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满语名号研究

作者: 綦中明
出版日期:2017-01-12
浏览次数:22次
简介: 语言与文化的关系研究是国内外文化语言学探究的核心内容。满语名号不仅是满语的重要组成部分,也是清代政治制度的重要组成部分。以往学界主要从历史学的角度研究满语名号,且较为零散,而从语义角度,运用历史学、语言学等方法对满语名号进行综合系统研究的成果尚未多见。本书以满语名号为研究对象,从语言学、历史学的角度,结合满文文献、历史文献和满族祭祀材料,运用语言学、文化语言学、历史学、人类学等学科的理论和方法,在探讨满语名号构成的同时,进一步探讨了满语名号与满族生态环境、政治制度及精神文化间的关系。首先运用描写、阐释和考证的方法对清代帝后、亲王及文臣武将满语名号的发展演变进行研究;其次,通过对满语名号的语义分析、构成变化,阐释了满语名号与满族自然生态环境、社会环境的关系,并进一步将满语名号与汉语名号两者的语义进行比较,论证了民族语言是民族文化的载体;再次,运用历史考证的方法,对清代满语名号制度的萌芽、建立、发展及衰亡作了系统的的概述,并对满语名号制度发展阶段的特点进行总结;最后,通过对满语名号的语义分析,阐释了满族的灵禽信仰、天命观及痘神崇拜等精神信仰的同时,进一步提出了入关前满族以学习蒙古族文化为主导,入关后则以学习汉文化为主导的价值观念转变。关键词:清代;满族;满语名号AbstractThe relationship between language and culture is the main content of cultural and language research in China and abroad.The Manchu title is not only part of the Manchu language,but also plays an important role in the political system of Qing Dynasty.Most researchers did research of the Manchu title from historical aspect,and the whole process was not systematic.Research from meaning aspect is rarely seen,especially from historical and language aspects comprehensively.This essay deals with Manchu title from linguistic and historical aspects.The essay talks about the relationships between Manchu title and Manchu ecological environment,between its political system and spiritual culture,the study of which is based on Manchu documents of its language and history,as well as Manchu documents on ancient sacrifice.First,this essay focuses on the change of titles of Manchu nobles,such as the emperors,the empresses,the princes,the policy makers and generals with specific description,explanation and demonstration.Second,through further analysis on the meanings and content of Manchu titles,the essay also discusses the relationships between Manchu titles and its natural and social environment,and by comparison of Manchu titles and Han titles,it further concludes that a nation's language is the carrier of its own culture.Third,the essay talks about the establishment,development,and decline of the Manchu title system with the method of historical research.At the same time,it summarizes the characteristics of the Manchu titles at different stages.Finally,through semantic analysis of Manchu titles,and with the explanation of the spirit of avian belief,the theory of heaven and destiny,and worshiping of the God of smallpox,it further discusses the transformation from learning Mongolian customs to learning values of the dominant Han culture after the troops of Qing Dynasty invading the main land of China.Key words:Qing Dynasty; Manchu; Manchu title
关键词: 满语  文化语言学  研究  清代  

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