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中国翻译思想史新论

作者: 邵有学
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:24次
简介: 以“翻译思想”为研究对象的翻译思想史不是个人学说和理论的集合,而是具有连续性的翻译思想的演化进程,不仅包括对翻译史及理论史上核心议题的反思,也涵盖社会思潮和时代背景下的翻译行为和事件及其背后更深层的理念、集体精神、价值观和思维方式。全书分为引论、专论和余论。引论部分通过概念辨析,梳理翻译思想史的研究对象、研究方法,追溯翻译思想和翻译思想史的源流,从而为翻译思想史的研究奠定学科基础。专论部分探讨中国翻译起源于巫觋、早期佛经翻译中的神异现象、古代佛经翻译思想、晚清过渡时期译才的翻译思想,从而在微观层面考察真实历史事件中的翻译思想脉络;“余论”,在宏观层面考察历史上翻译在各朝各代的工具性地位,从而回答中国翻译史上为什么没有形成系统的翻译理论和相关著作、学说。
关键词: 翻译  语言学史  思想史  

文学的语言结构与艺术张力

作者: 金健人
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:54次
简介: 文学是有它特殊的语言结构的,在语言内部,在语音、语形、语义、语蕴,以及词语与词语、词语与句子、句子与句子之间,在这些层面或构成之间,含寓着对立又维持着平衡。同时不应忽视的另一方面是,在语言外部:语境、体裁、现实、人生、历史、文化等等,它们会形成某种“压力”,强化语言结构的张力,即便是普通的语言结构,也会因此产生特殊的艺术功能。这本书前半部分,探讨的是文学的特殊的语言结构,后半部分所探讨的,是语言结构在特定条件下,所能形成的艺术张力。

现代汉语致歉言语行为研究

作者: 关英明
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:24次
简介: 致歉言语行为属于塞尔言语行为理论分类中的表达类,是我们日常交际中的礼貌言语行为之一,是我国《民法通则》中规定的民事责任的一种,可见,它是一种非常重要的语言现象。以往对致歉言语行为的研究大都是在某些方面、某个片段上的研究,本书尝试在致歉事件的整体框架下对其展开研究,解读致歉言语行为的实现过程,以期获得对现代汉语致歉言语行为的全面、深刻认知。我们对致歉言语行为的基本情况进行梳理、明确。重新定义致歉言语行为是“在交际主体A、B之间,A由于冒犯、歉疚等原因而引发的,向B表达歉意的补偿性言语行为,进而恢复A与B之间的人际关系和谐(A是致歉方,B是受歉方)”。定义中强调了行为的起因和结果。致歉言语行为的性质是引发性和补偿性,它的产生是有原因的,是冒犯行为引起的、歉疚心理触发的;它的实施是以补偿为结果,补偿可分为两种情况:抵消损失、消耗和补足缺欠、差额。致歉言语行为在具体实施过程中体现着弥补受歉方的补偿需要,平复致歉方的不安心理,修复双方的人际关系三种功能。其中,弥补受歉方的补偿需要和平复致歉方的不安心理是直接功能,修复双方的人际关系是间接功能。依据直接功能的分布情况,我们将致歉言语行为分为利人致歉言语行为,利己致歉言语行为,双赢致歉言语行为,虚拟致歉言语行为四类,相对于虚拟致歉言语行为,前三类可称为真实致歉言语行为,本书重点关注真实致歉言语行为。致歉言语行为的结构包括致歉主体、致歉意图、致歉形式等成分,致歉主体是致歉言语行为的实施者和接受者,分别是致歉方和受歉方。首先,致歉主体是社会主体,具有社会角色,社会角色是相对固定的。其次,致歉主体是交际主体,具有交际角色,交际角色是临时的。致歉方和受歉方都是临时的交际角色,他们的致歉言语行为受其固有的社会角色因素的影响。此外,致歉方是由冒犯方转换交际角色而来的,受歉方是由被冒犯方转换交际角色而来的。致歉意图是致歉言语行为的核心,是致歉言语行为的出发点和回归点。致歉意图的实现与否是评价致歉言语行为成功与否的最重要的标准。致歉意图是致歉方真诚实施致歉言语行为的内在动机,我们通过问卷调查得知致歉意图的成因主要源于造成冒犯事实、致歉方感到内心歉疚、考虑受歉方感受、维护双方人际关系和谐、遵守社会规范制约五个方面。其中,冒犯行为的发生是促使致歉方产生致歉意图的最重要、最核心的成因。认定冒犯行为有两条标准:一是从被冒犯者的角度来认定,这是最重要的标准,被冒犯者的感受对于某个具体行为是否构成冒犯起着决定性作用。二是从冒犯者的角度来认定,这是辅助的标准。被冒犯者和冒犯者判断冒犯行为的标准主要源于对所在社会群体道德行为准则的习得、认可和个人生活、成长的特殊经历的感触。虽然双方的认定标准来源渠道是一样的,但是由于每个主体对所在社会群体道德、行为准则的习得、认可具体情况不同以及个人生活、成长的特殊经历不同,所以,他们所把握的具体标准之间一定存在差异。致歉意图的结构是:致歉[X]。这个图式表示:致歉方有关于“X”的致歉意向,“X”是致歉意向内容。致歉意图作为一个整体,致歉意向及意向内容都是存在的,但在具体的致歉言语表达上,如何选择表现致歉意图结构的语言具有一定差别。致歉意图主要使用致歉标志语标识。致歉言语行为的实施表现为语言形式和与其相伴随的非语言形式。致歉言语行为的语言形式主要表现为标识致歉意图的语言形式、标识致歉主体的语言形式以及标识致歉度的语言形式。致歉意图必须在致歉事件框架内实现,其实现的过程,也是致歉言语行为意义的建构过程。致歉标志语包括施为动词和人们习以为常的惯用语,如赔罪、道歉、对不起、抱歉、不好意思等,它们在句法、语义和语用上都有各自的特点。称谓语一般位于话首,是致歉方对自己及对方交际角色的定位,恰当使用称谓语能营造较好的致歉氛围,收获理想的言后效果。对受歉方的称谓主要表现在亲属称谓、社会称谓、姓名称谓和指代称谓四大系统中的礼貌称谓上。致歉方的自称主要表现为贬损的自我指称、正常的自我指称、模糊的自我指称。致歉度是致歉方在致歉言语行为中表达出的歉意程度。致歉度对于致歉方和受歉方都是非常重要的因素。对于致歉方,致歉度的恰当把握可以避免其无谓损失过多的“面子”,同时,可以实现成功、得体地致歉。对于受歉方,因为遭受了某种程度的冒犯,他(她)对致歉方的致歉度是有所期待的,只有达到或超过他(她)的期待,受歉方才能真正谅解致歉方。但致歉度如果过高于冒犯度,受歉方又会质疑致歉方的交际意图。致歉度与冒犯行为产生的冒犯度密切相关。致歉度的实现主要是依靠数量象似性原则的指导,采取语言方式中词语、句法、重叠、策略等手段和非语言方式中表情、动作等手段。致歉言语行为的实施将受到冒犯行为因素、致歉方对致歉言语行为的态度、交际主体个人因素及其差别、语境因素等的影响。我们认为冒犯行为是致歉言语行为最重要的制约因素,它既影响其发生的可能性,也制约其发生的方式。致歉方对致歉言语行为的态度主要影响该行为发生的可能性。致歉方对交际主体个人因素及其差别和语境因素的推测、评估主要制约致歉言语行为发生的方式。致歉意图的落实和理解都离不开主体及其自身认知状况的参与。主体的地位、性别、年龄、职业、性格、情绪等以及主体间的社会距离、权势关系、性别差别、年龄差距等,这些因素都或多或少地影响致歉方话语形式的选择。语境是语言交际时的时空环境,是非常重要的语用因素,能对表达不充分的话语做出意义补充,影响致歉方语用策略和话语形式的选择。语境包括交际情境、交际背景和交际方式。我们依据对1000多个致歉语例的分析、研究,抽象、概括出致歉言语行为的六大类策略:陈述冒犯事实、解释冒犯原因、表达歉疚情感、提出补偿措施、保证改过自新、请求对方谅解。最后,我们探讨了指导致歉方顺利获得致歉言语行为成功的语用原则:真诚性原则、礼貌性原则、适宜性原则和关联性原则。AbstractThe speech act in modern Chinese apology belongs to the expression category of Searle speech act theory,which is one of our daily communication polite speech acts and one of civil liability in Chinese civil law,visible,it is a very important language phenomenon.Previous research on apology speech acts were mostly in certain aspects and clips,this text attempts to research under the overall framework of apology event,interpret the realization process of apology speech act in order to obtain comprehensive and profound cognition of modern Chinese apology speech act.First,we need to clear and sort out the basic situation of apology speech act.Redefine apology speech acts are“Communication between A and B,A due to offend,guilt caused by other reasons,apologize to B compensatory speech acts,in order to restore interpersonal harmony between A and B(A is apologize side,B is affected apologize side)”. Definition emphasizes the causes and consequences of behavior.Speech act of apology and compensatory nature is triggered,it generates for a reason,offensive behavior is caused by psychological trigger guilt; Its implementation is based on compensation,the compensation can be divided into two cases: offset losses,consumption and make up the shortcomings and the differences.Speech act of apology reflects the compensation requires of apology side in specific implementation process,calm down anxiety of apology side and repairs the relationships between both sides.Among them,the compensation requires of apology side and calm down anxiety of apology side are direct functions,repair the relationships are indirect function.Based on the distribution of direct function,we divide the apology speech act into four virtual apology speech act,pararuistic behavior,self-serving apology speech act,win apology speech acts,relative to virtual apology speech acts,the first three can be called real apology speech act,and this article focuses on real apology speech act.The structure of apologize apology speech act includes main body,the intention of an apology,the way of an apology and so on.The main body of apology is an apology speech act of the perpetrators and receiver respectively is an Apology party and apology receiver.First of all,the subject is the social main body; the main body of apology has the social role which is relatively fixed.Secondly,the main body of apology is communication subject,the main body of apology has communication role which is temporary.The Apology party and the apology receiver are temporary communicative roles; their apology speech act is influenced by its inherent social role factors.In addition,the apology party originates in offending party that transforms communication role; apology receiver originates in the offended party that transforms communication role.Apology intention is the core of apology speech act; apology speech act is the starting point and the point of the returning.Apologize for the realization of the intention or not is the most important standard.Apology intention carrying out apology speech act is an apology sincerely of intrinsic motivation,through the questionnaire we know apology intentions causes stems mainly from offending fact,the guilt of apology party,considering apology receiver's heart feeling,maintaining the harmonious of the interpersonal relationship and social rules and so on five aspects.Among them,the occurrence of offense is prompt apology attempt of the cause of the most important and core.Recognizing offense has two standards: one is from the Angle of the offender to recognize,this is the most important standard.The feelings for the offended play a decisive role in defining whether a particular act constitutes offensive.Second,it can be identified from the perspective of the offender,which is a secondary standard.The offended and the offender judge offensive behavior mainly on the acquisition of the ethical conduct of social groups,recognition feelings,personal life and special experiences during growing up.parahough the sources of that standard of both sides are the same,the specific standards they hold varies,resulting from the differences where each body learn moral codes of social groups and behavior standards,recognition of different circumstances,personal life and special growing-up ex periences.The structure of apology intention is: apology[X],which indicates the apology intention made by apology party on X,the content of the apology.As a whole part,the intention and content of apology both do exist.However,in the specific verbal expression of apology,it differs in the language chosen to express the structure of apology intention.Apology intention mainly uses apology signs.The implementation of speech act of apology lies in linguistic form and accompanied by nonverbal form.The language form of speech act of apology mainly performs as the language form of identifying the apology intention,the language form of identifying the apology subject and the language form of identifying the apology degree.Apology intention must be realized within the framework of the event,and the process of its implementation is also the process to construct the significance of apology.Apology signs include per formative verbs and idioms people are accustomed to,such as to,apologize,sorry,feel shy and so on.They all have their own characteristics in syntactic,semantic and pragmatic.The appellation is generally located in the beginning of sentences and is the position of the apology party apologizing to your own and the other communicative role.The appropriate use of appellations can create the better apology atmosphere,reaching the ideal perlocutionary effect.The appellation of the people who receives the apology mainly manifests in the kinship appellation,social appellation,name appellation and courtesy appellation which is one of the four big pronominal appellation systems.Self reference mainly performs depreciation of,normal self referential,normal self referential,fuzzy self referential.Apology degree is the degree of one party expressed in the speech act of apology.Apology degree is important to both apology party and the apology party.For the apology party,the appropriate of apology is helpful to avoid the loss of too much“face”.And at the same time,it can achieve successful and graceful apology.For the apology party,because suffering from some degree of offense,he or she is expected to receive the apology,only the apology can meet the expectation from him or her,the person who receive the apology can forgive the apology party.If the apology is much higher than offence degree,the apology receiver will question the communicative intention.The apology and of fensive behavior is closely related to the degree of the offence.The apology degree is mainly depend on the quantity iconicity principles,take the language syntax,words,overlapping,strategy and non language expressions,means in action.The implementation ofthe apology speech behavior will be effected by the offensive behavior factors,the apology party attitude of apology speech behavior,the personal factors and its differences of communicative subject,and the context factor etc.We believe that the offensive behavior is the most important factor in the apology speech behavior; it not only affects the likelihood of their occurrence,but also restricts the way of occurrence.The apology party attitude of apology speech behavior mainly affects the likelihood of behavior occurrence.The speculation and the evaluation about the personal factors of communicative subject and the contextual factors made by the apology party attitude mainly restrict the way of the apology speech behavior occurrence.The implementation of the apology intention and the understanding cannot do without the subject and its own cognition participation.The subject status,gender,age,occupation,character,emotion,as well as the intersubjective social distance,power relations,gender differences,age difference,etc.,all these factors have more or less impact on the choice of speech form of the apology party attitude.The context is the time-space environment of language communication and very important pragmatic factor,and it can make fully significance supplement on the inadequate expression of speech,affecting the pragmatic strategies and the choice of the speech form.The context includes the communicative context,communicative background and communicative way.Based on the study and research of more than 1000 apologies cases,six kinds of expressions of the speech act of Apology have been summarized: Statement of fact,explain offend reasons,expression of guilt emotion,puts forward compensation measures,ensure to start with a clean slate,request others to forgive.At last,the pragmatic principles,which are used to give someguidance to apology party to get the successful apology speech act.That is sincerity principle,polite principle,appropriate principle and relevant principle.
关键词: 现代汉语  言语行为  致歉言语  

语料库与日语复句习得研究:基于用法建构的语言习得理论

作者: 苏鹰
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:47次
简介: 本书从日语研究中常用的语料库入手,笫一章整理了当今日语学界多种多样的日语语料库,包括数据来源、数据储存方式、数据检索方法等。第二章通过对湖南大学中国人日语学习者中介语语料库HUN-CJS的抽样考察,分折了数据库的数据特征。第三章着重考察了该数据库中学习者日语接续助词的使用情况。学习者的中介语是一个不断变化的、具有自身发展规律的语言系统,考察发现学习者反复使用固定搭配,由此我们进人了条件复句的习得研究。基于第四章对单句一复句一语篇连续体的思考,以及第五章对复句习得相关先行研究的整理,我们在第五章中将处于该连续体重要位置的条件复句抽取出来进行独立分析。通过对第七章典型条件表现「バ」以及第八章「ト·タラ·ナラ」的考察,在肯定完全固定表达在复句习得中的作用之后,重点描述了学习者如何达成复句构式的习得,进而提出了复句习得模式的假说。
关键词: 日语  复句  语料库  日语复句  语言习得理论  

面向专利知识服务的汉语本体学习研究

作者: 王昊 吴志祥
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:26次
简介: 本书以“钢铁冶金”(I&SM)领域的汉语专利文本作为研究对象,借助本体学习技术抽取其中各层级知识,包括专利术语、术语层次结构以及术语间非分类语义关系等,自动构建了一个具有实用价值的汉语领域专利本体。本书针对汉语专利文本向知识本体的自动转化问题提出了一个较为完整、有效且实用的解决方案,实现了领域知识库的快速构建和规范存储,为领域知识的广泛交流和有效传承奠定了坚实的技术基础。
关键词: 专利  管理  汉语  语言学  

数字化时代语言学习的认知机制研究

作者: 霍云贞
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:11次
简介: 本书共七章,前三章探究语言学习的初期阶段,学习者语言认知的过程,这个时期使用视听化教材可促进“听”、“说”能力提高。第一章是语言是怎么学会的,通过案例对母语和外语学习的不同进行了比较。第二章是早期的语言教育,从教材和教法方面切入,借鉴小学语文识字教学,对英语教学初期阶段进行了深度研究。第三章是视听多通道加工语言信息的认知机制,对如何利用视听化教材降低认知负荷进行了研究。后四章通过实验发现视觉材料对思维的影响和深度文本阅读对思维的影响机制,对外语阅读和写作教学提供理论支撑与指导;探索培养学生独立思考能力、思辨能力和发散性思维的有效途径,帮助学生在视觉文化保持批判性思维,培养其缜密的逻辑思维能力和归纳推理的能力,把碎片化知识系统化、规范化。通过回归深度文本阅读,培养学生的思维模式和写作能力。通过阅读精美的人文素材,严谨的科学文献,通过多元互动的教学模式,培养学生的多元识读能力。第四章是听书与读书,殊途同归,从单通道和多通道加工信息的角度探索了两种读书的模式。第五章是阅读“洛丽塔”,叙述了我们的阅读文本和观看影像的实验。第六章是汤姆索亚的世界,通过改进实验范式,利用《汤姆索亚历险记》的英文本和中译本对不同年龄段的大中小学的被试者进行了实验。第七章是数字化时代的外语教学,通过学习软件的使用调查,对教学设施带动学习和教学模式的改变进行了研究。
关键词: 语言学习  认知科学  数字化  

谢灵运诗歌在英语世界的译介及研究

作者: 黄莉
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:73次
简介: 西方学术界对谢灵运诗歌的译介和研究拓宽了谢灵运接受的视野,同时也成为中西文化交流的重要载体。以西方学术界的译介和研究为参照,我们可以反思自身的研究状况,丰富相关主题的研究。本书立足于此,对英语世界谢灵运诗歌翻译与研究现状进行了较为详尽的梳理,书中既有不同译本的微观欣赏与比较,也有不同视角的研究述评,从中我们可以管窥他者眼中的谢灵运,这无疑对我们理解和研究古典文学是有益的。本书获得了“重庆师范大学博士基金项目”(14XWB015)资助。
关键词: 谢灵运(385-433)  诗歌  英语  翻译  

中国“现代派”诗人在英语世界的接受研究

作者: 王树文
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:65次
简介: 以戴望舒、卞之琳、何其芳等人为代表的中国“现代派”是白话诗史上一个重要的诗歌流派,随着国内外交流的日益增加,海外学者关于中国“现代派”诗人的研究也不断深入,成果日益丰硕。为了借鉴国外对中国“现代派”诗人的研究成果,促进国内外学术界的相互交流,对中国“现代派”诗人在国外的接受进行总结就显得更为迫切。本书的目的即是站在跨越异质文明的角度,对英语世界关于中国“现代派”诗人的研究成果进行梳理总结,希望能够促进中外学界的交流与对话。
关键词: 诗歌  英语  文学翻译  现代派  中国  
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