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中国文人画与禅宗思想关系性研究——从明末清初到民国的脉络梳理

作者: 杨江波
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:54次
简介: 禅宗由印度禅演化为中国禅,是一个外域文化本土化的过程。由于中国文人士大夫具有“追道”这一文化身份特征,伴随着魏晋审美自觉,禅宗的审美境界也深深影响到这一群体。文人画的始祖王维即是生活在禅宗成熟兴盛的唐代。文人对于生命的感发感悟,随着笔墨这一载体用诗化的形式加以彰显,并由此而特立于世界艺术之林。晚明以降,随着西方地理大发现,全球化进程开始。在这一时间段,中国文人画的进程产生了三次高潮,其中有两次是发生在易代之时,政治上的动荡反而把文化推向了一个高度。但是,文人画在明清达到高峰之后,随着西方文化的强势介入和文人画末流所产生的弊端,它的衰落也是必然的。它的兴起衰落和禅宗思想文化的演变关系又是怎样?文人画衰落后,其作为核心审美思想的禅宗又是怎样存续的?中国文化演进历史漫长,期间禅宗文化在唐宋达到高潮,但随后逐渐衰落,理学和心学兴起,三教合一也使得禅宗在作为独立教派方面衰落下来,但是禅宗精神却由于其圆融清净的审美高度而融入了中国文化的方方方面。这种暗流潜藏的存续途径有以下几条:(1)儒禅的演化与影响;(2)潘天寿对于传统教学的坚持;(3)近代留学生在日本所受的影响;(4)画僧体系的禅意留存。禅宗思想在这些途径的存续使得它在后期发展的兴起也成为必然。当下全球经济一体化,西方工业革命在把物质文明带给东方的同时也把其弊端抛了过来,不但在工业上,在文化上它们也面临着自身不能克服的瓶颈。铃木大拙和铃木俊隆两位日本禅者在欧美结合西方文化来传播禅宗思想产生了很好的影响,后现代主义应运而生。后现代主义虽然对禅法的理解是西式的,并不完全符合禅宗的本意,但西方借助禅宗理念涅磐重生的决心是可以感受得到的。在这个信息交流极为畅通的互联网时代,东西方文化在矛盾对抗中而逐渐互鉴交融,这种交融并不是两大审美体系特征的泯灭,而是长短互补,即如费孝通先生所讲:各美其美,美美与共。禅宗思想注重本体感悟,是无分别的清净文化,这种“不分别”的审美状态可以在本体层面与西方文明“美美与共”,“和而不同”的多元化相处方式会产生东西方文化良性互动。西方文化对于禅宗思想亦愈来愈感兴趣,如美国著名斯坦福大学设有禅修中心,中国禅师们也越来越多地走向国外传法。作为中国画来讲,在近现代深受西方影响做了诸多探索之后,也在逐渐沉静了下来,开始在审美领域追根溯源,注重在民族审美层面的深入探索。这两年,中国美术馆举办的“黄宾虹美术大展”“潘天寿美术大展”以及故宫博物院举办的“四僧画展”都在社会上引起了很大反响,这些可以看作是传统审美重新崛起的标志性事件,禅宗思想作为传统审美重要的内核在当下研究也具有了重要的意义。关键词:禅宗,文人,存续,清净,自信AbstractThe evolution of Indian Zen Buddhism to Chinese Zen Buddhism is a process of the domestication of foreign cultures.Because of the fact that Chinese scholar-bureaucrats enjoyed the cultural identity of“following religions”,the aesthetic state of the Zen had deeply influenced the group of scholar-bureaucrats with the aesthetics of the Wei and the Jin Dynasties.The founder of the Painting of Man-of-letters,Wang Wei,lived in the Tang Dynasty when the Zen Buddhism was at its prime and prosperity.The perceptions and inspirations of men-of-letters were manifested through the form of painting,and have been since featured among the world of arts.Since the late Ming Dynasty the process of globalization began with the great geographical discovery in the West.During this period,the Chinese Painting of Man-of-letters experienced three times of climaxes among which two took place at the time of the change of dynasties when the political upheavals pushed culture to the height.However,with the aggressive entry of Western cultures and the disadvantages caused by the decadent stage of the Painting of Man-of-letters,its decline was inevitable.What is the evolutionary relation between the prosperity and decline of the Painting of Man-of-letters and the Zen Buddhism philosophy and culture? How did the Zen Buddhism continue as the core aesthetic philosophy of the Painting of Man-of-letters after its decline? Chinese culture has a long history of evolution,during which the Zen Buddhism reached the climax and then declined when the Ra tionalistic Confucian Philosophy and the School of Mind went to their primes.The combination of Buddhism,Taoism and Confucianism led to the decline of the Zen Buddhism as an independent religion.However,the spirits of Zen Buddhism were immersed to the different aspects of Chinese culture because of the aesthetic level of its purity and harmony.The ways of its lurking undercurrent continuance are as follows:1.The evolution and influence of Confucian Zen Buddhism;2.Pan Tianshou' s perseverance to the traditional teaching of painting; 3.The influence experienced by the overseas Chinese students in Japan,and 4.The existence of the Zen with the Painting Monks System.The continuance of the Zen Buddhism philosophy in these ways made its prosperity in the later development inevitable.Nowadays with the economic globalization,the Western Industrial Revolution brought forth to the East not only the material civilization,but also disadvantages both in industry,and in culture where they have their own invincible bottleneck.The two Japanese Zen masters Daisetz Suzuki and Shunryu Suzuki made great contributions in spreading the philosophies of Zen philosophies by combining them with European and American cultures,where the post-modernism emerged as the times required.The post-modernism had its understanding of Zen in the western way,which is not completely in line with the philosophies of Zen Buddhism.However,the determination to be reborn by the Zen Buddhism in the West can still be felt.In this information age when the East and the West cultures exchanged and immersed with each other through conflicts,the immersion of these two is not the distinction of the features of the two different aesthetic systems.Instead,it reflects the complementation of the two,as what Mr.Fei Xiaotong described as the existence of the differences but harmonies of various beauties.The Zen Buddhism focuses on the comprehension of noumenon and therefore it is an indistinct culture of purity.This indistinct aesthetic state leads to the positive mutual effects between the Eastern and Western cultures during the process of the diversified coexistence of Zen Buddhism and Western civilization.The Western civilization has more and more interest in Zen Buddhism philosophies and more Chinese Zen masters began to spread the philosophies outside China.For example,Stanford University of the U.S.has its own Meditation Center.As far as Chinese painting is concerned,it had made many explorations under the influence of the West in modern and contemporary times,and has settled down to seek the origin in the aesthetics field and focuses on deeper explorations at the national aesthetic levels.In the past two years,the Great Art Exhibition of Huang Binhong,the Great Art Exhibition of Pan Tianshou by the National Art Museum of China,and the Art Exhibition by the Four Monks held by the Palace Museum have given rise to great influence in society,and these events can be considered as a symbol of the resurgence of traditional aesthetics,and as a result,the study of Zen Buddhism as the core of traditional aesthetics has been of great importance in current days.Key Words: ZenBuddhism,Man-of-letters,Continuance,Purity,Self-confidence
关键词: 文人画  绘画研究  中国  明清时代  禅宗  

从王维到范宽:终南山与唐宋山水画的演变

作者: 王陆健
出版日期:2019-09-01
浏览次数:121次
简介: 唐宋之际,山水画演变成南北两种不同的画风,写真熟悉的山水。作为孕育这两种画派的源头,终南山为中国画形式与内涵的演变做了历史性的铺垫,它是山水画的精神家园。本书以唐代王维、北宋范宽的传世和见于著录的山水作品为切入点,实地考察终南山的自然地貌与环境变迁,论述唐宋山水画的开拓与变革,探究终南山与山水画的密切关系。
关键词: 山水画  绘画研究  中国  唐宋时期  

張丙煐文集

作者:
出版日期:2019-05-01
浏览次数:324次
简介: 張丙煐(一七九四——八四八),字雲艎,號虎頭,清代河南寳豐(今平頂山市湛河區曹鎮鄉五虎劉村)人,晚清詩人、書畫家。著有《觀兩齋詩鈔》《晚翠軒筆記》《姚江年譜》《肄武雜說》《華萼詩集》《梨花槍譜》等,另有評點朝鮮友人詩稿鈔本現存朝鮮國家圖書館。《觀兩齋詩鈔》《晚翠軒筆記》全面記錄了張丙煐關於書畫評論、鑒賞、收藏、書畫理論探討以及詩歌創作等方面的重要内容,《姚江年譜》系張丙煐為明代著名哲學家王陽明所纂年譜,《肄武雜說》綜述多家之說提出一系列習武思想與理念。這些著作具有重要的文化價值和研究意義。經過多方調查,全面收羅張丙煐現存文獻,整理出版《張丙煐文集》,希望能為張丙煐研究提供一套翔實可靠的基礎性資料。
关键词: 古典詩歌  書畫藝術  詩集  藝術評論  中國  清代  古代  文集  

中国画的易学思想

作者: 周利明
出版日期:2019-01-01
浏览次数:66次
简介: 中国画造型与《易》象同体,与造化同根,其出发点在“道”而不在“器”;生、气、时、变,既是易学的要旨,又为笔墨之要义。中国画讲究的“神、意、象、感、观、位”等问题,都滥筋于《周易》对天地、宇宙、生命、万物规律的哲学阐释。国画源于国学,易学作为国学核心,是中国画传承与创新的原动力,对厘清中国画本体语言、指导中国画品评标准、影响中国画创作走向,都有着重要意义。
关键词: 中国画  绘画研究  

动画响菩提:佛教动画的文化透视

作者: 张启忠
出版日期:2019-01-01
浏览次数:31次
简介: 本书以佛教动画为切入点,在对有代表性的中外佛教动画进行剖析的基础上,对佛教动画的特性进行归纳,提出汉传佛教文化对动画解析和创作具有深刻的适用性。进而主张国产动画业者只有深刻理解以佛教文化为肌理的中国传统文化,才能获得经典动画的创作智慧。
关键词: 佛教  宗教文化  应用  动画  

慈悲情怀的图像叙述:丰子恺《护生画集》研究

作者: 朱美禄
出版日期:2018-10-01
浏览次数:425次
简介: 丰子恺的《护生画集》虽由世界生态主义思潮所催生,但与中国本土儒、释、道文化也密切相关。儒家的仁民爱物、道家的因任自然以及释家的慈悲情怀,都以生动的艺术语言在画集中得以呈现。本书剖析了画集采用的“高模仿”创作方式,指出丰子恺意在赞扬动物的美德,肯定动物之于人类的意义,表达了对人与自然和谐关系的向往。本书还考察了画集对于儿童的态度,一方面对绝假存真的童心进行了褒扬;另一方面对彼污染和被扭曲的儿童人格进行了批评,表达了“童子雕琢,必先雅制”的教化思想。由于画集存在着不少重复现象,本书指出这既折射了创作过程中画材的匮乏,也形成了一种别样的节奏,对阅读构成压迫,有利于读者对画集的理解和认识。最后本书概括了《护生画集》的基调:这是一部温暖的书,同时也具有“新民”的价值追求。

清初江南遗民画家与遗民画研究

作者: 蔡敏
出版日期:2018-06-01
浏览次数:374次
简介: 本书考察了明清之际的江南遗民画家群体,从学术、政治、地域、文化等方面对这个群体的内心世界做了深入研究,揭示出解读遗民画的三条路径:造型语言、笔墨痕迹、使用符号,分析了遗民画的构图与政治生态的关系、遗民画家和正统画家关于“气”与“理”之争、遗民画家的符号意识与身份认同、遗民画家与遗民画同江南地域文化的关系等问题。
关键词: 中国画  绘画评论  清前期  

空间过程、环境认知与意象表达:中国古代绘画的历史地理学研究

作者: 张慨
出版日期:2017-11-01
浏览次数:295次
简介: 任何艺术的产生都不能脱离一定的地理空间。作为地理环境认知主体之一的画家,其作品必然存在着对环境空间的认知和理解,对绘画的图像和风格的研究,不仅仅是艺术自身发展和演变的过程问题,还是一个地理学问题。绘画表现了怎样的地理环境?地理环境对绘画风格多样性的形成产生了怎样的影响?这种影响是如何介入绘画创作的?本书从中国古代绘画的整体空间格局和变迁以及系列微观个案考察两个层面,对上述问题进行了系统解释。
关键词: 中国画  绘画研究  古代  历史地理学  
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