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关学研究探微

作者: 张波 米文科
出版日期:2017-01-08
浏览次数:45次
简介: 新中国成立以来,学术界关于关学的研究主要是深化了对以张载为研究对象的关学学者思想的探讨,对一些重要的学术概念、理论问题的辨析仍存在诸多歧解。本书采取史论结合的方法,一方面对关学与关学史概念、关学各学派及其关学学者与朱子学、阳明学的关系等进行了不同角度的揭示,期以正本清源,还原历史实况;另一方面采取个案研究的方式,既对当前学术界各种张载哲学工夫论、认识论歧说进行辨析,又对张载、吕柟、冯从吾、李二曲等学者的思想进行了较为深入的探讨,期以促进学术界对关学的研究。
关键词: 关学  研究  

圣境:宋明理学的当代意义

出版日期:2017-01-05
浏览次数:39次
简介: 本书的特征本书是儒家传统的代表与当代西方德性伦理学的代表进行深层对话的开山之作。评论“安靖如的著作为促进中西对话做出了重大贡献,不仅会吸引研究中国思想的专家的目光,而且会引起对研究美德、道德修养、幸福等感兴趣的‘主流’哲学家的兴趣。”在整本书中,安靖如大量使用了最新的实证性研究成果……该书通俗易懂,不同背景的读者都能理解。没有中国思想背景的哲学家也会发现,书中讨论的许多议题不仅与自己的研究相关,而且非常有趣,有一定的挑战性。此外,我认为本书也非常适合作为成绩优异的本科生的阅读教材。我强烈推荐该书。——万白安(Bryan W.Van Norden)《圣母大学哲学评论》
关键词: 理学  研究  中国  宋代  明代  

关学·儒学·国学

作者: 许宁
出版日期:2016-01-11
浏览次数:44次
简介: 本书分为关学篇、儒学篇、国学篇三个部分。关学篇是张载及关学的相关研究,既有对于关学重要代表性学者的研究,又有20世纪对于张载关学现代诠释的评述,由此进一步揭示张载关学的时代价值和思想意蕴;儒学篇主要讨论儒学史的个案研究,力求揭示儒学在不同历史阶段的特点及其现代走向;国学篇是从儒释道三教关系的视角把握传统文化的精髓,阐述了作者长期致力于国学教育及研究的心得体会。
关键词: 关学  儒学  国学  研究  

北宋五子心性论与佛教心性论关系研究

作者: 耿静波
出版日期:2016-01-03
浏览次数:50次
简介: 三教会通是隋唐以来中土思想界的基本趋势。至宋代,鉴于北宋政治宽容、学术多元,以及思想开放等时代特征,三教融摄的思想趋势更加明显,并开始落实到具体行动。宋明理学正是以北宋五子为代表的理学家立足于内圣外王、治国平天下的先秦儒学真精神,借鉴佛教、道教思想所形成。具体言之,作为宋明理学的奠基者和开创者,一方面,北宋五子担负着回应佛道挑战、复兴儒学、确立儒家正统的历史使命;另一方面,面对儒学心性本体论的自身缺陷,其又不得不借鉴佛教心性论之精深思辨及理论模式。本书以北宋五子心性论与佛教心性论关系为题,即鉴于五子对佛教既批判又借鉴的双面性,结合相关时代背景及史料文献,运用史料论证及理论分析相结合的方式,对五子理学心性论与佛教心性思想相关涉的地方作具体分析、比较与论证,以期厘定与还原北宋中期三教融摄的现实状况,以及宋明理学与佛教的理论渊源关系,并探讨儒释互鉴的价值意义。本书共分七个部分,包括绪论、结语及正文五章。绪论着力就北宋五子与佛教关系的研究现状,以及全书的基本思路与特点作具体归纳与诠释。通过国内外对北宋五子理学心性论、佛教心性论及二者关系的相关论著来看:相对于五子天理论、理气论等方面的研究,对其心性论的研究则偏少,多数散见于介绍其整体理学思想的相关章节,且尚未有其心性论或其心性论与佛教关系研究的专著;佛教方面,自《中国佛性论》于20世纪80年代末刊出,大陆始对佛教研究中的专题进行精细的纯学术探讨2341801,此后,方有对佛教心性论、认识论等及其与儒道思想之比较、探讨的论著面世。然整体来看,相关著述多就理学家于道德、伦理层面对佛教的批判而展开论述,对五子之哲学基础、源头及其与佛教关系的挖掘还不充分。本书即是将五子作为重要的士人群体,从其理学心性论根基处入手,查阅佛教典籍中关于五子与禅僧,或五子对佛教典籍掌握的相关记载,结合佛教心性思想,以“史论结合”的方式由本及干,考流溯源,论证其理学心性论与佛教心性思想的关联。第一章为理学形成的时代背景,儒学吸收、借鉴佛教思想之原因。此章先从意识形态、政治背景、学术背景、社会风气四方面阐释宋代理学形成的时代背景;接着从三教融摄状况、佛教心性论之优势、儒佛理论之诸多相通三方面诠释儒学吸收、借鉴佛教思想的具体原因。任何哲学皆是时代之产物,儒家更是将超越追求与现实关怀的内在统一作为其基本精神,这也无形之中凸显了本章的重要性。通过本章的分析,我们可看到五子如何贴近时代脉搏,针对北宋中期儒学之现实困境,巧妙借鉴佛教心性思想,解决理论困惑,为儒家心性论找到形上本体依据;回应佛道挑战,抨击其道德伦理、认识论等方面的缺陷。第二章为周敦颐心性思想与佛教。此章分为周敦颐心性思想与佛教关联的史料论证及思想分析两部分。史料论证部分,笔者就被时人忽略的《居士分灯录》《解惑篇》等佛教史料中关于周敦颐与佛印了元、东林常总等禅僧的交往作分析与归纳;思想分析部分,结合佛教史料所载与其交往过的禅僧的相关思想,就其心性思想中之重要概念范畴“诚”“太极”等与佛教之“真如”“法性”,以及其《太极图说》《通书》《爱莲说》等著述与佛教心性论之关联作具体论述。第三章为张载心性思想与佛教。分为张载心性思想与佛教关联的史料论证及思想分析两部分。史论部分,就儒家方面之《横渠先生行状》《宋史》,佛教方面之《归元直指集》等史料,分析张载与佛教的关联,并就其曾与擅性理的云门宗高僧东林常总有过探讨,分析张载心性思想可能受常总影响;思想分析部分,在史料论证基础上,对张载“诚”思想、心统性情、民胞物与、气本论,以及中道思想等与佛教心性思想的关联作具体分析。尤其就张载之“民胞物与”“大其心”与佛教的“心”,“天地之性”与“清净佛性”,“理一分殊”与“法界缘起”,“天人一体”与“万法一心”等方面作细致对比与阐释。第四章为二程心性思想与佛教。此章亦分史料论证及义理阐释两部分。通过程颢对《华严经》的深刻体悟,程颐参问灵源惟清等禅师的相关史料及理论推理,可知,程颢之“天理”思想,以及程颐之“理一分殊”“性即理”“明鉴”等思想皆与佛教存在密切关联;更为重要的是,二程部分心性思想的表述竟为佛教论著原话。另外,此章重点对二程所重视之“诚”“敬”与佛教的“定”“止观”“静坐”“寡欲”,以及“自在”等思想作详细对比及分析。第五章为邵雍心性思想与佛教。通过史料分析及思想论证,结合《中庸》有关思想,对邵雍“以理观物”进行理论阐释,将“以物观物”与佛教“无我”思想进行比较分析;联系邵雍不被时人所关注的晚年不幸境遇,以及此后所完成的诗句,指出《伊川击壤集》中所收诗句反映了邵雍于不同人生阶段对生命、对人生价值的不同思考,尤其是其晚年的不幸境遇对其亲近佛教起到了重要作用,从而使其理学思想中亦不可避免地带有相当程度的佛教痕迹。其中,重点就其先天“心”与《伊川击壤集》中带有佛教痕迹之处与佛教相关心性思想作详细比较与阐释。结语部分,就前文所析,对北宋五子心性论与佛教心性思想之间的理论渊源作客观、全面的归纳与总结;针对北宋中期儒释道三教及儒家内部存在的以“孰主孰辅”立场上统摄三教的不同主张,作为坚定的儒家道统“卫道士”,北宋五子必然从阐扬先秦儒家孔孟真精神的立场出发,担负起既要抨击佛道、回应其挑战,又要吸收、借鉴其精深的理论及思考方式、充实完善儒家形上学地基、实现儒学之创造性发展的历史使命。笔者在肯定五子于批佛并借鉴、吸收其心性思想以完善自身理论对儒学有功的同时,也指出其在建立哲学方法论方面存在的缺陷与不足。书书
关键词: 理学  关系  佛教  研究  中国  宋代  

明中期关中四家易学研究

作者: 邢春华
出版日期:2016-01-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: The reign from the Emperor Zheng De to Jia Jing in the mid period of Ming Dynasty saw a severe land annexation,frequent famines and the displacement of peasants.Neo-Confucianism,as an orthodox philosophy,was unable to refresh the depraved social ethos and clear up people's spiritual confusion.At that time,the Chen Xianzhang—led Jiang Men School of the Mind,which advocates the natural outpourings of man's genuine thoughts and sentiments,rose to refute and criticize the doctrine of Neo-Confucianism—“uphold natural laws and uproot human desires”.The south witnessed the flourishing of the School of the Mind led by Wang Yangming,which looks straight into man's moral conscience and inner world,stresses the unity of theory and practice,but doesn't pay enough attention to social environment and social reality.Meanwhile,in the north,represented by Luo Qinshun,Wang Tingxiang,Lv Nan,and Ma Li,the doctrine of“to the service of the peace and prosperity of the world”proposed to reform social maladies,revere and follow ancient sages in academic life,and thus served to redress and guide the political and social ethos.The mid-Ming period also saw the revival of the School of Guanzhong area and the emergence of some influential Neo-Confucianism scholars.Amongst them were Lv Nan and the School of San Yuan,who,as advocates of“pragmatic learning”,engaged in writing books,giving lectures and establishing academies.Lv Nan was the supreme accomplisher while Wang Shu,Ma Li,Yang Jue and Han Bangqi contributed to polish and perfect their theories.In the matter of justic-profit relation,they adhered to the unity of the two,rejected the Buddhist and Taoist thought of inaction,and advocated practice and pragmatism.The most prolific author of Neo-Confuciansim works,Lv Nan suggested that the monarch and the subjects be of the same mind as the common people represent the mind of the heaven,and maintained that what matters most in one's cultivation be the cultivation of the heart and a conscientious self-restraint when alone.He also opined that the purpose of education be to motivate the scholars to devote themselves to the service of the country and the world.Wang Shu's Opinion on Yi-ology mainly reflects his interpretation,supplement and questioning of Yi Chuan and Zhu Xi's elucidation of Yi Ching.Ma Li held that the learning of great sages be taken with an appreciative attitude,and meanwhile his theories of principle,of vital energy,of moral cultivation and education significantly promoted the style of the School of Guang Zhou area.Yang Jue's theory of“solving confusion through debate”and his thought that“people are the foundation of a state”served all the more as an attack and condemnation against the corrupt,sordid social realities.The thoughts of these four reflect Guanzhong scholars' custom and practice of upholding moral integrity,as well as attaching importance to folk and academic traditions. Key Words: The Middle of Ming Dynasty; Guanzhong; Lv Nan;Wang Shu;Ma Li;Yang Jue;Yi-ology
关键词: 关学  明代  《周易》  

朱子学说与闽学发展

作者: 黎昕
出版日期:2015-06-01
浏览次数:30次
简介: 《朱子学说与闽学发展》一书出版了,这是福建社会科学院重点课题之一。课题组由福建社会科学院副院长黎昕研究员任课题负责人,课题组成员有福建社科院哲学研究所所长张文彪研究员,黄平、周元侠副研究员,薛孝斌、赵妍妍助理研究员。全书内容框架由黎昕进行总体设计,经全体课题组成员讨论修改后进行分工撰写。全书具体分工如下:绪论由黎昕撰写;第一章由黄平撰写;第二章由张文彪撰写;第三章由周元侠撰写;第四章由薛孝斌撰写;第五章由张文彪撰写;第六章第一、第二节由黎昕、周元侠撰写,第三节由周元侠、赵妍妍撰写;第七章第一节由黎昕、赵妍妍撰写,第二、第三节由赵妍妍撰写;第八章第一节由黄平撰写,第二、第三节由黎昕、张文彪撰写。全书由黎昕总纂和定稿。在统稿的过程中,部分章节由主编做了较大的删改和调整。本书的绪论,第五章,第六章第一、第二节,第七章第一节的主要内容曾在《哲学研究》《哲学动态》上刊用过;另外,本书在撰写过程中引用和借鉴了国内外专家、学者的相关研究成果,借此表示衷心的感谢。由于篇幅限制,有的引文未能在参考文献中全部列出,遗漏之处,敬请谅解。因水平和时间所限,书中存在的不妥之处,敬请指正。
关键词: 朱熹(1130~1200)  闽学  研究  

生生之道与圣人气象:北宋五子万物一体论研究

作者: 张美宏
出版日期:2015-01-12
浏览次数:26次
简介: “万物一体”是北宋五子哲学的一个主题,它既指示天地万物在天道观向度上的某种统一,又承载着他们所企及的“仁民爱物”之人道观理想。从理论渊源上讲,北宋五子“万物一体”论,是先秦儒家“天人合一”说的延续。在先秦儒家那里,“天人合一”说的提出尽管以天人的相关性思考为前提,但由于问题偏向的不同,所以“天人合一”又可分为天道观意义上的“合一”与人道观意义上的“合一”。就这两种不同意义的“天人合一”说而论,天道观意义上的“合一”以天道现象的过程性表述为基点,思考天地万物生生不已的必然性和统一性;人道观意义上的“合一”则以天道现象的泛道德思辨为前提,旨在明示人道观理想在内容上应具有关爱他人与关爱他物的一面。受“天人合一”说的二重性影响,“万物一体”论在北宋五子那里表现为天道观与人道观两个向度。“万物一体”的天道观向度展示了天地万物之间的本然相关和相联,在北宋五子的表述中,这种相关和相联则被引申为一种过程性的统一。也就是说,对于北宋五子而言,“万物一体”的天道观向度之所以可能,建基于他们对天地万物生生不已现象的普遍洞察,以此为视域,天地万物普遍必然的生生不已在本体论层面被还原为一个具有动态基质的“生生之道”。在“生生之道”成为本体的意义上,北宋五子对天地万物的生生不已展开了统一性寻思。从现代哲学的立场看,北宋五子基于天地万物生生不已的现象探求“生生之道”的本然存在,仅仅是对自然法则所持的某种抽象偏好而已,即由天地万物具体的生生不已出发,以思辨的方式揭示了这些现象背后的过程统一性,其在理论上并不能表征涵纳万事万物的整个存在。虽然从天地万物的生生不已出发构设“生生之道”在理论上是有限的,但是,北宋五子借此关注“万物一体”的天道观向度也不乏其现实意义。一方面,在佛、老并盛的境遇下,“万物一体”的天道观向度在本体论层面回应了佛教和道教对“再生”与“不死”的渲染,由此在理论基础上确保了儒家积极追寻人生意义的正当性;另一方面,基于万物在天道观向度上生生不已的普遍性和必然性,北宋五子展开了他们对人道观理想的普遍之思。由“太极”而立“人极”,由“天理”而明“人理”,由“气化之道”引出“存没关切”,以及邵雍对一多关系的多维辨正,即是依此而敞开的。“万物一体”的人道观向度在北宋五子那里首先表现为一种成就他者的仁爱关怀。在如此关怀中,自我以普遍的道德之心关爱或包容着他人与他物,贯彻于其中的则是儒家“亲亲”—“仁民”—“爱物”的价值原则。按照北宋五子的观点,“万物一体”的仁爱关怀既表现为抽象的价值观念,亦浓缩于圣人现实的道德品格中。作为抽象的价值观念,关爱他人和关爱他物来自于普遍的价值设定,而作为圣人现实的道德品格,关爱他人和关爱他物又见之于圣人具体的一言一行。在“圣人之道”成为“人之极则”的意义上,体认圣人替他者说了什么和为他者做了什么,是北宋五子领悟儒家人道观理想的一部分。除了成就他者的仁爱关怀外,“万物一体”的人道观向度还指向一种理想的人生境界。相应于“万物一体”在人道观向度上的拓展,领悟儒家人道观理想不再局限于关爱他者的层面。由于境界论的介入,在价值关怀上兼及自我,继而实现满足自我和关爱他者的统一也成为其题中之意,北宋五子玩味“圣人气象”正是因此而引发。在“万物一体”成为人生理想的前提下,北宋五子认为,践行“仁民爱物”的价值原则对圣人而言具有满足自我精神需求的意蕴,随着践行活动的展开,圣人在精神上呈现出一种泰然自足、怡然自乐的气象。通过对圣人精神气质的深度体察,北宋五子放大了他们自己的精神世界,在自我人生使命的认识上发生了变化,即由原初的独善其身最终变更为兼济天下。这样,躬行“仁民爱物”的价值原则随之也成为他们满足自我精神需求之必须。对于北宋五子而言,“万物一体”的以上两个向度都非常重要,且缺一不可。由“万物一体”的人道观向度出发,北宋五子不仅为人们确立了一种博施济众、厚德载物的价值理想,同时还在境界论意义上赋予这种价值理想本身以满足自我精神需求的意蕴。基于“万物一体”的天道观向度,北宋五子又把儒家“仁民爱物”的价值原则在形式上推向普遍之维,并使之在现实中成为自我省思人生意义的必然抉择。关键词:万物一体 生生不已 圣人气象 北宋五子 仁民爱物AbstractTheory of one body(Wanwuyiti万物一体),which not only indicates a unity of heaven,earth and myriad things(Tiandiwanwu天地万物)in dimension of nature(Tiantao 天道),but also implies one sort of value ideal of love for human beings and all things(Renminaiwu 仁民爱物)in dimension of morality(Rentao 人道),is a key subject in the philosophy of Wuzi(five great thinkers五子)who lived in the Northern Song dynasty(Beisong 北宋).Theoretically speaking,Wuzi's theory of one body can be considered as a continuation of Pre-Qin(Xianqin 先秦)Confucian doctrine of unity of heaven and man(Tianrenheyi 天人合一).The doctrine is based on a correlated meditation on heave and man,but on account of different interest in theory,it can be divided into the unity in dimension of nature and the harmony in dimension of morality.As far as the two different dimensions are concerned,the former is founded on a process description of natural phenomena,in order to reveal the necessity and the unity of ceaselessness(Shengshengbuyi 生生不已)of heaven,earth and myriad things,and the later is on the premise of a pan-moral speculation on natural phenomena,to express the aspect of love for him or it.Influenced by the above dual character,Wuzi's theory of one body can be divided into dimension of nature and dimension of morality.Theory of one body in dimension of nature manifests a natural combination among heaven,earth and myriad things,but the combination was described as a unification of progress in Wuzi's opinion.In other word,it is Wuzi's meditation on the ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things that made understanding of theory of one body in dimension of nature possible,and in this dimension,the universal and necessary ceaselessness of heaven,earth and myriad things is reduced to a ceaseless Tao(Shengshengzhidao 生生之道)in theory of Benti(本体论).In the sense of ceaseless Tao serving as Benti,Wuzi began their thinking on the unity of ceaselessness of heaven,earth and myriad things.From the view of modern philosophy,we can find that it is only an abstract inclination to law of nature for Wuzi to demonstrate the connatural existence of ceaseless Tao,which was thought to be the root cause of the ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things,and in theory it can't represent a great whole which contains all things,except for disclosing a unity of the progress among them in a speculative way.Although it is limited in theory that Wuzi proposed a concept of ceaseless Tao based on ceaseless phenomena of heaven,earth and myriad things,that is not to say,their attention to theory of one body have nothing to do with the realities.On the one hand,under the situation that Buddhism and Taoism are widely acclaimed,Wuzi refuted Buddhist and Taoist excessively exaggerating the idea of rebirth(Zaisheng 再生)and immortality(Busi 不死)in theory of Benti,and thereby they ensured the legitimacy of Confucian active life style on the foundation;on the other hand,by considering the universality and the necessity model based on views of nature,Wuzi shown the possibility of constructing the universality of moral law.It is just in this sense that they put forward the doctrine of Taiji(太极)-Renji(人极),the doctrine of the combination between the one and the many(Yiduoguanxi 一多关系),the doctrine of transformative Tao(Qihuazhidao 气化之道)-life concern(Cunmoguanqie 存没关切)and the doctrine of Tianli(天理)-Renli(人理).Wuzi's theory of one body in dimension of morality firstly implies a value concern of love for the other,in which oneself acquires a virtue of love for the other by his moral heart,and it is Confucian value principles of love for close relatives,human beings and things(Qinqin-Renmin-Aiwu 亲亲—仁民—爱物)that impenetrate in that concern.According to Wuzi's viewpoint,the concern of love for the other was both an abstract value idea and a sort of sages' moral character in reality.As an abstract value idea,it was from value programming,and as a sort of sages'moral character in reality,it was thought to be embodied in sages'concrete words and deeds.in the sense of sages'Tao(Shengre nzhidao 圣人之道)serving as the highest standard to all the people(Renzhijize人之极则),realizing what sages had said or done for the other became one part for Wuzi to understand Confucian moral ideal.Apart from the concern of love for the other,theory of one body in dimension of morality also denotes one sort of ideal realm of life(Renshengjingjie人生境界).Corresponding to the expansion of theory of one body in dimension of morality,understanding Confucian moral ideal is no longer limited to the level of love for the other.Because of the intervention of the realm(Jingjielun 境界论),how to unify love for the other and satisfying self became another part for Wuzi to understand Confucian moral ideal,too,and that is the only reason why Wuzi were interested in chewing over sages'style(Shengrenqixiang圣人气象).On the premise of theory of one body serving as life ideal,Wuzi thought that practising the value idea of love for human beings and all things could met spiritual need for sages,and with such a practice done,they also thought that sages themselves had achieved a realm in which they were very satisfied as well as very happy.By the means of pondering over sages' style,Wuzi enlarged their own spiritual world,and namely they eventually developed their life mission into a love for all in the world(Jianjitianxia 兼济天下)from a love only for themselves(Dushanqishen 独善其身).In this sense,practising the value ideal of love for human beings and all things became necessary for Wuzi to meet their own spiritual demand.For Wuzi,the above two dimensions of theory of one body were both very important and very indispensable.By deeply thinking on theory of one body in dimension of morality,Wuzi not only constructed a sort of value ideal of relieving the people with liberal aids(Boshijizhong 博施济众)and holding all things with great virtue(Houdezaiwu厚德载物)for man in the field of moral philosophy,but also endowed this sort of value ideal with an implication of meeting the demand of self-spirit in the sense of realm.On the basis of theory of one body in natural dimension,Wuzi also endowed Confucian value ideal of love for human beings and all things with universality in form,and what'more,they made it become a necessary choice to think over the meaning of their own life in reality.Key words:theory of one body;ceaseless Tao;sages' style;Wuzi in the Northern Song dynasty;love for human beings and all things
关键词: 古代哲学  研究  中国  宋代  

宋明理学在广西的传播及其对少数民族文化的影响

作者: 孙先英
出版日期:2015-01-02
浏览次数:29次
简介: 本书通过张械、王阳明等入桂理学人物个案和群体描述相结合,揭示了理学传播的主体、途径、方式和传播的性质特点。并通过分析比较,剖析了宋明理学在广西的发展历史及其特征,进而探索了宋明理学在士风士节、宗教信仰、宗法制度、社会组织、乡村控制以及社会习俗等方面对广西少数民族文化的影响。
关键词: 理学  影响  少数民族  民族文化  广西  宋代  明代  
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