作者: 纪瑛琳
简介: For my mother 献给我的母亲—周瑞云The empirical studies reported in this book were completed in the UK and in China in the past several years with the main body of the research conducted in the University of Cambridge and King's College London(KCL). My heartfelt gratitude goes to Dr. Henriette Hendriks(Cambridge),Dr. Maya Hickmann(CNRS)and Dr. Jill Hohenstein(KCL),with whom I enjoyed a pleasant cooperative relationship. They have read varied versions of the manuscript and offered inspiring comments. My sp
关键词: 英语  语言表达  研究  英文  


作者: 唐建萍
简介: Identity refers to the distinctive character belonging to any given individual,or shared by all members of a particular social category or group.The issue of identity is attracting increasing attention in linguistic research.Halliday’s view of language mentions identity as one of the aspects of social life which is bound into grammar.It is generally accepted that language is a means of expressing social identity.As a means of social practice,academic writing plays a significant role in the development of science.Recent research clearly indicates that academic writing is not a uniform body of discourse but varies according to disciplinary conventions,cultural expectations and writers’ professional status and experience.In the process of academic writing,writers may take into considerations of these conventions and expectations to make themselves accepted as qualified insiders in their respective communities.The production of writing is a manifestation of the writers’ identity.Based on the above assumptions,this study focuses on the construction of authorial identity in academic discourse.Methodologically,it is a corpus-based descriptive analysis and the discussion is set against the background of contrastive analysis between English and Chinese.The data chosen for the study are published research articles (RAs) of Linguistics and Chemistry,representing the disciplines which belong to the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ sciences respectively.The contrastive approach helps to examine the influencing factors in identity construction.The research investigates various linguistic resources which writers utilize for signaling their identities in claim-making and in the interaction with the readers.The investigations show that these resources project authorial identity in different degrees,from explicit to implicit.The explicit representation of authorial identity is realized through first person references which express the utmost visibility of writers in academic writing.In presenting themselves,writers of RAs may strategically use first person singular pronouns (FPSPs) or first person plural pronouns (FPPPs).Use of FPSPs is the most direct way to stress the authority of writers.Use of FPPPs is comparatively complex in the sense that the referents of the pronouns may be ambiguous.In this study,FPPPs are classified into four sub-categories.They are collective we,editorial we,inclusive authorial we and generic we.With the help of context,different rhetorical roles of the first person authorial pronouns are recognized.The rhetorical roles demonstrate the activities of writers in academic writing.These roles include discourse-organizer,researcher and opinion-holder.The role of discourse-organizer foregrounds the writer’s responsibility of framing the text for the readers.The researcher role highlights not only the writer’s familiarity with his/her disciplinary practices,but also the attempt to gain the readers’ trust by validating his/her research framework.The role of opinion-holder emphasizes the interactive nature of academic writing.As an opinion-holder,a writer may open a dialogue with the readers to negotiate claims.The authorial identity is implicitly projected by means of agentless constructions and stance markers.Agentless constructions include constructions with inanimate subjects and anticipatory it-clauses.The investigation indicates that agentless constructions,though construct less powerful and overt identities,do not obscure the authorial identity completely.Instead,these linguistic means allow writers to maintain a balance between overt evaluative positioning and detached claim-making when illustrating claims,constructing a convincing argument or drawing tentative conclusions.Thus writers could construct an identity that is likely to persuade community members to accept the validity of their research.Stance markers are widely recognized as a key resource through which the authorial viewpoint is indirectly conveyed,projecting a textual “voice” or community recognized personality.The stance markers investigated in the present study include hedges and boosters.Hedges and boosters are interpersonal aspects of language use.As regards authorial identity projected in RAs,they work as the ways that writers intrude to stamp their personal authority onto their arguments or step back and disguise their involvement.The findings show that hedges help project writers’ personae of caution,modesty and deference,while boosters highlight writers as competent members of the discourse communities.The rhetorical employment of these stance markers enables an academic writer to seek a balance between the researcher’s authority as expert-knower and his/her humility as disciplinary servant.Considering the results of the comparison both between languages and between disciplines,three potential influencing factors are identified.These factors are cultural conventions,disciplinary variability and pragmatic considerations.These factors may overlap or work independently for the accounts of the results of the study.The investigation of authorial identity in academic discourse has theoretical and pedagogical implications.Theoretically,the proposed theoretical framework reveals the relation between the socio-cultural factors and linguistic devices with the modulation of genre theory in academic writing.The linguistic resources examined for the construction of authorial identity and the findings about the explicit and implicit projection of authorial identity enrich academic writing theory and research.Pedagogically,this study is a useful starting point to raise writers’ awareness of the explicit/implicit linguistic resources available for the projection of authorship.The comparative analysis provides teachers and students with knowledge of preferred patterns in academic writing.
关键词: 英语  汉语  论文  对比研究  英文  


作者: 曹依民
简介: 名词是人类认知过程中概念化的重要结果。概念具有可及性,比如,有生一无生。反映在语言生成上,高可及性的概念容易加工,更能获得突出的语法位置。即,名词短语在进入生成加工过程中,存在竞争。竞争在简单句中的表现已有大量研究,在复合句中的研究则不多,值得探索。本书选取汉英各5部叙事文本,筛选出关系从句共6166条,建立数据库。通过统计分析,发现名词短语竞争在关系从句生成中发挥着重要作用,并且该作用存在跨语言差异。
关键词: 英语  句法  对比研究  汉语  


作者: 魏家海
简介: 本书主要从中西比较诗学的视角,对20世纪以来英美汉学家的汉诗英译文本作了点面结合的研究,探讨了汉学家的汉诗英译同他们的文化身份、审美主体性、翻译认知能力、重构能力和解释能力之间的关系。职业汉学家翻译家大都注重翻译的忠实性,把翻译作为文学分析的一种手段,为文学研究服务。诗人翻译家则更注重汉诗译文的文学风味,因此,翻译呈现较大的变异性,有时近乎创作。两类翻译家的翻译批评也不能依据同一标准,要考虑各自的翻译目的和翻译特征。总结他们的翻译思想、策略、传播和接受,对中国文学“走出去”都具有重要的借鉴意义。
关键词: 诗歌  英语  文学翻译  研究  


作者: 吴明军
简介: This dissertation explores the developmental pattern observed in Chinese EFL learners acquiring the three binding properties of English reflexives,c-commanding constraint,subject orientation and locality condition.It is generally acknowledged that the c-commanding constraint is universal cross-linguistically. In both English and Chinese,reflexives are bound only by the DP which occupies the c-commanding position in the sentence configuration. Therefore,in English sentences as “[Anniej's sister]i told the doctor something about herselfi/*j” and their counterpart Chinese sentences,herself is coreferential with Annie’s sister,a c-commanding DP,but not coreferential with Annie,a non-c-commanding DP.However,it is widely known that reflexive pronouns in English and Chinese differ with respect to subject orientation and locality condition. On the one hand,English reflexives can take local DPs as their antecedents and long-distance DPs are not legitimate antecedents whereas Chinese monomorphemic reflexive ‘ziji’ can be bound either to a local DP or to a long-distance(LD)DP. On the other hand,in English,DPs functioning as subject or object can be legitimate antecedents;in contrast,in Chinese,reflexives can take only subject as their antecedent and sentences with coreferential dependencies between reflexives and object are ruled out.Given the differences in referential characteristics between English and Chinese,an interesting question arises in the case of Chinese learners' acquiring English reflexives:is it possible for them to acquire the coreference properties of English anaphors?There is positive evidence in the acquisition of the corefe-rence between reflexives and the nonsubject,but in the acquisition of locality requirement,the logical problem holds in adult second language acquisition(White 1989). Furthermore,if binding properties are acquirable,how do they develop with the gain of English proficiency by Chinese EFL learners?A truth-value judgment task is employed in this dissertation in that this methodology offers a relatively direct and efficient means of evaluating competence rather than preference. The test format is a story consisting of 2 to 5 sentences followed by a comment sentence. Participants are required to read the 40 stories and then indicate whether the subsequent comment sentence matches or mismatches the situation provided in the story by pressing either ‘y’ or ‘n’ key on the keyboard. The comment sentences following the stories fall into five sentence types to investigate the Chinese speakers' acquisition of three binding properties,c-command,orientation and locality,respectively.To guarantee that participants are proficient enough to accomplish the experiment task,206 freshmen were selected from 6 natural classes of a top-ten key university in China and a non-key university. Three proficiency levels were set up according to Quick Placement Test administered to all the participants. The top 40 participants are considered as the high scoring group,the 40 in the middle as the mid group,and the 40 at the bottom as the low group. There are big differences among the three groups' mean proficiency scores,with means scores of 49.8,41.7,and 33.9,respectively. According to a one-way ANOVA,the differences among them are statistically significant(F(2,117)=495.6,p=.000),with post hoc Games Howell procedures showing significant differences between the high group and the other learner groups(p=.000),as well as between the low and mid groups(p=.000).The results of Mixed RM ANOVAs indicate that the largest three-way interaction between types of sentences,distance of antecedents,and proficiency is not statistical,using the Huynh-Feldt correct(F 6.59,385.488=0.556,p=0.781,partial eta-squared=0.009,power=0.234). This means that participants from the different groups performed similarly on different types of sentences,and they also performed similarly in spite of the distance of antecedents. However,the two-way interaction between the sentence type and proficiency and between the sentence type and distance is statistically different. The difficulty order of the three distinct binding properties is that c-command is easier than locality and orientation for the low group whereas for the mid group and the high group c-command is easier than locality,which in turn is easier than orientation. When locality is instantiated in finite embedded clauses,nonfinite embedded clauses and monoclauses with possessed representational noun phrases(PRNP),the difficulty order is that the resolution of reflexives in PRNPs is more demanding than that in nonfinite clauses,which in turn is more demanding than that in finite clauses for the low group. For the mid group and the high group,the difficulty order is that the PRNP condition is more challenging than the biclausal condition. Of the five sentence types,Types 1 and 3 are the easiest while Type 5 is the most difficult for the low group;Types 1,3 and 4 are easier than Types 2 and 5 for the mid group and the high group. With discourse information taken into consideration,the difficulty order for the low group is 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B and 4A<2A/4B/5A and 5B;for the mid group 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B and 4A<4B/5A and 5B<2A;for the high group 1A/1B/2B/3A/3B/4A and 4B<5A and 5B<2A.There are four developmental patterns of each binding property and each condition of locality exhibited by the three proficiency groups. First,there is significant improvement both from the low-level group to the mid-level group and from the mid-level group to the high-level group. Second,there is no improvement either from the low group to the mid group,or from the mid-level group to the high-level group,or from the low group to the high group. Third,there is no improvement from the low group to the mid group,or from the mid group to the high group;however,there is improvement from the low group to the high group. Fourth,there is only significant improvement either from the low-level to the mid-level group or from the mid-level to the high-level group,but not both.Though transfer can account for better acquisition of c-command than orientation and locality in the low group,it cannot explain the differences in the same binding property of locality under the three different conditions. The explanation by the extension of the standard binding theory is inadequate and unsatisfactory as well. Two proposals are suggested in the dissertation to account for the diffe-rences between binding properties and the three conditions of locality. It is argued that head category and completeness of phases play an important role in the interpretation of English reflexives,which give rise to the differences in the locality property. This is the first attempt that the phase theory is applied to SLA research.Alternatively,the involvement of distinct interface categories in identifying antecedents results in differences in the three conditions of locality. Additionally,the Interface Hypothesis makes an adequate account for the differences between the distinct binding properties,namely,c-command,orientation and locality. The results indicating that orientation is as demanding as locality implicate that interpretations of reflexives involving interfaces are all challenging no matter whether the interfaces are internal interfaces or external interfaces. This is the new extension of the Interface Hypothesis in that previous studies exclusively include advanced or near-native learners of a second language.Key words:Reflexives,Principle A of the binding theory,Universal Grammar,the phase theory,the Interface Hypothesis
关键词: 英语  代词  教学研究  


作者: 朱红梅
简介: 本书主要由理论部分和实证部分构成。理论部分主要以英语课堂互动为对象,以教师反思为切入口,以哲学、心理学、语言学和教育学相关理论研究为基础,构建了以学科教学目标、教师个人特质以及情境为核心的英语课堂互动反思运行机制。实证部分主要分析了参与英语课堂互动反思活动之后教师在反思思维、学习机会、课堂互动策略、教材观等方面的发展和变化。英语课堂互动反思运行机制的建立为英语教师专业发展提供了一条新的路径,有助于英语教师增强语言意识,发挥学科知识优势,提高课堂话语使用效率。
关键词: 英语  课堂教学  教学研究  


作者: 孙若红
简介: 本书内容理论联系实际、重点突出。全书共5章,包括语料库语言学概述、语料库的设计与开发、语料库分析的基本技术、语料库在英语专业词汇教学中的应用和语料库在英语专业教学其他领域的应用等。本书适合英语专业本科生、研究生阅读,也可作为语言学及应用语言学方向研究生教学的教材。
关键词: 语料库  应用  英语  词汇  教学研究  高等学校  


简介: 外语评价改革的重要部分之一就是对评价主体重新认识、重新定位,强调评价主体多元化。为了使评价有机地融入写作教学过程中,应建立开放和宽松的评价氛围,鼓励学生、教师、同伴共同关注和参与评价,实现评价主体多元化。动态评价理论已成为一种有效的教学评价手段。动态评价所表现出的评价与教学的辩证统一思想对教学有着不可估量的价值。根据动态评价原则,英语写作教学动态评价模式的设计不仅要对学生写作活动进行记录,还要把动态评价融合到教学活动中,借助于介入活动来向纵深展开研究,其主旨是彰显动态评价所关注的过程趋向和介入与多元评价的融合。
关键词: 英语  写作  研究  
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