a specific practice and specific context,and only under this condition can rationality have its significance of existence.
关键词: 本质和现象  研究  

复杂性探索与马克思恩格斯辩证法的当代阐释

作者: 张涛
出版日期:2016-06-01
浏览次数:51次
简介: 起始于20世纪中叶并延续至今的现代科学革命,是科学领域内部几乎涉及所有具体学科的一次重大变革,其实质是对传统科学简单性信念的反思以及对世界复杂性的自觉与探索。马克思恩格斯的辩证法是通过对近代哲学与科学的简单性观念的批判而确立的,承认世界的复杂性不仅是现代科学革命的主旨,也是马克思恩格斯辩证法的题中应有之义。本书通过对科学领域的复杂性探索进行历史性考察,对其中蕴含的带有哲学性质的本体预设与方法论思想进行了概括。在此基础上对马克思恩格斯的相关论述进行梳理,将他们辩证法的复杂性思想概括为“系统整体联系的思想、全息建构的非线性思想、 自组织生成与演化的思想、生成与演化的不确定性思想”四个方面,形成了对马克思恩格斯辩证法复杂性思想的系统表述。
关键词: 马克思主义  唯物辩证法  研究  

知识地方性与地方性知识

作者: 蒙本曼
出版日期:2015-12-01
浏览次数:51次
简介: 对知识本性的讨论是当前科学哲学研究领域中的一个重要问题。全书较系统地梳理了知识地方性问题的研究基础,较全面地阐述了地方性知识的重要性和存在价值,深刻剖析了知识地方性何以突显、强势科学与弱势科学的地方性博弈、本土科学与地方性知识的科学审视、非科学的地方性知识及其价值、另类科学实践中的知识地方性、知识地方性问题的深远意义等深层问题,对知识地方性和地方性知识两个相互关联又各有特质的论题进行了可贵的探索。
关键词: 知识  研究  

接受与选择:关于对象视域与人的主体性研究

作者: 唐震
出版日期:2015-10-01
浏览次数:51次
简介: 作者
关键词: 个体  研究  

我在何方:一分为三论

作者: 周德义
出版日期:2014-05-01
浏览次数:52次
简介: 凡是从自我出发的人生都是没有任何幸福与快乐可言的——作者自题
关键词: 对立统  规律  研究  

实践观念论

作者: 王永昌
出版日期:2014-01-11
浏览次数:31次
简介: 人何以为人?人何以要改变世界?人又何以能改造世界以及何以能合理地改造世界?这是古今中外无数哲学家、思想家苦思冥想、追问不绝的哲学基本问题之一。不同时代的不同追问方式及其答案,便构成了不同时代的哲学基本精神。本书作者在我国哲学界最早提出了“实践观念”这一重要命题,引发了我国上世纪八、九十年代哲学思想界诸多相关重大问题的讨论。作者以其独特的哲学视角,回答了人及其活动的本质和特征,分析了过去哲学理论的缺憾,阐述了人变革对象世界和行为活动的主客体内在逻辑,并热情讴歌人类应以利、真、善、美相统一的尺度去改造世界和塑造自身。本书是作者根据硕士论文和博士论文修改提炼而成的。书中的基本论点虽经历了时间的洗礼,却历久弥新,对当今哲学研究依然具有重要借鉴意义。真正有见地、有价值的哲学思想,是有活的生命的。它们也许会应时间变迁而被人们渐渐淡忘,但那是因为它们已融入了时代前行的步伐。
关键词: 实践论  研究  
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