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突厥语历史比较语法:语音学

出版日期:2014-11-01
浏览次数:47次
简介: 本书《突厥语历史比较语法(语音学)》乃是上世纪80年代前苏联科学院语言研究所突厥语和蒙古语研究室集体撰写、编辑出版的一部总括性科研巨著。众所周知,对于突厥语系语言的研究,从19世纪末直至20世纪50年代,虽历经众多著名学者艰辛努力,取得许多卓越成果,但绝大部分局限于对个别语言领域的探索,基本上也都属于描写范畴。从20世纪50年代后期才开始出现越来越多的用历史比较的理论、立场和观点对突厥诸语言以及阿尔泰各语族语言进行系统的科学研究。因此,上世纪80年代中期原苏联《科学》出版社所出版发行的这一著作乃是总括了从19世纪末到20世纪80年代语言学界对于突厥语系语言(以及阿尔泰语系其他语族语言)所进行的历史研究、各语言间相关的比较研究的成果,并做出必要的分析和判断。本书的责任编辑也是它的主要编辑前苏联科学院通讯院士、著名突厥学家Э.P.捷尼舍夫(Teнишев)是俄罗斯著名突厥学家,也是我国突厥学界比较熟悉的一位学者。他在20世纪50年代作为苏联专家被派到我国。在中国科学院少数民族语言研究所和中央民族学院合办的突厥语研究班授课。他的讲稿作为一部专著《土耳其语语法》于1959年由我国科学出版社出版。同一时期他也对我国的突厥语族语言进行了调查研究。后来在与另一位苏联蒙古语专家Б.Х.托达耶娃(Tодaeвa)合写的《裕固语》一书中(1966),他执笔了西部裕固语的部分。这是他在我国进行调查研究工作的一部分成果。总之,撰写本书的学者们运用历史比较方法和观点对突厥诸语言及阿尔泰语系其他语族语言从其发展进程中呈现出的各种变化,从语言通行区域中及区域之间形成的相互影响等诸方面进行深入的科学总结、概括研究,从而确定语言间是否存在亲缘关系,或仅是地缘上接触出现的借用影响。应当说这是20世纪后半叶在阿尔泰语言学研究方面在历史比较语言学理论和实践领域具有开创性的一部科研论著。内蒙古大学 清格尔泰2010年7月17日
关键词: 厥语  历史  语音学  研究  

葛中选《太律》的史实及其音系

作者: 张玉来
出版日期:2014-10-01
浏览次数:27次
简介: 葛中选是明末著名的乐律、音韵学家,他的《太律》是一部重要的乐律学、音韵学著作。该书套用乐律理念分析语音,致其难读。但是,只要把那些跟语音分析不相关的成分去掉,就显现出了葛氏设立的各种语音分析范畴。该书前三卷所载的三种不同编列方式的韵图(音节表)分析讨论了当时的官话语音系统。《太律》所创立的语音分析范味和韵图(音节)编排,显示了葛氏对语青的精到分析和翔实的音系描写。这些成就表明,《太律》在汉语音韵研究上其有重要的学术价值。本书对《太律》进行了文献解读并分析了该书的音系结构,走第一部系统研究《太律》音系的著作。
关键词: 乐律学  研究  中国  明代  

宁波话元音的语音学研究

作者: 胡方
出版日期:2014-04-01
浏览次数:7次
简介: This dissertation investigates the production of the vowels in Ningbo Chinese from the acoustical, articulatory and aerodynamic perspectives.It interprets the linguistic vowel features, such as vowel height, vowel backness, lip rounding, nasality, and duration by examining the acquired acoustic, articulatory, and aerodynamic data.The diphthongs in Ningbo are investigated by examining the diphthong targets and the movement between them in terms of their acoustical and articulatory characteristics.Twenty speakers, ten female and ten male, provided the speech data for acoustical analyses;seven speakers, three female and four male, provided articulatory data;and six speakers, three female and three male, provided aerodynamic data of the nasal vowels and vowel nasalization.The acoustic results show that vowel height and backness can be best interpreted in a perceptually scaled acoustic F1/F2 vowel plane.Ten normal-length vowels in Ningbo form a pattern of four levels of vowel height and three degrees of vowel backness.Results from the articulatory study show that there is no clear correlation between linguistic vowel height and tongue height based on the individual speaker’s data.Nevertheless, a PARAFAC modeling of the lingual articulation successfully decomposes the complicated tongue shapes into two underlying lingual movement mechanisms, namely “retraction and back raising” (retraction of the tongue body and raising of the tongue dorsum towards the velum) and “front raising” (raising of the front part of the tongue towards the hard palate).Using the extracted two tongue movement mechanisms, the linguistic vowel backness and vowel height can thus be defined in a purely tongue-based and speaker-independent representation of the vowels.Both the acoustic and articulatory data suggest that there is a three-way distinction of lip rounding in Ningbo:spread for [i], horizontal protrusion for [y], and vertical protrusion for []. The acoustic data show that the two apical vowels [] in Ningbo are in a semi-high central position in the F1/F2 plane, and the articulatory data suggest that the Ningbo apical vowels are best understood as doubly articulated vowels, i.e., being apex and dorsal simultaneously.The acoustic data also show that Ningbo vowels, in particular the high, mid-high, and low vowels, tend to be lowered when acquiring nasality.At the same time, the articulatory data reveal that for most speakers lip protrusion is involved during the production of nasal vowels, possibly enhancing the difference in vowel quality between the nasal vowels and their oral counterparts.Results of formant frequency analysis of the diphthongs in Ningbo show that in general, both the falling and rising diphthongs begin in an onset frequency area close to their target vowels, whereas only the normal-length rising diphthongs end in the frequency region close to the offset targets, while the falling diphthongs and short rising diphthongs do not reach the offset targets.The articulatory data are generally consistent with the acoustic data.With respect to the dynamic aspects of diphthongs, the acoustic data show that the Ningbo diphthongs can be characterized by the formant (F2) rate of change if only the falling diphthongs are concerned.But the F2 rate of change fails to distinguish the rising diphthongs from the falling diphthongs.Meanwhile, the articulatory data of tongue kinematics show that the average velocity and peak velocity can be used to characterize Ningbo diphthongs, given that the falling and rising diphthongs are considered separately.The time to peak velocity serves as a better criterion in distinguishing the falling diphthongs from the rising diphthongs.In short, peak velocities usually occur late in the falling diphthongs, but early in the rising diphthongs.This is because the peak velocity of the lingual articulator occurs during the gestural change, i.e.during the spectral transition from an acoustical point of view, from diphthong onset to offset.The falling diphthongs in Ningbo have steady states on both the onset and offset elements, while the rising diphthongs only have steady states on the offset elements.Both the acoustic and articulatory data suggest that the main difference between a short and normal-length vowel or diphthong in Ningbo is in duration, which differs from the tense/lax distinction in English, where lax (short) vowels are mainly correlated with lower tongue positions vis-à-vis their tense (long) counterparts.The aerodynamic data reveal that nasality can be successfully quantified using the acquired flow data.Results show that in Ningbo the nasal vowel ] has higher nasality than the other nasal vowel [].Regarding the three nasalized vowels, the high vowel [] has the highest nasality, followed by [] and [] in descending order.In this study, in addition to searching for the physical and/or physiological correlates for vowel features, attention was also paid to examining articulatory mechanisms and articulatory-to-acoustic relations in vowel production.The articulatory data show that jaw movements are usually coordinated with lingual gestures during the vowel and diphthong production.However, different speakers may employ different articulatory strategies to achieve similar acoustic goals.The data also suggest that the three Ningbo point vowels exhibit a quantal nature during production.It should be noted that the relationship between speech articulation and speech acoustics has been shown to be complex by the comparisons of the articulatory and acoustic data of the diphthong targets in Ningbo.Further studies are necessary in order to have a better understanding of the nature of vowel production and the relationship between articulation and acoustics.
关键词: 吴语  元音  方言研究  宁波市  英文  

中原官话音韵研究

作者: 段亚广
出版日期:2012-01-01
浏览次数:4次
简介: 中原官话是最古老的官话。其自身经历了从优势方言影响辐射周边,到地位下降而受普通话影响的过程,是语言演变研究的理想样本。《中原官话音韵研究》以中原官话154个方言点的材料为依据,以中古、近代有关中原官话的音韵文献为历史参照,在历时发展和共时特征的二维平面上对中原官话语音分化、组合的规律进行了探讨。在综合研究的基础上,作者认为,自主音变是中原官话语音演变的主要形式,接触演化只是在个别方面起了补充作用。

话语的修辞、变异及重构

作者: 宋文坛
出版日期:2010-01-01
浏览次数:3次
简介: 《话语的修辞、变异及重构》主要分析了在“新时期”之初(1977-1984年)文学话语的转型与重构问题,探讨话语关系及话语格局的变异和重建。本书主要论述主流意识形态话语和启蒙话语的不同历史述立场,探讨意识形态话语所确定的话语“规范”和“边界”问题,分析两种话语如何围绕着这一话语“规范”和“边界”展开对话和博弈。另外,透过“新时期”之初特殊的历史背景审视不同的作家和创作群体在话语资源的占有、话语传统的继承上面所面临的问题和具有的局限。本书意在勾勒“新时期”之初的文学所经历的一个话语矛盾、冲突、分流、重建的过程,对诸种话语的历史述姿态和话语立场进行较为细致的分析和归纳。这一分析也是对社会转型期文化历史问题进行的深入解剖,有助于认清当下转型期文化语境中混乱的思想问题。
关键词: 文学语言  修辞  变异  重构  

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