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社会主义国家处理宗教问题的经验教训

作者: 孟宪霞
出版日期:2012-01-01
浏览次数:7次
简介: This topic belongs to a part of the system of “Marxist view of religion”. The current religious theories and policies of China are all guided by it and it is the mainstream ideology in the field of religion in China,and its importance is self-evident. However,combing the whole “Marxist view of religion”,we find that academic has much study on “Marxist view of religion”,but not on integrity,that is,lacking the research on the system of religious theory and practice in socialist countries,and make comprehensive reflection.“Marxist view of religion” originated in the religious ideas of Marx and Engels,from the beginning of the last century in Soviet Union,deeply rooted and formed in the religious concept of Lenin,Stalin and other leaders. The Chinese Communists continued to practice the religious philosophy of Marx and Engels. Most politicians and academics concentrate on this context to study the course of the development of the Marxist view of religion. However,the truth of history is that the direct impact of the view of Marx,Engels and Lenin religion in socialist countries has not only reached eight socialist countries of Eastern Europe,but reached the four surviving social capitalist countries,i.e. Vietnam,Laos,North Korea and Cuba. Under the guidance of Marx,Engels and Lenin,according to different national conditions,the policy on religion and religious practices of the socialist countries show a rich and colorful historical picture. Therefore,in the comprehensive study of “the system of Marxist view of religion”,this can not be ignored. This topic is trying to restore the integrity of the “Marxist view of religion”,striving to make up the lack of research in academia,adding bricks and tiles for the “religious theory of socialism”. By combing and analyzing religious theory,policy and practice of Socialist States,the study tries to sum up the lessons of Socialist Countries in dealing with religious issues under the current religious theory and put it into use.This article starts firstly from “religious fervor”in China and the whole world,and the confront reality of “Marx’s religion Extinction” and “religious reviving”,and mentioned the following problems:how to treat the religious fervor of the present era?How do Socialist Countries adapt to the global religious revival,and how to deal with them?Whether the Marxist view of religion can guide the religious theory and practice of the socialist countries?Today,as some people criticize,whether or not is China’s current policy on religion the “left”or “right”?Thus,it is even necessary to learn from the world’s religious and cultural awareness. It has a direct,significant theoretical and practical significance to look back and sort out the successes and failures of the socialist countries in dealing with religious issues,and to summarize the lessons for the religious practice of current socialist China,to participate in global political,economic,cultural and ideological competition.The Marxist view of religion is the fundamental views and opinions on religion of classical writers such as Marx and Engels and their successors,and it is the world outlook and methodology of Marxist political parties recognizing and dealing with religious issues,it originated in the religious ideas of Marx and Engels,and has been developed and practiced by the Communists of various socialists in socialist countries. Marxist view of religion is the strain of the theoretical system,it has rich content,including the basic points such as the Marxist essence of religion,the development law of religion,the social function of religion and the religious attitude of Marxist political parties. However,it is the “short board” on the study of “Marxist view of religion” in regarding it as the guidance and methodology in our religious understanding and religious practice. But what Marxist view of religion is superior to other religious views is that:it is guided by historical materialism,adheres to the dialectical view,the principle of practical,effective guidance in policy-making and scientific research.The former Soviet Union and Eastern European socialist countries all have strong religious traditions different from China. In the process of socialist practice,however,they are all impacted profoundly by Marx and Engels’ view of religion,especially Marx’s “religion of opium”,and for once they took the more “left” religious policy apposing and even eliminating religion. Therefore,the religious forces once lowered stance and religious activities turned underground. However,as many religious scientists investigated that “men are religious animals”,or as some scholars have mentioned “religion is a way to grasp the world of human beings”,“religion is the home of spirit ”,“religion is humanity’s common cultural wealth”,We will not argue the authenticity of these propositions indeed,now probably the following consensus about religion has been formed:in today’s society,in the present era,religion is indispensable spirit and substantial wealth of people,religion has its own law of occurrence and development,the demise of religion is a very long time. The consequences of reversing the law of history - the tension between politics and religion,religion played an important role in the socialism earthquake of Drastic Change. In a sense it can be said that before the drastic changes,there was a “bitter” relationship between socialist state and religion,religious relations were disharmonious,and the undercurrent against the socialist regime surging,if this hostile undercurrent is used by foreign reactionary forces,it may endanger the security and stability of the socialist countries. The people are the creators of history,the masses are the base of society,to suppress the religious needs of creators,the social foundation is instable,the building of socialism has the danger to overturn. The leaders of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe countries,such as Lenin,Stalin,Polish leaders have proposed many useful good measures that is conducive to the harmony of religious relations,about these initiatives,there still exists a lot of contend in academia,such as Lenin’s “religion opium cornerstone theory” and “inferior wine theory” are the first misinterpretation of Marx’s view of religion,which is the culprit that caused the leftist religious practice of the later Soviet successor. So it is necessary to combine and interpret the religious policy and practice of the counties,and restore the truth of history and reflect the fact.The religious policy of New China is from the inheritance of “religious freedom” policy of Communist Party of China in the New Democratic Revolution. However,all in all,we have to say,the religious freedom policy of Chinese Communist Party always gives people a strange feeling of “last resort”. Indeed,on the one hand,because there are one-sided “left” understanding of the Marxist view of religion,on the other hand,because in our modern history,especially the Protestant and Catholic have played a bad role as the “pioneers” of the colonists. As Jiang Meng lin said:“Buddha came to China riding a white elephant,but Jesus Christ riding on the flying shells.” Coupling with the powerful religious forces,dynasties have played an important role to subvert the government in the history of China since ancient times. Therefore it turns not so difficult to understand that the new Chinese government and even the Chinese people embrace to accept the “national and universal moves” to limit or even eliminate religion. China lacks of religious tradition. Since the Han Dynasty,China “abandon 100 factions,only respect Confucianism”,Confucianism builds and maintains the feudal political system of China for thousands of years,outlines and consolidates the national cultural landscape. Even the local Taoist culture,Buddhist culture came from India in Eastern Han Dynasty,and the Christianity and the Catholic culture which flew into China with the colonists’ modern gun and boats,all actively absorb the fusion of Confucian cultural characteristics,and take root in China. “Replacing religion with science”,“replacing religion with aesthetic”,“replacing religion with art”,during the May Fourth thinkers provided so many good dinner to raise the spirit of us to replace religion. However,religion is religion,the science is science,the aesthetic is aesthetic,even if people have a strong desire to kill it quickly,religion is still like the flowing water,when the social roots and class origin of religion has not been eliminated,religion is still there. You can use “sing with tears all the way” to describe the road to understand the awareness of religious nature,significance and role in China. When the situation requires,it is our passenger,when the situation does not,more negative opinions comes out in order to strengthen the propaganda of scientific atheism,vigorously squeeze the living space of the religion,and hurt the feelings of the majority of religious believers,and dampen the enthusiasm of their participation in the construction of socialist well-off society,if improperly handled,and may even cause cynicism,form the community’s opposition. Da Yu sparse and guide water,the feelings of religious believers,like a flood,the interception and harm can not always solve the problem,only to actively guide religions to adapt to the socialist society,achieve useful explanation of the religious teachings in favor of building a harmonious society,mobilize religious believers patriotism,and to participate in socialist construction,and effectively implement the religious policy of freedom of religious belief in accordance with the law to strengthen the management of religious affairs,to implement the principle of independence and self,was regarded as good problem-solving.The lessons learned from dealing with religious issues in the existing socialist countries-Vietnam,Laos,North Korea,Cuba,are also worth remembering. “Long has nine sons,each one is different”,and the great theory of Marxism gave birth to 16 red socialist countries,now the nine brothers of Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have discarded Marxism belief and abandoned the pursuit of socialism and communism,and all went to their own smooth or ill-fated future. Today,the remaining socialist countries all learned profound lessons of history of the communist movement and no longer produce the “leader” of the socialist countries.All countries are absorbing the global experience,strengthening global cooperation for social development according to own national circumstances. No one meddles in religious policy,except that the United States as “the world’s policeman”issues the national religion report every year continuously criticizing China’s Tibet and Xinjiang,the Falun Gong issue;accusing North Korea of “the most serious religious oppression state”;for Vietnam,on the basis of Vietnam actively strengthening communication with the United States and did religious reform in accordance with the procedures they prescribe,and finally shook off the hat of religious oppression affected countries in 2009;in Cuba,the rich religious traditions created a special religious feelings of the Cuban people,and also existed the term of “strike hard” to oppress or even eliminate religion in the history in the socialism development of Cuba. However,the ice-breaking of its relations with Vatican is beneficial to win sympathy in the international arena and more conducive to improving the ancient relations with the United States,and thus more conducive to its socialist construction and development. The history of dealing with religious issues in four countries shows us a colorful picture,and reflecting on their religious policy will help us better understand and adhere to the Marxist view of religion and do favor of taking preventive measures and constructing the Great Wall of the ideological field in the areas of “a war without guns” with western ideology.It has been nearly hundred years of history so far,since the establishment of the first socialist state Soviet Union. Marx predicted the historical destiny of religion gradually disappearing with social progress. Yes,we seem to have prepared “shroud” for religion. However,today economic develops,science and technology forges ahead,the globalization goes fast,religion is globally blooming. It is a major issue faced with the administrator to revise the religion and religious issues timely,implement religious decision-making on time,suitable for China’s national conditions and the trend of international today. The lessons learned from dealing with religious issues in Socialist countries bring contemporary China a lot of useful insights:First,we need the correct understanding of the nature and function of religion,which is the deepest level and the most fundamental issue of religion;Second,correct understanding and handling the problem of the relationship between religion and socialism,explain to actively guide the theory of religion to adapt to socialist society;Third,correct understanding and handling the relations of religion and belief in Marxism,analyze the difference between religion and belief in Marxism,analyze a serious challenge religious beliefs on the beliefs of Marxism;Fourth,correct understanding and dealing with the Chinese church-state relations,and reflect on the handling of church-state relations in China and China’s misreading so-called “government-run religion”;Five,correct understanding and handling of religion Sino-US and Sino-Vatican relations and prevent religious infiltration of the West.Go left or go right?Left light right line,or Right light left line?How to choose a correct road of religious treatment for the Chinese situation?It relies on our theoretical workers analyzing the lessons in dealing with religious issues in socialist countries,with a glorious sense of mission and of responsibility to history,in the correct position-“the position of Marxism”,“the position of the people”,“the position of nation”,serving for the great cause of socialism,building a moderately prosperous society,and serve to build a harmonious society and harmonious world.
关键词: 社会主义国家  宗教政策  世界  

中国儒佛道三教关系研究

作者: 洪修平
出版日期:2011-01-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: 儒佛道是中国传统思想文化的三大重要组成部分,佛教白汉代传入中国后,其与儒道形成的三教关系,构成了汉代以后中国思想学术和文化发展的重要内容,而且在一定程度上决定了整个中华思想文化、的特点及其发展的走向。因此,改革开放以来,随着对儒佛道三家各自历史与思想的研究全面展开和日益深入,对三教之关系的研究的重要和迫切性就越来越呈现出来。
关键词: 儒家  佛教  道教  文集  

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