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伯明翰学派前期媒介研究:1964-1979

作者: 孙勇
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:35次
简介: In 1963,Richard Hoggart was invited to be an English professor in University of Birmingham and lectured an inaugural speech named Schools of English and Contemporary Society which specified some research subjects including critical evaluative of mass culture,popular culture and mass media. In 1964 professor Richard Hoggart invited Mr. Stuart Hall to cooperate to found the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies and carried on to run the centre as professor Richard Hoggart setup in his lecture.From 1964 to 1979,media studies was always the centre of the research in CCCS. In this period,some importat works were published and CCCS exerted a great influence in academic field,especially in audience research,violence research in television,advertisement studies,ideology studies,feminist media studies,and so on. The following is the specific contents.The first chapter is about the media studies from 1964 to 1971 when the media group was founded. From the last months of 1969,CCCS and other leftist research instituiotns began to translate,introduce and absorb the continental theoretical resources massively. Media studies in this period is not very familiar to the researchers but actually the media studies in this period was extensive and fruitful. The first publication of CCCS is about the possibilities of local radio,the first two sponsored project of CCCS were media related,and professor Hoggart and Mr. Hall did agreat amount of researches about BBC,ITV,commercialization of radio,newspaper and Picture Post, etc.Chapter 2 is about the politics and ideology studies. Most of the founders and leaders of the centre were born in working class families,so they are very sensitive to the industrial relations,general election and policies. In 1972 researchers of CCCS did a thorough analysis to the news photos. And the next is the analysis of the industrial conflict and current affairs programs.The next chapter is the popular audience research. After the Hall’s important text‘Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse’is published,CCCS had continually provided theoretical works such as ‘Reconceptualising the Audience’,the practical works such as Everyday Television:Nationwide,The Nationwide Audience,Crossroads,etc. ‘Audience Research’ is very important in media studies in CCCS and it created a history of audience research either in the critics of Leicester School and Frankfurt School or the rediscovery of audience.When the event that a male white man was stabbed to death had been reported in the media researchers of centre began to pay close attention to how media transform one robbery event to a ‘moral panic’event which was moral concerned,was disturbed in the politics,state and society fields. From 1972,researchers of centre did a series of study and published a series of papers and finally Policing the Crisis was published in 1976,which is about the production of capitalist media extensively and thoroughly.Since 1970 the feminist movement had a great influence on many territories in the world and of course exerted a great influence on the media studies in CCCS. In the first period of the 1970s Stuart Hall and Michael Green decided to do some feminist media studies and they finished a study for the female magazines,Cure for Marriage,but unfourtunately the night before the study was scheduled to be reported the manuscript was lost.Although a lot of things happened the related researches were moving forward,mainly about the images of women in the mass media,ideology of adolescent femininity and housewives and mass media,etc.As the third director of CCCS,Richard Johnson,said in his essay ‘What is Cultural Studies anyway?’‘Cultural studies is now a movement or a network. …… It exercises a large influence on academic disciplines,especially on English studies,sociology,media and communication studies,linguistics and history’,media studies was in the centre of the works in CCCS which include the founding and spreading of some critical media theories and the publish of some important texts. When Hall left the centre in 1979 the Hall Period is over and a new era is initiated. Along with the leaving of Hall and the graduation of the students,media studies in CCCS just like the seeds,grow up out of the greenhouse and disseminate to the UK,America,the European Continent and the whole world.Key Words:CCCS;Cultural Studies;Media Studies
关键词: 文化  学派  英国  1964-1979  

中非人文交流与合作:英文

出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:13次
简介: 国之交在于民相亲,民相亲在于心相通。人文交流是中国与非洲关系持续深入发展的必要条件和重要体现。经过双方多年共同努力,中非人文交流与合作不断取得新进展,呈现规模日益扩大、领域不断拓展、形式趋于多样、层次逐步提升等特点,尤其是在文化教育、医疗卫生、新闻媒体等方面合作成效非常显著。但是同时也要看到,与快速发展的中非政治关系和经贸合作相比,中非人文交流与合作还显得相对滞后,相对薄弱,被认为是中非关系的“短板”。中非人文交流与合作亦面临一些问题和挑战,未来中非双方需要进一步加强对话与合作,携手应对挑战,推动人文交流与合作不断迈上新台阶,着力打造“民心相通”工程,为中非关系顺利发展夯实巩固社会民意基础。
关键词: 中外关系  文化交流  中国、非洲  英文  

中非人文交流与合作

出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:1次
简介: 摘要:人文交流是国与国、民与民之间增进了解、加深理解、建立互信的桥梁,是中非关系全面深入发展的必要条件和重要体现。经过双方多年的共同努力,中非文化交流与合作机制不断提升完善,中非文化交流正在向常态化和品牌化发展,中非影视合作成效显著,中国文化中心日益发挥着重要作用,中国不断加大对非洲文化领域人力资源培训,为非洲培养了大量文化人才。中非教育交流与合作不断取得新进展,呈现出规模日益扩大、领域不断拓展、形式趋于多样、层次逐步提升等特点。中非双方持续加强合作,在合作机制、留学生教育、孔子学院建设、高校校际交流合作、职业技术教育合作、教育援助等方面取得了显著成果。中非文化教育交流与合作亦面临许多问题和挑战,包括非洲文化产业发展落后、非洲教育状况不容乐观、中非文化相互影响较弱、中非教育合作水平较低、中国文化中心和孔子学院建设遇到一些困难等。未来中非双方需要进一步加强合作,推动中非文化教育交流与合作不断迈上新台阶,着力打造“民心相通”工程,为中非关系顺利发展提供强大动力,夯实社会民意基础。中非医疗卫生合作是中非合作论坛约翰内斯堡峰会提出的中非“十大合作计划”之一。事实上,中非卫生领域的合作由来已久,自1963年中国向阿尔及利亚派出第一支医疗队开始,中非之间的卫生合作已取得丰硕成果。新时期中非医疗卫生合作逐渐从传统友谊型援助向多层次、宽领域、全方位合作方向转变,呈现出向纵深拓展的发展趋势。与此同时,中非医疗卫生合作也面临着一些观念层面与实际操作中的问题与挑战。为此,中方应调整工作思路,着眼长远,以巩固中非卫生合作成果,进一步扩大合作的有效性及影响力,拓展中国在非洲以及全球卫生战略布局中的利益,实现中非双方卫生领域的互利共赢,夯实中非传统友好关系。加强中非新闻媒体交流与合作不仅是中非经济合作的客观需要,还是为了超越西方媒体的“他者”视角,呈现一个真实的非洲,同时有助于打破西方负面舆论对中非关系的错误定性和不实指责。近年来,随着中非关系全面快速发展,中国媒体越来越多地进入非洲,以不同于西方的中国媒体视角,来客观公正地报道非洲和中非关系,同时有力地推动了当地广播电视、传媒业的发展。中非媒体交流与合作在一定程度上改变了非洲传媒格局,带来了有别于西方媒体的报道视角和叙事方式,而这对非洲传媒和非洲民众的影响可能更加深远。我们在看到中非新闻媒体交流与合作取得很大进展的同时,更应该清楚地认识到其中存在的问题和挑战,并且采取务实有效的措施进行积极应对和解决,以推动中非新闻媒体交流与合作不断发展。关键词:中非人文交流与合作;文化教育;医疗卫生;新闻媒体Abstract:The people-to-people and cultural exchanges,a bridge facilitating the understanding and the establishment of mutual trust between peoples and states,is a precondition and important embodiment for the comprehensive and further development of China-Africa relations.After many years of joint effort,the China-Africa cultural exchange and cooperation mechanism has been constantly improved so that the cultural exchanges between the two sides have become normalized.China and Africa have achieved remarkable success in film and television industry cooperation,for which the Chinese cultural centers have been playing an increasingly important role.China has promoted the training of human resources in the field of African culture and trained a large number of cultural professionals for African countries.New progress has been made in educational exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa,demonstrating constant growth,ever increasing scale,continuous expansion in cooperation areas,diversified cooperation forms,and gradual upgrading of exchange levels.China and Africa have continued to strengthen their cooperation and have made remarkable achievements in such areas as cooperation mechanisms,education of international students,establishment of Confucius Institutes,intercollegiate exchan ges and cooperation,cooperation in technical and vocational education,and educational assistance.Cultural and educational exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa are also confronted with many problems and challenges,including underdeveloped African cultural industry,poor educational conditions in Africa,limited cultural interaction between China and Africa,and difficulties in establishment of Chinese cultural centers and the Confucius Institutes.In the future,China and Africa need to further strengthen cooperation so as to lift China-Africa cultural and educational exchanges and cooperation to new heights,and strive to develop programs that help bring the Chinese and African peoples closer together and provide a powerful impetus for the smooth development of China-Africa relations by consolidating social and civil foundations.China-Africa medical and healthcare cooperation is one of the“Ten Major China-Africa Cooperation Plans”put forward by the Chinese government during the FOCAC Johannesburg Summit.China-Africa cooperation in this field has a long history and fruitful results have been achieved since the first medical team was sent to Algeria in 1963.In the new period,China-Africa medical and healthcare cooperation has evolved gradually from traditional assistance into multilevel,wide-ranging,and all-round cooperation,with a trend of in-depth development.At the same time,medical and healthcare cooperation between China and Africa is also faced with some problems and challenges in terms of concept and practice.To this end,the focus should be on long-term development in order to consolidate the results of China-Africa health cooperation,further expand the effectiveness and influence of that cooperation,achieve mutual benefit and win-win results in this sector,and ultimately consolidate the traditional friendly relations between China and Africa.Strengtheningexchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African media outlets is not only an objective requirement of China-Africa economic cooperation,but also an obligation to present a true Africa beyond the“other”perspective of the Western media,which will help present a positive alternative to false accusations of the nature of China-Africa relations by Western media coverage.In recent years,with rapid and comprehensive development of China-Africa relations,an increasing number of Chinese media organizations have entered Africa with the aim of providing objective and fair media coverage on Africa and China-Africa relations from a perspective different from that adopted by the Western media,which has greatly promoted the development of the local radio,television and the media industry.Media exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa have changed the media pattern in Africa to a certain extent and may have a far-reaching impact on the African media and the African people.In spite of the great progress made in media exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa,existing problems and challenges are real and require practical,effective measures to actively respond to and solve in order to promote further development of media exchanges and cooperation between the two sides.Key Words:China-Africa people-to-people and cultural exchanges and cooperation,cultural education,medicine and healthcare,press media
关键词: 中外关系  文化交流  中国、非洲  

文化创意产业系统研究——基于CAS的理论与方法

作者: 肖云
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:1次
简介: 本书根据创意产业系统的复杂性,采用复杂适应系统(CAS)的理论与方法,探索创意产业的要素(主体)构成和系统演化。首先本书研究了创意产业的CAS特征,即创意产业的要素就是CAS系统中的适应性主体,创意产业系统的要素构成就是系统适应性主体的构成;创意产业系统中适应性主体的交互方式和演化规律就是创意产业系统演化的动力学机制和生成发展路径。接着,本书从宏观和微观两个层面考察了创意产业的主体构成和系统演化。本书的研究结论是,创意产业系统是一个复杂适应系统,系统中的主体都处在由其他主体所提供的情境中,由于所有的主体都变动不居,因此无法用静止的、线性的方法来对每一个主体赋予一种可以确定其变化的函数关系;但是如果用计算机模型来进行仿真研究,则很可能会有所得。
关键词: 文化产业  产业发展  

中国特色社会主义文化创新研究

作者: 胡刚
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:1次
简介: 随着经济全球化与文化多样化的迅速发展,文化作为国家的“软实力”越来越受到各个国家的关注和重视。当前,中国特色社会主义正进入新时代的关键时期,想要增强自身的综合实力,提升自身的国际竞争力和影响力,就必须重视文化的创新与发展。为此,本书重点研究了中国特色社会主义文化创新的基础理论与实践路径,涉及中国特色社会主义文化创新的理论渊源、指导方针、基本原则、创新内容、推进策略以及中华文化“走出去”战略等,促进中国特色社会主义文化理论与文化实践的有机结合,进而实现中国特色社会主义文化创新与发展。

中国特色社会主义生态文化建设论

出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:10次
简介: 本书所要探讨的问题是:在当代中国应当建设什么样的生态文化以及怎样建设生态文化,才能为我国走向生态文明新时代提供坚实的文化支撑?作者从我国生态文化建设的实际需要出发,将生态文化建设置于中国特色社会主义文化大发展的语境中进行阐述,揭示中国特色社会主义文化与中国特色社会主义生态文化的相互关系和互动作用,阐明建设中国特色社会主义生态文化应遵循的基本原则、中国特色社会主义生态文化的内在禀赋等,强调中国特色社会主义生态文化建设必须突出民族特色,并探讨了中国特色社会主义生态文化体系及其构建的路径等问题。

当代中国流行文化生成机制与传播动力阐释

作者: 孙瑞祥
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:1次
简介: 本书是对世纪之交中国大陆流行文化的一种现象学描述与归因研究。它以当代流行文化为研究对象,以流行文化(特别是媒体文化、流行文学)在当代中国的现实存在为核心研究内容,以当代中国流行文化的生成机制、传播动力分析为研究重点。其主旨是要解读与阐释影响(推动)当代中国流行文化生成和发展的要素构成、要素的作用机理与动力方式。流行文化是社会文化系统中一个相对晚出又个性鲜明的文化形态。我们今天所关注的当代中国流行文化,是指在中国现代化进程中生成,与社会主义市场经济发展相契合并受市场规律支配,以城市大众为主体和主要消费对象,以流行和时尚为突出特征,以娱乐为基本功能,以现代生产方式生产经营,并通过大众传媒广泛传播的新型文化形态。站在“大众传播动力学”新视角观照流行文化动力源,就是把大众传媒视为一个可以相对独立地发挥作用的社会动力系统,这一动力系统能量巨大,对流行文化的生成、繁盛与抑制起到难以替代的作用。
关键词: 现代文化  流行文化  传播动力  

燕京创意文化产业学刊.2017年卷(总第8卷)

作者: 包晓光 郭嘉
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:12次
简介: 2018年5月5日,是一个特别的日子,对中国人来说尤其如此。如果让时光倒流两百年,在这一天,卡尔·马克思出生在德国的一个叫作特里尔城的小镇上。两百年后的今天,中国共产党人隆重地纪念这位世界共产主义思潮和运动的领导者和创始人、马克思主义思想智慧源泉缔造者的伟大功绩。当今世界,没有任何一个民族、一个国家,如此隆重地纪念一位早已逝去的异国思想家。可以说,马克思在中国家喻户晓、深入人心。中国人用了近一个世纪的时间,学习马克思、体会马克思,使马克思主义与中国的历史命运与传统文化深度融合。正如习近平在《纪念马克思诞辰200周年大会上的讲话》中所说:“马克思主义不仅深刻改变了世界,也深刻改变了中国。”在马克思卷帙浩繁的著作中,中国人最熟悉、给予中国革命最深刻影响的当属《共产党宣言》。“一切坚固的都烟消云散了”,这个被当代学者、作家不断重复的著名判断,就出自马克思和恩格斯合著的《共产党宣言》。在这本著作中,他们在谈到资本主义时代和资产阶级本性的时候这样写道:“生产的不断变革,一切社会关系不停的动荡,永远的不安定和变动,这就是资产阶级时代不同于过去一切时代的地方。一切固定的古老的东西以及与之相适应的素被尊崇的观念和见解都被消除了,一切新形成的关系等不到固定下来就陈旧了。一切固定的东西都烟消云散了,一切神圣的东西都被亵渎了。人们终于不得不用冷静的眼光来看他们的生活地位、他们的相互关系。”马克思、恩格斯也许没有想到,他们在一百多年前对自由资本主义的论断还会引起移动互联时代人们的共鸣。这似乎说明,他们对当时社会的深入考察和研究所得出的判断仍然具有普适性,他们的思想并没有与时共逝。如果把“一切坚固的都烟消云散”看成是一种普遍的社会症候,那么,这种症候并非仅仅出现在自由资本主义时代,伴随着全球化进程的加深,特别是互联网时代的降临,“一切坚固的都烟消云散”成了一种司空见惯的现象。对中国而言,这种症候的出现是在改革开放年代。更确切一点说,这种症候的日益显现与两个历史节点密切相关。1992年,中国市场化改革全面铺开并提速,中国都市化进程加快;1994年中国开始进入互联网时代,此后的事实证明,随着互联网的普及,人们的观念和生活方式发生了翻天覆地的变化。亲身体验过这一时代转换的人们,一定会对马克思、恩格斯的上述论断深有同感:如果把其中的那个“资产阶级”字眼去掉,他们说的那些与我们的当下体验何其相似乃尔!抚今追昔,“烟消云散”的东西中就包括20世纪80年代“美学热”中一些“坚固的”东西。“美学热”中最“坚固的”莫过于人们对“美的本质”的信仰:美的现象其后必隐藏美的本质,现象之为现象是由本质决定的,人的认识能够透过美的现象抓住美的本质,人的思想和言语对美的本质的描述就成为关于美的真理。所以,虽然美的本质总是躲在美的现象后面跟人们“躲猫猫”,但人总有办法“逮住”它。“审美”的本质同样也是如此。于是,各路新老理论家和学者凭借各自的理论资源展开了对“美的本质”的全方位的围猎。一直到80年代末期,尽管人们确信抓住了不少“美的本质”并坚信自己的结论才是最正确、最权威的,但却不能不承认关于美的本质问题一如既往地充满歧义,在此意义上,我们似乎并未离美的“本质”更进一步。与高涨的“美学热”“文艺学方法论热”等理论热潮相呼应,文学、绘画等领域的现代主义实践令人目不暇接,改革开放之前确立的不少神圣价值都受到了质疑和挑战,看起来情况似乎确如马克思、恩格斯所说,“一切神圣的东西都被亵渎了”。其实,今天我们知道,用不了多久,那些曾经炫目一时的“美学热”“文艺学方法论热”连同它们的“本质”问题一道都“烟消云散”了,曾经激进的亵渎者也遭到了亵渎。20世纪90年代中期的人文精神大讨论所流露出的某些负面情绪表明,这种亵渎来的实在太快,令人猝不及防。那么,导致这种变化的“推手”是谁呢?除了那些不可知的原因外,我们知道的主要有两个:一是中国的市场经济改革进程;二是以互联网为代表的科技革命。这二者相互叠加,彼此促进,促成了中国社会的深刻变革,也极大地改变了人们的审美方式和交往方式。与改革开放前期相比较,今天人们的审美方式、审美活动已经发生了很大改变,我们可以从一些基本事实和倾向中感受它。第一,审美对象和审美主体的移动成为常态,换言之,我们的审美过程往往是在移动中完成的。显然这是拜移动互联时代所赐。第二,审美考量日益深入地融入人们的日常生活,这是中国市场经济改革的成果之一,在短缺经济时代是不可想象的。第三,审美对象的内容、种类与信息空前丰富、芜杂,选择的自由与困惑同时并存。第四,通过电视、互联网等现代传媒,审美对象审美内容实现了无差别推送,性别、年龄、疆界、民族、阶层、阶级等因素不再构成难以逾越的障碍,越界的自由与困惑同时并存。第五,欣赏与创作、审美生产与审美消费的界限被打破。这些基本事实和倾向似乎揭示了我们生活的真相:一切都是那样变动不居,我们生活在无所不在的镜像之中,眼花缭乱的镜像转化与嬗替给我们的感官和理性带来了空前的困扰与快乐。正如美国的马歇尔·伯曼在他那本名为《一切坚固的都烟消云散了》书中所说:“成为现代的人,就是将个人与社会的生活体验为一个大漩涡,在不断的崩解和重生、麻烦和痛苦、模棱两可和矛盾之中找到自己的世界和自我。”当“一切坚固的都烟消云散了”怎么办,我们能否“找到自己的世界和自我”?这真是一个可怕的问题。如果我们无法回避这个问题,那么,直面它的最好办法也许只剩下——第一,心平气和地想一想这个问题是不是真的。以审美为例,改革开放以来,确实有不少“坚固的”“素被尊崇的”“神圣的”“古老的”东西及其与之相适应的观念和见解“烟消云散”了,但也有不少东西留了下来。“烟消云散”并非魂飞魄散,云烟过后真实和真相就会显露出来。想一想,如果没有“美学热”,就不会有那么多的西方哲学美学名著被翻译过来,甚至思想解放也无从谈起。因此,这个由全称肯定判断构成的命题固然振聋发聩,但是,在我们的语境中它只是道明了一部分事实,另一部分事实被遮蔽了。第二,仅就这个问题道明的部分事实来看,一些貌似坚固的“烟消云散”是不是一件坏事呢?如果“烟消云散”的是封建迷信、唯我独尊、教条主义、宏大叙事、虚假命题,也没什么不好。在此意义上,“烟消云散”也是一种思想解放。第三,当“一切坚固的都烟消云散了”,我们还能够做些什么呢?在当代社会这个“大漩涡”中,我们如何能够锚定自己、“找到自己的世界和自我”呢?显然这个问题同样没有终极答案,我们能做的也许就是找寻并抓住那些超越时代和疆域的一些核心价值,其中就包括马克思、恩格斯提出的那些针对自由资本主义时代症候的批判性论断,这对我们思考今天当下的问题,同样具有启示意义。编者的上述议论应邀发表于《中国美术报》学术月刊第81期(2017年9月11日)上,题为《当“一切坚固的都烟消云散了”》。稍作修改之后用作本卷学刊的前言,其中的一点意思是指本卷学刊的主题虽然一如既往地关注那些最富于变化、最具有改革精神的中国文化产业、互联网新媒体领域,但是,这些主题同样关注那些文化现象所表达的具有一定“坚固性”的人文价值,并给予较深刻的分析。
关键词: 文化产业  北京  丛刊  
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