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近代中日词汇交流与“的”“性”“化”构词功能的演变

作者: 杨超时
出版日期:2017-01-12
浏览次数:36次
简介: 中日词汇交流的历史源远流长,表现在现代汉语和日语中都存在如“可能性”“国际化”“现代化”这样的词汇。也就是说,两国语言中存在同样构词结构的用法。为了弄清两国语言中这些后缀(类后缀)用法的区别,不光要对现代语中的使用区别予以关注,还要从历时角度研究这些后缀在两国语言史上发生了什么样的发展和演变。在以往这样的研究中,有研究者提及汉语在近代——尤其是清末开始从日语中引进了很多词汇,其中包括后缀的用法。但是具体都有什么样的用法,当时又是如何使用的,还是一个迫切需要解决的问题。本书通过近代两国主要报纸、杂志等公开发行物中具体后缀用例的收集及分析,希望弄清两国近代语言中的后缀构词的用法;近代汉语是否和近代日语后缀构词有关系,如果二者有关系又是如何体现出来的,是否有变化及发展;希望通过比较,考察各后缀在近代中日两国语言中构词时的特点和异同。本书具体包括以下几部分内容。(1)首先从近代中日词汇交流入手,总结目前的历时研究及与本选题相关的两国现代语后缀研究。建立“中日词汇交流史”和“中日后缀研究”两方面的研究背景。(2)具体深入近代资料中用例用法的分析。选定“的”“性”“化”三个典型的研究对象,从日语、汉语两个方面分别对它们的构词功能加以分析。内容包括明治日语后缀「的、性、化」的用法和清末汉语助词“的”及“性”“化”的用法。(3)比较各研究对象在近代中日两国语言中的用法异同。从构词的角度,利用对构词结构异同的分析,考察近代汉语的后缀在与近代日语交融中产生的变化,双方用法的演变关系。(4)从中日词汇交流的角度对各研究对象的研究结果进行总结。笔者通过分析近代资料中的用例,以上所述的问题基本得到解决。下面列举其中一些比较主要的研究结果。(1)目前中日词汇交流史的研究比较集中于借词的研究,对于构词机能上的研究还非常少。本书的研究内容填补了一部分空白。(2)各种后缀构词在近代语言中产生和发展的过程各不相同,时间上也有先有后。“的”“性”出现的时间较早,“化”最晚。(3)日语后缀「的」在中日交流中用法被汉语固有的白话结构助词“的”的用法吸收。但借用日语后缀「的」的用例打破了清末报刊文言文中“之”占统治地位的局面,侧面影响了近代汉语文体的发展。(4)日语后缀「性」在后缀构词过程中保持着比较完整的语义,这种语义是古汉语的传承。这个特点促使近代汉语能够迅速借用并模仿“□□+性”进行造词。(5)日语「化」在明治前期多作为构词语素使用,即构成「□+化」,主要体现为制造了一些近代日语的「新漢語」。这些「新漢語」通过翻译进入近代汉语,并保留了下来。(6)近代日语主要通过留日人员的翻译进入近代汉语,尤其是一些西方和日本近代思想、科学知识的翻译中多出现这些用例。在小说类的翻译作品中,以目前调查的资料来看,还没有反映出日语后缀构词的影响。(7)中日词汇交流中,近代是非常重要的历史时期。但对于这部分研究还远远不够。本书从资料处理上、用例分析上进行了一些尝试,但在研究中也发现了一些遗留问题,如:现代汉语中二字词的后缀用法是何时产生的;「□□+化」的结构何时发展为后缀,两国用法的演变关系等。笔者以后将继续关注这些遗留问题。关键词:近代中日词汇交流,结构助词“的”,类后缀“性”,类后缀“化”,构词功能
关键词: 词汇  文化交流  研究  中国、日本  近代  

空间运动事件的心理认知研究:英文

作者: 纪瑛琳
出版日期:2017-01-10
浏览次数:18次
简介: For my mother 献给我的母亲—周瑞云The empirical studies reported in this book were completed in the UK and in China in the past several years with the main body of the research conducted in the University of Cambridge and King's College London(KCL). My heartfelt gratitude goes to Dr. Henriette Hendriks(Cambridge),Dr. Maya Hickmann(CNRS)and Dr. Jill Hohenstein(KCL),with whom I enjoyed a pleasant cooperative relationship. They have read varied versions of the manuscript and offered inspiring comments. My sp
关键词: 英语  语言表达  研究  英文  

俄语语篇修辞学

作者: 李发元 王翠
出版日期:2017-01-09
浏览次数:13次
简介: 俄语语篇修辞学是俄语修辞学中一门年轻的分支学科。近三十年来,伴随着语篇语言学、功能修辞学、言语修辞学等学科的深入发展,语篇修辞学逐渐出现并同资源修辞学、功能修辞学一道被确立为俄语修辞学的重要分支学科。俄语语篇修辞学的研究内容和研究特点决定了它与俄语语篇语言学等学科的发展紧密联系、相互交叉。篇章语言学的发展背景与语言研究的方法和角度的两种倾向相关:一是对语言和言语中某些具体现象的研究;二是与其他以人的言语—思想活动为对象的科学的协力合作。本书在探索语篇修辞学基本理论的基础上,结合语篇结构的多维性和语篇中内容范畴和形式范畴的独特性,明确指出对语篇的修辞分析就是分析言语的构成规律。这种分析不是分析语言结构的各个层面,而是分析构成作者形象语言组织以及语篇的语言结构。这样的分析能充分、合理地揭示语篇的内容并展示其美学特征。为此,总结出一些分析语篇修辞的主要的途径和手段,即语篇外部分析和语篇内部分析的途径:语义—修辞分析法、比较—修辞分析法和语言修辞实验法。
关键词: 俄语  修辞学  研究  

英汉学术语篇中作者身份构建的对比研究:英文

作者: 唐建萍
出版日期:2017-01-06
浏览次数:15次
简介: Identity refers to the distinctive character belonging to any given individual,or shared by all members of a particular social category or group.The issue of identity is attracting increasing attention in linguistic research.Halliday’s view of language mentions identity as one of the aspects of social life which is bound into grammar.It is generally accepted that language is a means of expressing social identity.As a means of social practice,academic writing plays a significant role in the development of science.Recent research clearly indicates that academic writing is not a uniform body of discourse but varies according to disciplinary conventions,cultural expectations and writers’ professional status and experience.In the process of academic writing,writers may take into considerations of these conventions and expectations to make themselves accepted as qualified insiders in their respective communities.The production of writing is a manifestation of the writers’ identity.Based on the above assumptions,this study focuses on the construction of authorial identity in academic discourse.Methodologically,it is a corpus-based descriptive analysis and the discussion is set against the background of contrastive analysis between English and Chinese.The data chosen for the study are published research articles (RAs) of Linguistics and Chemistry,representing the disciplines which belong to the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ sciences respectively.The contrastive approach helps to examine the influencing factors in identity construction.The research investigates various linguistic resources which writers utilize for signaling their identities in claim-making and in the interaction with the readers.The investigations show that these resources project authorial identity in different degrees,from explicit to implicit.The explicit representation of authorial identity is realized through first person references which express the utmost visibility of writers in academic writing.In presenting themselves,writers of RAs may strategically use first person singular pronouns (FPSPs) or first person plural pronouns (FPPPs).Use of FPSPs is the most direct way to stress the authority of writers.Use of FPPPs is comparatively complex in the sense that the referents of the pronouns may be ambiguous.In this study,FPPPs are classified into four sub-categories.They are collective we,editorial we,inclusive authorial we and generic we.With the help of context,different rhetorical roles of the first person authorial pronouns are recognized.The rhetorical roles demonstrate the activities of writers in academic writing.These roles include discourse-organizer,researcher and opinion-holder.The role of discourse-organizer foregrounds the writer’s responsibility of framing the text for the readers.The researcher role highlights not only the writer’s familiarity with his/her disciplinary practices,but also the attempt to gain the readers’ trust by validating his/her research framework.The role of opinion-holder emphasizes the interactive nature of academic writing.As an opinion-holder,a writer may open a dialogue with the readers to negotiate claims.The authorial identity is implicitly projected by means of agentless constructions and stance markers.Agentless constructions include constructions with inanimate subjects and anticipatory it-clauses.The investigation indicates that agentless constructions,though construct less powerful and overt identities,do not obscure the authorial identity completely.Instead,these linguistic means allow writers to maintain a balance between overt evaluative positioning and detached claim-making when illustrating claims,constructing a convincing argument or drawing tentative conclusions.Thus writers could construct an identity that is likely to persuade community members to accept the validity of their research.Stance markers are widely recognized as a key resource through which the authorial viewpoint is indirectly conveyed,projecting a textual “voice” or community recognized personality.The stance markers investigated in the present study include hedges and boosters.Hedges and boosters are interpersonal aspects of language use.As regards authorial identity projected in RAs,they work as the ways that writers intrude to stamp their personal authority onto their arguments or step back and disguise their involvement.The findings show that hedges help project writers’ personae of caution,modesty and deference,while boosters highlight writers as competent members of the discourse communities.The rhetorical employment of these stance markers enables an academic writer to seek a balance between the researcher’s authority as expert-knower and his/her humility as disciplinary servant.Considering the results of the comparison both between languages and between disciplines,three potential influencing factors are identified.These factors are cultural conventions,disciplinary variability and pragmatic considerations.These factors may overlap or work independently for the accounts of the results of the study.The investigation of authorial identity in academic discourse has theoretical and pedagogical implications.Theoretically,the proposed theoretical framework reveals the relation between the socio-cultural factors and linguistic devices with the modulation of genre theory in academic writing.The linguistic resources examined for the construction of authorial identity and the findings about the explicit and implicit projection of authorial identity enrich academic writing theory and research.Pedagogically,this study is a useful starting point to raise writers’ awareness of the explicit/implicit linguistic resources available for the projection of authorship.The comparative analysis provides teachers and students with knowledge of preferred patterns in academic writing.
关键词: 英语  汉语  论文  对比研究  英文  

名词短语竞争与关系从句生成:一项基于英汉对比数据库的研究

作者: 曹依民
出版日期:2017-01-06
浏览次数:20次
简介: 名词是人类认知过程中概念化的重要结果。概念具有可及性,比如,有生一无生。反映在语言生成上,高可及性的概念容易加工,更能获得突出的语法位置。即,名词短语在进入生成加工过程中,存在竞争。竞争在简单句中的表现已有大量研究,在复合句中的研究则不多,值得探索。本书选取汉英各5部叙事文本,筛选出关系从句共6166条,建立数据库。通过统计分析,发现名词短语竞争在关系从句生成中发挥着重要作用,并且该作用存在跨语言差异。
关键词: 英语  句法  对比研究  汉语  

汉诗英译的比较诗学研究

作者: 魏家海
出版日期:2017-01-06
浏览次数:26次
简介: 本书主要从中西比较诗学的视角,对20世纪以来英美汉学家的汉诗英译文本作了点面结合的研究,探讨了汉学家的汉诗英译同他们的文化身份、审美主体性、翻译认知能力、重构能力和解释能力之间的关系。职业汉学家翻译家大都注重翻译的忠实性,把翻译作为文学分析的一种手段,为文学研究服务。诗人翻译家则更注重汉诗译文的文学风味,因此,翻译呈现较大的变异性,有时近乎创作。两类翻译家的翻译批评也不能依据同一标准,要考虑各自的翻译目的和翻译特征。总结他们的翻译思想、策略、传播和接受,对中国文学“走出去”都具有重要的借鉴意义。
关键词: 诗歌  英语  文学翻译  研究  

中国学习者英语反身代词的习得研究

作者: 吴明军
出版日期:2017-01-05
浏览次数:12次
简介: This dissertation explores the developmental pattern observed in Chinese EFL learners acquiring the three binding properties of English reflexives,c-commanding constraint,subject orientation and locality condition.It is generally acknowledged that the c-commanding constraint is universal cross-linguistically. In both English and Chinese,reflexives are bound only by the DP which occupies the c-commanding position in the sentence configuration. Therefore,in English sentences as “[Anniej's sister]i told the doctor something about herselfi/*j” and their counterpart Chinese sentences,herself is coreferential with Annie’s sister,a c-commanding DP,but not coreferential with Annie,a non-c-commanding DP.However,it is widely known that reflexive pronouns in English and Chinese differ with respect to subject orientation and locality condition. On the one hand,English reflexives can take local DPs as their antecedents and long-distance DPs are not legitimate antecedents whereas Chinese monomorphemic reflexive ‘ziji’ can be bound either to a local DP or to a long-distance(LD)DP. On the other hand,in English,DPs functioning as subject or object can be legitimate antecedents;in contrast,in Chinese,reflexives can take only subject as their antecedent and sentences with coreferential dependencies between reflexives and object are ruled out.Given the differences in referential characteristics between English and Chinese,an interesting question arises in the case of Chinese learners' acquiring English reflexives:is it possible for them to acquire the coreference properties of English anaphors?There is positive evidence in the acquisition of the corefe-rence between reflexives and the nonsubject,but in the acquisition of locality requirement,the logical problem holds in adult second language acquisition(White 1989). Furthermore,if binding properties are acquirable,how do they develop with the gain of English proficiency by Chinese EFL learners?A truth-value judgment task is employed in this dissertation in that this methodology offers a relatively direct and efficient means of evaluating competence rather than preference. The test format is a story consisting of 2 to 5 sentences followed by a comment sentence. Participants are required to read the 40 stories and then indicate whether the subsequent comment sentence matches or mismatches the situation provided in the story by pressing either ‘y’ or ‘n’ key on the keyboard. The comment sentences following the stories fall into five sentence types to investigate the Chinese speakers' acquisition of three binding properties,c-command,orientation and locality,respectively.To guarantee that participants are proficient enough to accomplish the experiment task,206 freshmen were selected from 6 natural classes of a top-ten key university in China and a non-key university. Three proficiency levels were set up according to Quick Placement Test administered to all the participants. The top 40 participants are considered as the high scoring group,the 40 in the middle as the mid group,and the 40 at the bottom as the low group. There are big differences among the three groups' mean proficiency scores,with means scores of 49.8,41.7,and 33.9,respectively. According to a one-way ANOVA,the differences among them are statistically significant(F(2,117)=495.6,p=.000),with post hoc Games Howell procedures showing significant differences between the high group and the other learner groups(p=.000),as well as between the low and mid groups(p=.000).The results of Mixed RM ANOVAs indicate that the largest three-way interaction between types of sentences,distance of antecedents,and proficiency is not statistical,using the Huynh-Feldt correct(F 6.59,385.488=0.556,p=0.781,partial eta-squared=0.009,power=0.234). This means that participants from the different groups performed similarly on different types of sentences,and they also performed similarly in spite of the distance of antecedents. However,the two-way interaction between the sentence type and proficiency and between the sentence type and distance is statistically different. The difficulty order of the three distinct binding properties is that c-command is easier than locality and orientation for the low group whereas for the mid group and the high group c-command is easier than locality,which in turn is easier than orientation. When locality is instantiated in finite embedded clauses,nonfinite embedded clauses and monoclauses with possessed representational noun phrases(PRNP),the difficulty order is that the resolution of reflexives in PRNPs is more demanding than that in nonfinite clauses,which in turn is more demanding than that in finite clauses for the low group. For the mid group and the high group,the difficulty order is that the PRNP condition is more challenging than the biclausal condition. Of the five sentence types,Types 1 and 3 are the easiest while Type 5 is the most difficult for the low group;Types 1,3 and 4 are easier than Types 2 and 5 for the mid group and the high group. With discourse information taken into consideration,the difficulty order for the low group is 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B and 4A<2A/4B/5A and 5B;for the mid group 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B and 4A<4B/5A and 5B<2A;for the high group 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B/4A and 4B<5A and 5B<2A.There are four developmental patterns of each binding property and each condition of locality exhibited by the three proficiency groups. First,there is significant improvement both from the low-level group to the mid-level group and from the mid-level group to the high-level group. Second,there is no improvement either from the low group to the mid group,or from the mid-level group to the high-level group,or from the low group to the high group. Third,there is no improvement from the low group to the mid group,or from the mid group to the high group;however,there is improvement from the low group to the high group. Fourth,there is only significant improvement either from the low-level to the mid-level group or from the mid-level to the high-level group,but not both.Though transfer can account for better acquisition of c-command than orientation and locality in the low group,it cannot explain the differences in the same binding property of locality under the three different conditions. The explanation by the extension of the standard binding theory is inadequate and unsatisfactory as well. Two proposals are suggested in the dissertation to account for the diffe-rences between binding properties and the three conditions of locality. It is argued that head category and completeness of phases play an important role in the interpretation of English reflexives,which give rise to the differences in the locality property. This is the first attempt that the phase theory is applied to SLA research.Alternatively,the involvement of distinct interface categories in identifying antecedents results in differences in the three conditions of locality. Additionally,the Interface Hypothesis makes an adequate account for the differences between the distinct binding properties,namely,c-command,orientation and locality. The results indicating that orientation is as demanding as locality implicate that interpretations of reflexives involving interfaces are all challenging no matter whether the interfaces are internal interfaces or external interfaces. This is the new extension of the Interface Hypothesis in that previous studies exclusively include advanced or near-native learners of a second language.Key words:Reflexives,Principle A of the binding theory,Universal Grammar,the phase theory,the Interface Hypothesis
关键词: 英语  代词  教学研究  

英语教师课堂互动反思研究

作者: 朱红梅
出版日期:2017-01-05
浏览次数:16次
简介: 本书主要由理论部分和实证部分构成。理论部分主要以英语课堂互动为对象,以教师反思为切入口,以哲学、心理学、语言学和教育学相关理论研究为基础,构建了以学科教学目标、教师个人特质以及情境为核心的英语课堂互动反思运行机制。实证部分主要分析了参与英语课堂互动反思活动之后教师在反思思维、学习机会、课堂互动策略、教材观等方面的发展和变化。英语课堂互动反思运行机制的建立为英语教师专业发展提供了一条新的路径,有助于英语教师增强语言意识,发挥学科知识优势,提高课堂话语使用效率。
关键词: 英语  课堂教学  教学研究  
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