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元语言否定的认知语用研究

作者: 赵旻燕
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:97次
简介: 当代浙江学术文库《当代浙江学术文库》是浙江省社会科学界联合会集中推出学术精品、集中展示学术成果的一个窗口。浙江省社科联采取“鼓励申报、专家评审、资助出版、社会馆藏”的形式,每年遴选反映浙江哲学社会科学领域优秀原创学术成果的书稿,以“当代浙江学术文库”的方式分期分批出版,及时向社会传播哲学社会科学研究前沿的新思想、新发现、新进展,努力实现哲学社会科学的大发展、大繁荣,推动浙江“文化强省”建设。组织出版《当代浙江学术文库》是浙江省社会科学界联合会扶持学术精品,推进学术创新,打造当代浙江学术品牌的重要探索。《当代浙江学术文库》将坚持学术标准,倡导学术规范,展示浙江特色,不断推出浙江学术的最新成果。
关键词: 语用学  元语言  认知语用  

孔孟语用学思想研究

作者: 施麟麒
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:49次
简介: 本书以语用学的基本问题与核心要素为阐释框架,采用归纳演绎、整体观照、对话比较等研究方法,对包含孔孟语用思想的经典文献材料进行了全面梳理和系统重构,分别总结了孔孟在追求“理想人格”过程中所形成的语用主体观、话语表达观和话语理解观,并将这些方面与西方主流语用学进行比照,揭示了其独特价值和时代意义。

基于概念结构理论的“把”字句研究与偏误分析

作者: 丁薇
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:7次
简介: Ba constructions,a special sentence pattern in Chinese,have almost no equivalent with similar forms and corresponding functions in any other language.In view of the particularity of the students of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language(TCFL),the teaching efficiency can be greatly promoted by means of a profound understanding of the cognitive commonality concerning the errors of Ba constructions in actual use.Within the framework of cognitive semantics,the present study introduces into the analysis the conceptual structure model proposed by Talmy.Ba constructions,the macro-event,are thus further divided into four different event types.Combining the theory of construction grammar and typological studies,this study explains the errors concerning Ba constructions in the interlanguage by means of analyzing the constraints and the syntactic manifestation of the conceptual structure.This thesis consists of seven chapters.The first chapter is an introduction,in which the significance,content and method of the study are included.Chapter Twois the literature review,which aims to identify the research questions and the breakthrough point of the present study by thoroughly reviewing the previous related studies of Ba constructions in such areas as the origin,semantics,syntax,pragmatics,cognition,typology,TCFL and Second Language Acquisition(SLA).Referring to the shortcomings of the current research methods,the third chapter introduces Conceptual Structure Theory and illustrates the significance of the theory in error analysis of Ba constructions.Byanalyzing the Ba constructions expressing a motion event as the framing event,the fourth chapter explains the errors concerning the conceptual structure of the students of TCFL in their acquisition of such constructions.It is found that the reason behind the omission of the verb lies in the different lexicalization patterns of various languages.The verb-direction construction“S+ba+N+V+(RC)+(lai/qu)”cannot be transformed into the SVO word order due to the formal constraint of the conceptual manifestation; the formal difference between the two verb+preposition constructions of“S+ba+N1+V gei+N2”and“S+ba+N1 gei+N2+V+R”is caused by the different degrees of cohesion in the combination of the verb and the Path.Through error analysis of the Ground of the Ba constructions expressing a motion event as the framing event,a fundamental rule of Ground manifestation can be testified,namely,with different degrees of salience,different elements of location,or Ground,generally appear in the syntactic positions of the corresponding degree of salience.Chapter Five analyzes such sentences as“yī wǎn fàn jiù bǎ tā chī bǎo le”under the guidance of Conceptual Salience Theory.The speaker uses jiù to express a subjective small quantity,which must be in correspondence with the concept it makes salient.Therefore,the sentence“*fàn jiù bǎ tāchī bǎo le”is incorrect because the numeral-classifier expressing a subjective small quantity in the Agent is missing.The errors can also be caused by the different lexicalization patterns of the verb in the event of state change.This is mainly because of the learners' unawareness of the corresponding lexicalized causative constructions of specific stative verbs in the target language.The errors of the complement and its conceptual structure in the Ba constructions expressing state change as the framing event show themselves in two types of sentences.1.The construction“NP1+ba+NP2+V+de+VP”is often interchangeable with SVO structure,which makes students of TCFL think they are completely equivalent.As a result,avoidance and errors concerning this construction prevails.The stative complement is descriptive,which tends to make itself the focus because of its specificity,informativeness,low predictability,and cognitive salience.Therefore,from the perspective of cognitive motivation,the salient complement tends to appear at the end of the sentence while the object should be pre-positioned.2.The conceptual structure related errors in the construction“NP1+ba+NP2+V+RC”can be explained in three ways:(1)the salience degree of the Ground is not in correspondence with the syntactic position;(2)the errors are caused by the causalization after the combination of the Path and the Ground;(3)the influence the Agent exerts is not in correspondence with the result represented by the Ground.Furthermore,one more section is provided to discuss the Ba constructions expressing mental state change as the framing event.The intensity of mentality is regarded as a continuum from the weakest to the strongest,which explains the formation and frequency of Ba constructions in language use.Chapter Six analyzes the Ba constructions expressing realization as the framing event.The verb in the realization event is first classified semantically into the intrinsic-fulfillment verb,the moot-fulfillment verb,the impliedfulfillment verb and the attained-fulfillment verb,whose uses and constraints in Ba constructions are analyzed after that.The error analysis is then carried out in the three subordinate structures of the Ba constructions expressing realization as the framing event.The error in the construction“S+ba+N+V+RC”is related to the predictability of the complement because the realization event of the non-predictable result tends to be expressed by Ba constructions.Moreover,the errors in the construction“S+ba+N+V+de+VP/AP”can be explained based on the degree of cohesion between the major event and the minor event as well as the predictability of the descriptive complement.Finally,the errors in the construction“S+ba+N+V+DC”are mainly due to the unfamiliarity of the conceptual structure and the formal constraint of the conceptual manifestation.Chapter Seven analyzes the Ba constructions expressing temporal contouring as the framing event,which refer to those constructed by the verb with such tense and aspect markers as“zhe”,“le”and“guo”,or by the verb-direction constructions“V+xialai”and“V+xiaqu”with the complement expressing tense and aspect.It should be noted that such tense and aspect markers as“shang”,“kai”,“qi”or“qilai”cannot construct the Ba constructions.These markers cannot manifest themselves in the object position of Ba constructions with the high degree of salience.This is because they can only serve as the expression of the beginning and cannot show the duration or the result of the event,which means the Figure does not receive much influence and therefore does not have a high degree of salience.In the event of temporal contouring,the major event is the one with tense and aspect being contoured,where the Figure and the conceptual elements of the minor event are co-referential,and thus it is difficult to manifest the principles governing the degree of cohesion between the major event and the minor event as well as the predictability of the event.Therefore,the analysis employed in the other three event types cannot be completely applied to the event of temporal contouring.This is due to the fact that the formation of the conceptual structure in the event of temporal contouring is mainly associated with the tense and aspect expressed by the Ground as well as the event type represented by the Figure and that the two must correspond to each other.This principle is applied throughout the error analysis of all types of Ba constructions expressing temporal contouring as the framing event.Key words: errors; events; conceptual structure; constraints; syntactic manifestation
关键词: “把”字  句法  

汉语饮食词汇研究

作者: 楚艳芳
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:37次
简介: “汉语饮食词汇”就是用汉语记录的与饮食相关的词语的总汇。本书主要从语言学的角度对汉语饮食词汇进行分析,挖掘了一批汉语饮食词语的来源、结构、意义、成因及特点等,并探索、归纳了一些关于汉语词汇学方面的理论与方法。相信本书的研究成果可以为汉语词汇学以及文化学等相关领域的研究提供参考。
关键词: 汉语  词汇  饮食词汇  

跨语言文化研究.第九辑

作者: 王启龙
出版日期:2016-10-01
浏览次数:55次
简介: 第一个问题在于众多研究者均倾向于存在“跨文化交际能力”术语的使用错误,即普遍倾向于采用“cross-cultural communication competence(多元文化交际能力)”术语取代本应采用的“intercultural communication competence(跨文化交际能力)”术语。“多元文化研究(cross-cultural study)”是指研究者将某种概念在两种或多种文化情境下加以比较,其中,每种文化均拥有自身特有的民族文化体验。“跨文化研究(intercultural study)”则涉及两种或多种文化群体成员间的交际。因此,不同文化群体成员之间的交际被界定为“跨文化交际(intercultural communication)”,“多元文化交际(cross-cultural communication)”术语是错误的。第二个问题涉及跨文化交际能力术语使用的方式。根据斯皮博格(Spitzberg,2009、2011、2013)的研究,“能力(competence)”被视为一种社会判断,即能力是一种印象而非一种行为,是所做出的推论而非所采取的行动,是评价

跨语言文化研究.第十辑

作者: 王启龙
出版日期:2016-10-01
浏览次数:55次
简介: 美国语言学家吉尔斯·福柯尼耶(Gilles Fauconnier,1985)提出的心理空间理论是认知语言学中一个十分重要的部分,它是以心理空间关系为手段,依赖空间构造语词,创设各种情景语境,建立起主观世界与客观世界、可能世界与现实世界中多对一、一对多、多对多的语义对应关系,从而为会话交流的顺利进行提供保证。心理空间理论作为一种认知理论,正在被广大的语言学家研究分析,并用于解释各种语言现象,如可能世界的语义、会话中的歧义、翻译现象等,取得了不小的成就。本文就结合在语言学习中所遇到的一些问题,从词汇意义、指称意义和话语含义三个层面来分析语意模糊现象如何通过运用心理空间来构建心理空间从而得以消除。心理空间理论作为一种新的理论,首先有必要对它的基本理论观点加以简述。所谓的心理空间理论是一种以虚拟的心理空间(mental space)来解释词际、句际、语义关系的认知语言理论。心理空间是该理论的基本范畴,是人们思考、交谈时为达到局部理解与行动之目的而构建的概念包,它并不是语言形式结构本身和语义结构本身的一部分,而是语言结构中相关信息的“临时性容器”(temporary container)(Cou

过程写作法理论与实践研究

作者: 钟云霞
出版日期:2016-09-01
浏览次数:41次
简介: AppendicesAppendix I 大学英语四级作文评分标准一 评分原则1.CET检查考生是否达到大学英语教学大纲规定的四级和六级教学要求,对作文的评判应以此要求为准则。2.CET作文题采用总体评分(Global Scoring)方法。阅卷人员就总的印象给出奖励分(Award Scores),而不是按语言点的错误数目扣分。3.从内容和语言两个方面对作文进行综合评判。内容和语言是一个统一体。作文应表达题目所规定的内容,而内容要通过语言来表达。要考虑作文是否切题,是否充分表达思想,也要考虑是否用英语清楚而合适地表达思想,也就是要考虑语言上的错误是否造成理解上的障碍。4.避免趋中倾向。该给高分的给高分,包括满分;该给低分给低分,包括零分。一名阅卷人员在所评阅的全部作文卷中不应只给中间的几种分数。5.字数不足以应酌情扣分。二 评分标准1.本题满分为15分2.阅卷标准共分五等:2分、5分、8分、11分及14分。各有标准样卷一份。3.阅卷人员根据阅卷标准,对照样卷评分,若认为与某一分数(如8分)相似,即定为该分数(即8分);若认为稍优或稍劣于该分数则可加一分(即9分)或减一分(即7分)。但不得加或减半分。4.评分标准2分—条理不清,思路紊乱,语言支离破碎或大部分句子均有错误,且多数为严重错误。5分—基本切题。表达思想不清楚,连贯性差。有较多的严重语言错误。8分—基本切题。有些地方表达思想不够清楚,文字勉强连贯;语言错误相当多。11分—切题。表达思想清楚,文字连贯,但有少量语言错误。14分—切题。表达思想清楚,文字通顺,连贯性较好,基本上无语言错误,仅有个别小错。Appendix II Essay Score Standards Appendix III Questionnaire亲爱的同学:您好!这个问卷时为了了解大学生对英语和英语写作态度一般情况而做的调查,不需要署名。所以请你如实作答,在问卷上圈出您的答卷。每个题的答案都无对错之分,请大家根据实际情况回答,谢谢。1、性别1.男2.女2、学习英语的年数:3、您经常写的是什么类型的文章:1.信件2.便签3.记叙文4.议论文4、您喜欢用英语写作吗?1.一点也不喜欢2.没有感觉3.喜欢4.非常喜欢问卷答案分五个级别:1.从来不这样(0%);2.一般不这样(50%);5.总是这样(100%)例子:我在看电视的时候吃零食1.从来不这样(0%)2.一般不这样(50%)5.总是这样(100%)如果你在看电视的时候总是吃零食就在5上画圈。1.写作动机 2.写过过程 续表 再次谢谢您的合作Appendix IV Supplemental Statements to Questionnaire I Appendix V Scores of the Pre-test and Post-test in the EG and CG Continue table
关键词: 英语  写作  修辞  写作动机  写过过程  

现代汉语时间副词的形式语义研究

作者: 贾改琴
出版日期:2016-04-01
浏览次数:36次
简介: 现代汉语时间副词是现代汉语副词的重要组成部分,也是表达汉语时体、时态、时频和时序的重要手段。本书传承语言逻辑的研究方法,以形式语义学理论(如时态逻辑、时段语义学、事件语义学、范畴语法、类型论等)为理论依据,以现代汉语时间副词为研究对象,以现代汉语语言实例为重要依托,深入剖析各类时间副词的形式语义,并构建了一个包含时间副词的现代汉语部分语句系统。本书研究视角独特,语料丰富翔实,分析精确细致,对准确理解时间副词的语义和推进自然语言的中文信息处理都具有积极作用。
关键词: 现代汉语  时间副词  形式语义  
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