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论魏斯曼对“中期”维特根斯坦语言哲学的阐释与发展

作者: 徐强
出版日期:2020-07-01
浏览次数:3次
简介: 本书旨在为魏斯曼在分析哲学史中所具有的重要性辩护。为此,本书提出三条主线:“中期”维特根斯坦哲学发展延续性的论证是重估魏斯曼哲学重要性的理论背景;对维特根斯坦、魏斯曼和维也纳小组成员互动的考察是对魏斯曼哲学重要性辩护的哲学史背景;魏斯曼对“中期”维特根斯坦具体哲学的阐释与发展是魏斯曼哲学重要性的具体体现。首先,本书提出从“整体”视角理解维特根斯坦哲学,其论点在于维特根斯坦整个哲学生涯哲学观点的发展是动态延续的。“中期”维特根斯坦哲学延续性的论证有多种路径,其中魏斯曼对“中期”维特根斯坦语言哲学的阐释是本书提出的第三条路径。其次,魏斯曼在分析哲学史中所遭受的误解和低估,是由于维也纳小组和跟维特根斯坦对话过程中,魏斯曼所处的特殊角色、维特根斯坦和小组成员的争论以及小组“左右”两翼对垒的结果。第三,本书论证了魏斯曼对分析哲学的两个具体贡献:他对“中期”维特根斯坦有关语言哲学以及元哲学观点的阐释,对于现今阐释者对这些观念的理解有重要参考价值;他对“中期”维特根斯坦哲学的发展体现在“语言层次”观念和元哲学观点。第四,对魏斯曼有关“中期”维特根斯坦对“假设”和“证实”思考的阐释的考察揭示了维特根斯坦“证实主义阶段”的发展历程;对魏斯曼有关维特根斯坦对“实指定义”阐释的考察澄清了“中期”维特根斯坦语义观点的发展:他从批判心理主义和逻辑主义语义理论开始,接着在《哲学研究》中提出语词的意义在于具体使用的观点,这体现出了维特根斯坦从心理主义和逻辑主义语义理论,到关注语词具体使用的延续性发展。在关注语词具体使用过程时,我们还要考虑到众多非语言因素,这也表明维特根斯坦从询问语词的具体使用到对具体动作的明晰性的考察的过渡。第五,对魏斯曼有关“中期”维特根斯坦元哲学阐释的研究表明,“中期”维特根斯坦仍坚持认为哲学问题源于语言混淆和误解:他在《逻辑哲学论》时期激烈地指出哲学研究是对日常语言的批判,其核心是语言分析方法;在《大打字稿》中提出了语言分析作为“治疗型”哲学的核心方法论;在《哲学研究》中,他逐渐过渡到以对日常语言的用法为考察焦点的语法研究。最后,本书基于文本考察,初步回应了学界有关魏斯曼、“中期”维特根斯坦“治疗型”元哲学观点跟精神分析关联的有关争论。关键词:“中期”维特根斯坦;维也纳小组;魏斯曼;语言哲学;元哲学AbstractThe present book is a vindication of Friedrich Waismann's significance in the history of analytic philosophy: Waismann's texts can provide the scholars of logi cal empiricismmuch help in re-understanding the development of Vienna Circle and the specific stances of the group members in their conversations and debates with Ludwig Wittgenstein during the 1930s;the philosophi cal interaction between Waismann and Wittgenstein,and Waismann's interpretation of Wittgenstein's thoughts provide us with a different perspective in understanding the“Middle”Wittgenstein.Three threads are imbedded: the construction of the continuity of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy is the theoreti cal background for re-evaluating Waismann's significance; the investigation of the interaction among Wittgenstein,Waismann and Vienna Circle during the 1930s is the histori cal background for the justification and refutation of Waismann's being neglected and underestimated; Waismann's interpretation and development of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy are the proof of Waismann's significance.The first and last threads are closely interrelated.First,the author argues that we would investigate Wittgenstein's philosophy from the“holistic”perspective so as to demonstrate Waismann's significance.The“holistic”perspective lies essentially in the point that there is not only a dynamic transformation but a continuous development of Wittgenstein's thought throughout his whole career: there is no essential change in his meta-philosophy,ways of thinking and writing style in different periods.The author regards Tractatus and Philosophi cal Investigations as two“poles”of Wittgenstein's philosophy,taking The Big Typescripts as the representative of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy.The author argues that there are three approaches in constructing the continuity of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy: his critic and giving up of“logi cal atomism”;his transformation of his semantics; Waismann's witness of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy development and his interpretation of“Middle”Wittgenstein's relevant thoughts is the third approach.Second,Waismann's beingunderestimated and neglected in the analytic philosophy was due to his unique role which he had played in the conversations and interactions between Wittgenstein and Vienna Circle members,it is the consequence of the debates between Wittgenstein and the group members,and the confrontation between the“left”and“right”wings of the Circle during the 1930s.Third,based on the present investigation,the book shows that Waismann's contribution in analytic philosophy lies in two perspectives:his understanding and interpretation of“Middle”Wittgenstein's thoughts on“hypothesis”and“verification”,the“ostensive definition”and the meta-philosophy can provide the present interpreters new insights and referential value; Moreover,hisd evelopment of“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy is crystalized in“language strata”and his meta-philosophy in his later career.Fourth,with regard to Waismann's Language Strata,there are five key notions in“language strata”:logic,the completeness in description,open texture,verification and truth.The author argues that“language strata”is deeply influenced and inspired by his interaction with Wittgenstein during the 1930s: it is through Wittgenstein's view on“verification”that Waismann formed that idea step-by-step.Waismann inherits“Middle”Wittgenstein's following ideas of metaphilosophy:he still insists the method of linguistic analysis in philosophizing;he still believes that philosophi cal problems are philosopher's“intellectual disquiet”,and he suggests that we should take a“survey”perspective in philosophizing;we should change our view from explanation to description.Furthermore,Waismann also criticizes and goes beyond“Middle”Wittgenstein: he does not agree with Wittgenstein completely that philosophi cal problems are dissolved rather than solved; that the meaning of a word lies at its actual use.In contrast,later Waismann believes that the core of philosophizing lies at a deep“insight”of the problem itself; the purpose of linguistic analysis method is to remove the philosopher's disquiet,to change their perspective in looking at philosophi cal problems,it is not merely a pursuit of clarity.The essence of philosophy is freedom.Fifth,through Waismann's interpretation of“Middle”Wittgenstein's thoughts on“hypothesis”and“verification”,we can have a better understanding of the“verificationism period”in“Middle”Wittgenstein:Wittgenstein's thoughts on“verification”is not only different from logi cal positivism,it also inspires language strata; by investigating Waismann's interpretation of Wittgenstein's view on“ostensive definition”,the booktraces the development of“Middle”Wittgenstein's semantic views:he criticized the mentalism and logicism semantic theories in the Big Typescripts at the very beginning,then he proposed that the meaning of a word lies at its actual use in daily life in the Philosophi cal Investigations,which proves that there is a continuity in“Middle”Wittgenstein's philosophy:he transformed from the mentalistic and logistic semantic theories to the focus of the actual use of language.Wittgenstein's focus on word's actual use is exhibited in his discussion of“ostensive definition”,in which he illustrates many language games.When we are concerned with word's actual use,we should take many non-linguistic elements into consideration,which also demonstrates that Wittgenstein's continuity and transformation from the inquiry of word's actual application to the focus of the clarity of the actual acts of human being's in communicating by their languages.Finally,there are many differences between Waismann and Wittgenstein regarding to“ostensive definition”; By investigating Waismann's interpretation of“Middle”Wittgenstein's nature of philosophy,the book proves that the“Middle”Wittgenstein still insists that philosophi cal problems arise from philosophers confusion and misunderstanding of ordinary language being applied in expressing the propositions,no matter semanti cally or pragmati cally.In the Tractatelian period,Wittgenstein forcefully points out that philosophi cal investigation is the critic of language,its fundermental approach is linguistic analysis.In Big Typescript,Wittgenstein continually forms the linguistic analysis method with psycho-analysis feature: linguistic analysis is the gist of“therapeutic”philosophy.In the Philosophi cal Investigations,Wittgenstein progressively transforms from the linguistic analysis method with psycho-analysis feature to the grammati cal investigation which taking pragmatics as the essence of philosophi cal investigation.Key Words:“Middle”Wittgenstein; continuity; Waismann; hypothesis; verification; ostensive definition; Language Strata; meta-phi-losophy

地域方言权研究

作者: 耿焰 张朝霞
出版日期:2020-07-01
浏览次数:41次
简介: 本书首先从法律上而非语言学上界定了地域方言的概念,分析了其与通用语言法律上的关系,提出了确定地域方言法律地位的关键因素,包括国家目标的定位、对语言选择自由的容忍度、语言群体的实力等。本书重点分析了地域方言权的涵义、性质,还阐述了地域方言权与表达自由的关系、与受教育权的关系,详解了地域方言权在公立教育、行政、司法等领域的具体内容。最后,本书研究了地域方言权理论对我国推广普通话法律和政策的启示。
关键词: 方言  地域  

管辖音系学声调理论研究:模型构建及应用

作者: 贺俊杰
出版日期:2020-06-01
浏览次数:38次
简介: 本书提出了较为完整的管辖音系学声调理论,包括声调的表征和解释理论两大方面,回答了包括调型表征的层次性、调型的内部结构、调型的自主性和变调音系过程的解释等基本问题。全书主体内容分为“管辖音系学声调理论构建及应用”和“基于声调理论的变调自动化处理研究”两大部分。前者探讨了声调理论的提出和拓展、调型的结构、调域的音系价值、变调历时因素的共时处理、变调的方向性和声调表达的抽象性等重要问题。后者介绍了基于管辖音系学声调理论,利用计算语言学方法构建的声调生成及变调自动处理系统。
关键词: 声调  理论研究  音系学  

第二语言句法分析机制研究

作者: 高海龙
出版日期:2020-04-01
浏览次数:46次
简介: 近二十多年来,第二语言习得研究发展迅速,但该领域中的一个重要研究方向—第二语言学习者句子处理和句法分析机制——的研究还很不足。本书从第二语言习得和心理语言学的宏观视角回顾第二语言句子处理的相关理论模型,分析第二语言学习者句法分析机制的特点,并评价中国英语学习者句法分析机制的相关研究。本书为第二语言习得研究者审视和思考第二语言句子处理理论和实证研究提供全面视角。
关键词: 第二语言  句法  

语言与文化论丛.第1辑

作者: 邢向东
出版日期:2020-03-01
浏览次数:179次
简介: 《语言与文化论丛》由陕西师范大学语言资源开发研究中心主办,邢向东任主编。开设“语言资源保护开发研究”“一带一路语言文化研究”“汉语方言研究”“民族语言研究”“民俗文化及语言研究”“出土文献和民间文书语言研究”“汉字与中华文化研究”“调查实录”等栏目。《语言与文化论丛》以中国语言资源和文化资源的保护、开发、研究为宗旨,为广大语言学者、文化学者和研究生提供学术交流平台。促进中国语言与文化的调查研究,为国家的语言规划和文化政策建言献策,为实施“一带一路”倡议提供语言文化方面的支持,为创造和谐的语言生活而努力。
关键词: 文化语言学  文集  

历史比较语言学理论:从同源论到亲缘度

作者: 李艳
出版日期:2020-03-01
浏览次数:25次
简介: 同源还是亲缘,学界争论不休。本书在《超级语系:历史比较语言学的新理论》的基础上继续探讨了国外学者对世界语言的分类研究。传统的历史比较法已远远满足不了现今的历史语言学研究,来自生物科学和计算机科学等领域的方法论推动了历史语言学的发展,并从三个方面(相似、特征、距离)影响了历史语言学方法论,把历史语言学研究推向新的发展阶段。
关键词: 语言学史  理论研究  

跨语言文化研究.第13辑

作者: 王启龙 曹婷
出版日期:2019-12-01
浏览次数:71次
简介: 主 编:王启龙副主编:曹 婷编委会成员:(按照姓氏笔画排序)Bob Adamson(香港教育大学)王 宁(清华大学)王启龙(陕西师范大学国外藏学研究中心)刘全国(陕西师范大学外语教育研究中心)孙 坚(陕西师范大学外国语学院)杨金才(南京大学)李雪涛(北京外国语大学)张 韧(陕西师范大学语言与认知研究所)张建华(北京外国语大学)孟 霞(陕西师范大学外国语学院)曹 婷(陕西师范大学外国语学院)潘 钧(北京大学)摘要:本文的主旨在于:还原“徐福东渡传说”的真相,清算在这一问题上的误区。笔者从有关这一传说的最原始史料入手,系统地梳理了“徐福东渡传说”演变过程,具体分析了公元1世纪之前的“徐福渡海求仙药说”,如何在10世纪以后演变成了“徐福东渡日本说”之过程及其背景。同时,观察了这一传说在中国和日本的境遇,并重点考察了20世纪中期以后中日史学界对此问题的不同态度、做法及其若干背景原因。关键词:徐福;渡海求仙药;东渡日本;传说与史实一 引言无论在中国还是日本,提起徐福东渡日本传说,知道的人都不少。众所周知,该传说的主要内容是说,秦代的方士徐福率领数千童男童女奉秦始皇之命,为寻找长生不老、延年益寿之
关键词: 语言学  世界文学  文学研究  

当代中国语言学研究:1949—2019

作者: 李宇明
出版日期:2019-10-01
浏览次数:102次
简介: 本书从语言学研究的专业性出发,采取分专题的方式,突出重点,主要从理论、方法、领域的进展等对包括当代中国语言学学术史研究、语音与音韵学研究、词汇与语义学研究、语法学研究、文字学研究、修辞与语用学研究、汉语方言研究、少数民族语言研究、当代外国语言研究、语言教学研究、计算语言学研究、语言学交叉学科研究、语言规划研究等方面进行了全面、系统的梳理。
关键词: 语言学  当代  中国  
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