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钱谦益佛教文献与文学研究

作者: 王彦明
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:205次
简介: 虞山钱谦益自幼奉佛,晚岁更几近佞佛,撰有《愣严经疏解蒙钞》《般若心经略疏小钞》等著作,为丛林释子、文坛士人所重。其诗文创作及文学思想,亦深受佛教熏染,堪称晚明佛教文学之巨擘。

宋元时期的中日佛教文化交流:以浙江佛教为中心的考察

作者: 张家成
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:39次
简介: 本书采取以问题为中心的研究进路和以点带面、史论结合的叙述方法,择取宋元时期中日佛教文化交流史上的若干代表人物(包括入宋并在浙江一带求法的奝然、寂昭、成寻、明庵荣西、希玄道元、圆尔辩圆等日本僧人,东渡日本的兰溪道隆、一山一宁以及虽未到过日本但门下聚焦了大量求法日僧的无准师范、中峰明本、楚石梵琦等浙籍禅僧)为案例,简明扼要而又不失全面地分析并阐述了浙江佛教特别是禅宗文化在宋元时期中日佛教文化交流史上的独特地位和重要影响。
关键词: 佛教  文化交流  中国、日本  宋元时期  

中国文人画与禅宗思想关系性研究——从明末清初到民国的脉络梳理

作者: 杨江波
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:51次
简介: 禅宗由印度禅演化为中国禅,是一个外域文化本土化的过程。由于中国文人士大夫具有“追道”这一文化身份特征,伴随着魏晋审美自觉,禅宗的审美境界也深深影响到这一群体。文人画的始祖王维即是生活在禅宗成熟兴盛的唐代。文人对于生命的感发感悟,随着笔墨这一载体用诗化的形式加以彰显,并由此而特立于世界艺术之林。晚明以降,随着西方地理大发现,全球化进程开始。在这一时间段,中国文人画的进程产生了三次高潮,其中有两次是发生在易代之时,政治上的动荡反而把文化推向了一个高度。但是,文人画在明清达到高峰之后,随着西方文化的强势介入和文人画末流所产生的弊端,它的衰落也是必然的。它的兴起衰落和禅宗思想文化的演变关系又是怎样?文人画衰落后,其作为核心审美思想的禅宗又是怎样存续的?中国文化演进历史漫长,期间禅宗文化在唐宋达到高潮,但随后逐渐衰落,理学和心学兴起,三教合一也使得禅宗在作为独立教派方面衰落下来,但是禅宗精神却由于其圆融清净的审美高度而融入了中国文化的方方方面。这种暗流潜藏的存续途径有以下几条:(1)儒禅的演化与影响;(2)潘天寿对于传统教学的坚持;(3)近代留学生在日本所受的影响;(4)画僧体系的禅意留存。禅宗思想在这些途径的存续使得它在后期发展的兴起也成为必然。当下全球经济一体化,西方工业革命在把物质文明带给东方的同时也把其弊端抛了过来,不但在工业上,在文化上它们也面临着自身不能克服的瓶颈。铃木大拙和铃木俊隆两位日本禅者在欧美结合西方文化来传播禅宗思想产生了很好的影响,后现代主义应运而生。后现代主义虽然对禅法的理解是西式的,并不完全符合禅宗的本意,但西方借助禅宗理念涅磐重生的决心是可以感受得到的。在这个信息交流极为畅通的互联网时代,东西方文化在矛盾对抗中而逐渐互鉴交融,这种交融并不是两大审美体系特征的泯灭,而是长短互补,即如费孝通先生所讲:各美其美,美美与共。禅宗思想注重本体感悟,是无分别的清净文化,这种“不分别”的审美状态可以在本体层面与西方文明“美美与共”,“和而不同”的多元化相处方式会产生东西方文化良性互动。西方文化对于禅宗思想亦愈来愈感兴趣,如美国著名斯坦福大学设有禅修中心,中国禅师们也越来越多地走向国外传法。作为中国画来讲,在近现代深受西方影响做了诸多探索之后,也在逐渐沉静了下来,开始在审美领域追根溯源,注重在民族审美层面的深入探索。这两年,中国美术馆举办的“黄宾虹美术大展”“潘天寿美术大展”以及故宫博物院举办的“四僧画展”都在社会上引起了很大反响,这些可以看作是传统审美重新崛起的标志性事件,禅宗思想作为传统审美重要的内核在当下研究也具有了重要的意义。关键词:禅宗,文人,存续,清净,自信AbstractThe evolution of Indian Zen Buddhism to Chinese Zen Buddhism is a process of the domestication of foreign cultures.Because of the fact that Chinese scholar-bureaucrats enjoyed the cultural identity of“following religions”,the aesthetic state of the Zen had deeply influenced the group of scholar-bureaucrats with the aesthetics of the Wei and the Jin Dynasties.The founder of the Painting of Man-of-letters,Wang Wei,lived in the Tang Dynasty when the Zen Buddhism was at its prime and prosperity.The perceptions and inspirations of men-of-letters were manifested through the form of painting,and have been since featured among the world of arts.Since the late Ming Dynasty the process of globalization began with the great geographical discovery in the West.During this period,the Chinese Painting of Man-of-letters experienced three times of climaxes among which two took place at the time of the change of dynasties when the political upheavals pushed culture to the height.However,with the aggressive entry of Western cultures and the disadvantages caused by the decadent stage of the Painting of Man-of-letters,its decline was inevitable.What is the evolutionary relation between the prosperity and decline of the Painting of Man-of-letters and the Zen Buddhism philosophy and culture? How did the Zen Buddhism continue as the core aesthetic philosophy of the Painting of Man-of-letters after its decline? Chinese culture has a long history of evolution,during which the Zen Buddhism reached the climax and then declined when the Ra tionalistic Confucian Philosophy and the School of Mind went to their primes.The combination of Buddhism,Taoism and Confucianism led to the decline of the Zen Buddhism as an independent religion.However,the spirits of Zen Buddhism were immersed to the different aspects of Chinese culture because of the aesthetic level of its purity and harmony.The ways of its lurking undercurrent continuance are as follows:1.The evolution and influence of Confucian Zen Buddhism;2.Pan Tianshou' s perseverance to the traditional teaching of painting; 3.The influence experienced by the overseas Chinese students in Japan,and 4.The existence of the Zen with the Painting Monks System.The continuance of the Zen Buddhism philosophy in these ways made its prosperity in the later development inevitable.Nowadays with the economic globalization,the Western Industrial Revolution brought forth to the East not only the material civilization,but also disadvantages both in industry,and in culture where they have their own invincible bottleneck.The two Japanese Zen masters Daisetz Suzuki and Shunryu Suzuki made great contributions in spreading the philosophies of Zen philosophies by combining them with European and American cultures,where the post-modernism emerged as the times required.The post-modernism had its understanding of Zen in the western way,which is not completely in line with the philosophies of Zen Buddhism.However,the determination to be reborn by the Zen Buddhism in the West can still be felt.In this information age when the East and the West cultures exchanged and immersed with each other through conflicts,the immersion of these two is not the distinction of the features of the two different aesthetic systems.Instead,it reflects the complementation of the two,as what Mr.Fei Xiaotong described as the existence of the differences but harmonies of various beauties.The Zen Buddhism focuses on the comprehension of noumenon and therefore it is an indistinct culture of purity.This indistinct aesthetic state leads to the positive mutual effects between the Eastern and Western cultures during the process of the diversified coexistence of Zen Buddhism and Western civilization.The Western civilization has more and more interest in Zen Buddhism philosophies and more Chinese Zen masters began to spread the philosophies outside China.For example,Stanford University of the U.S.has its own Meditation Center.As far as Chinese painting is concerned,it had made many explorations under the influence of the West in modern and contemporary times,and has settled down to seek the origin in the aesthetics field and focuses on deeper explorations at the national aesthetic levels.In the past two years,the Great Art Exhibition of Huang Binhong,the Great Art Exhibition of Pan Tianshou by the National Art Museum of China,and the Art Exhibition by the Four Monks held by the Palace Museum have given rise to great influence in society,and these events can be considered as a symbol of the resurgence of traditional aesthetics,and as a result,the study of Zen Buddhism as the core of traditional aesthetics has been of great importance in current days.Key Words: ZenBuddhism,Man-of-letters,Continuance,Purity,Self-confidence
关键词: 文人画  绘画研究  中国  明清时代  禅宗  

出土文献所见汉传佛教在西夏的传播及影响

作者: 樊丽沙
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:25次
简介: 汉传佛教对西夏佛教的发展和兴盛影响深远。西夏先后六次从宋朝求得《大藏经》并译成番文本。形成于隋唐时期的禅宗、净土宗、华严宗、天台宗等佛教宗派在西夏境内并存,这些宗派为印度佛教所无,是佛教完成中国化进程的重要标志。此外,形成于中原的观音信仰、弥勒信仰、±也藏信仰及儒家孝悌思想也十分流行。西夏佛教文化中融合了较多汉文化因素,佛教信徒娴熟驾驭汉语文,中原佛教典籍常用术语也被广泛吸收。传统史料和考古资料表明,早期西夏佛教如同回鹘佛教一样,也是汉传佛教在西夏地区的翻版,是汉文化影响西夏民族文化的范例。尽管中原王朝与西夏政权间长期存在敌对关系,但战争并没有割断各民族间的文化联系。
关键词: 汉传佛教  佛教史  中国  西夏  

唐代佛教官寺制度研究

作者: 聂顺新
出版日期:2020-01-01
浏览次数:9次
简介: 佛教官寺,即唐代通过皇帝诏敕在全国诸州统一设立、制度整齐划一、承担若干特殊功能的官立佛教寺院。佛教官寺既是唐代国家宗教政策和宗教制度的重要内容,也是唐代全国佛教寺院网络的核心组成部分。本书在系统梳理相关成果的基础上,针对既有研究中存在的缺失和不足,辨析了关于唐代佛教官寺制度渊源的三种主要观点;研究了唐高宗乾封元年佛教官寺制度的内容、执行及其意义;在辑考、系年和空间定位的基础上,对武周大云官寺、唐中宗龙兴官寺、唐玄宗开元官寺的制敕内容、设立时间、设立方式、制敕的执行力度、官寺的时空分布变迁大势及其原因进行了讨论;归纳并梳理了唐代佛教官寺的四项主要特殊功能及其产生和发展过程;揭示了佛教官寺与中晚唐半独立藩镇的政治合法性构建之间的关系;梳理了唐代官寺官观制度对北宋中国、日本奈良朝、朝鲜半岛高丽朝的影响。
关键词: 佛教  官制  中国  唐代  

社会治理中的佛教与国家:1895-1927

作者: 许效正
出版日期:2019-01-01
浏览次数:64次
简介: 清末以来,由于各地官绅大肆征用各类庙产,佛教与国家关系逐渐紧张。民国建立后,各地僧人根据《临时约法》的基本原则,釆取社团运作的合法手段,与北洋政府进行了激烈博弈,迫使当局就佛教社团的性质与权利义务、佛教寺产的所有权归属等问题做出明确规定,逐渐形成《寺院管理暂行规则》(1913)、《管理寺庙条例》(1915)及《修正管理寺庙条例》(1921)等法律法规,中国佛教管理政策发生历史性变革,佛教与国家的紧张关系得以全面缓和。本书以清末民初的社会剧变为背景,对清末民初时期佛教与国家关系由基本和谐到全面恶化再到重新建构的过程进行了全面研究和系统梳理。
关键词: 佛教史  中国  1895-1927  

唐代幽州地区的佛教与社会

作者: 尤李
出版日期:2019-01-01
浏览次数:62次
简介: 本书充分挖掘房山石经等石刻材料,验之以传世文献和敦煌文书,从佛教社会史角度出发,运用微观与中观相结合的研究方法,同时关照宏观大背景,借鉴社会学、人类学和艺术史的视角,对唐代幽州地域的佛教与社会进行了立体式和跨领域的考察,对中古时代幽州的文化面貌进行了独特而新颖的阐释,也为深入认识契丹汉化及辽文化的演变轨迹提供了新视角。
关键词: 佛教史  北京  唐代  

中国佛教史考论

作者: 周建刚
出版日期:2019-01-01
浏览次数:94次
简介: 本书共分四章,由四个主题组成,即“佛教与传统社会”、“佛教与知识分子”、“禅宗与禅学”、“佛教历史考证”。在这四章内容中,每一章都选取中国佛教史上的特定人物、事件或思想、著作,进行分析评论,并以年代先后为线索,组成一个逻辑性与思想性统一的完整体系。本书的特色是注重历史细节的考证,由历史细节体现出中国佛教历史的复杂开展和思想义理的丰富内涵,对佛教与中国传统社会、佛教与中国知识分子、禅学与禅宗等问题进行了细致的论述。在一定意义上,本书能够丰富人们对中国佛教史的认识,并推动对一些问题的进一步研究。
关键词: 佛教史  中国佛教  
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