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现代汉语致歉言语行为研究

作者: 关英明
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:85次
简介: 致歉言语行为属于塞尔言语行为理论分类中的表达类,是我们日常交际中的礼貌言语行为之一,是我国《民法通则》中规定的民事责任的一种,可见,它是一种非常重要的语言现象。以往对致歉言语行为的研究大都是在某些方面、某个片段上的研究,本书尝试在致歉事件的整体框架下对其展开研究,解读致歉言语行为的实现过程,以期获得对现代汉语致歉言语行为的全面、深刻认知。我们对致歉言语行为的基本情况进行梳理、明确。重新定义致歉言语行为是“在交际主体A、B之间,A由于冒犯、歉疚等原因而引发的,向B表达歉意的补偿性言语行为,进而恢复A与B之间的人际关系和谐(A是致歉方,B是受歉方)”。定义中强调了行为的起因和结果。致歉言语行为的性质是引发性和补偿性,它的产生是有原因的,是冒犯行为引起的、歉疚心理触发的;它的实施是以补偿为结果,补偿可分为两种情况:抵消损失、消耗和补足缺欠、差额。致歉言语行为在具体实施过程中体现着弥补受歉方的补偿需要,平复致歉方的不安心理,修复双方的人际关系三种功能。其中,弥补受歉方的补偿需要和平复致歉方的不安心理是直接功能,修复双方的人际关系是间接功能。依据直接功能的分布情况,我们将致歉言语行为分为利人致歉言语行为,利己致歉言语行为,双赢致歉言语行为,虚拟致歉言语行为四类,相对于虚拟致歉言语行为,前三类可称为真实致歉言语行为,本书重点关注真实致歉言语行为。致歉言语行为的结构包括致歉主体、致歉意图、致歉形式等成分,致歉主体是致歉言语行为的实施者和接受者,分别是致歉方和受歉方。首先,致歉主体是社会主体,具有社会角色,社会角色是相对固定的。其次,致歉主体是交际主体,具有交际角色,交际角色是临时的。致歉方和受歉方都是临时的交际角色,他们的致歉言语行为受其固有的社会角色因素的影响。此外,致歉方是由冒犯方转换交际角色而来的,受歉方是由被冒犯方转换交际角色而来的。致歉意图是致歉言语行为的核心,是致歉言语行为的出发点和回归点。致歉意图的实现与否是评价致歉言语行为成功与否的最重要的标准。致歉意图是致歉方真诚实施致歉言语行为的内在动机,我们通过问卷调查得知致歉意图的成因主要源于造成冒犯事实、致歉方感到内心歉疚、考虑受歉方感受、维护双方人际关系和谐、遵守社会规范制约五个方面。其中,冒犯行为的发生是促使致歉方产生致歉意图的最重要、最核心的成因。认定冒犯行为有两条标准:一是从被冒犯者的角度来认定,这是最重要的标准,被冒犯者的感受对于某个具体行为是否构成冒犯起着决定性作用。二是从冒犯者的角度来认定,这是辅助的标准。被冒犯者和冒犯者判断冒犯行为的标准主要源于对所在社会群体道德行为准则的习得、认可和个人生活、成长的特殊经历的感触。虽然双方的认定标准来源渠道是一样的,但是由于每个主体对所在社会群体道德、行为准则的习得、认可具体情况不同以及个人生活、成长的特殊经历不同,所以,他们所把握的具体标准之间一定存在差异。致歉意图的结构是:致歉[X]。这个图式表示:致歉方有关于“X”的致歉意向,“X”是致歉意向内容。致歉意图作为一个整体,致歉意向及意向内容都是存在的,但在具体的致歉言语表达上,如何选择表现致歉意图结构的语言具有一定差别。致歉意图主要使用致歉标志语标识。致歉言语行为的实施表现为语言形式和与其相伴随的非语言形式。致歉言语行为的语言形式主要表现为标识致歉意图的语言形式、标识致歉主体的语言形式以及标识致歉度的语言形式。致歉意图必须在致歉事件框架内实现,其实现的过程,也是致歉言语行为意义的建构过程。致歉标志语包括施为动词和人们习以为常的惯用语,如赔罪、道歉、对不起、抱歉、不好意思等,它们在句法、语义和语用上都有各自的特点。称谓语一般位于话首,是致歉方对自己及对方交际角色的定位,恰当使用称谓语能营造较好的致歉氛围,收获理想的言后效果。对受歉方的称谓主要表现在亲属称谓、社会称谓、姓名称谓和指代称谓四大系统中的礼貌称谓上。致歉方的自称主要表现为贬损的自我指称、正常的自我指称、模糊的自我指称。致歉度是致歉方在致歉言语行为中表达出的歉意程度。致歉度对于致歉方和受歉方都是非常重要的因素。对于致歉方,致歉度的恰当把握可以避免其无谓损失过多的“面子”,同时,可以实现成功、得体地致歉。对于受歉方,因为遭受了某种程度的冒犯,他(她)对致歉方的致歉度是有所期待的,只有达到或超过他(她)的期待,受歉方才能真正谅解致歉方。但致歉度如果过高于冒犯度,受歉方又会质疑致歉方的交际意图。致歉度与冒犯行为产生的冒犯度密切相关。致歉度的实现主要是依靠数量象似性原则的指导,采取语言方式中词语、句法、重叠、策略等手段和非语言方式中表情、动作等手段。致歉言语行为的实施将受到冒犯行为因素、致歉方对致歉言语行为的态度、交际主体个人因素及其差别、语境因素等的影响。我们认为冒犯行为是致歉言语行为最重要的制约因素,它既影响其发生的可能性,也制约其发生的方式。致歉方对致歉言语行为的态度主要影响该行为发生的可能性。致歉方对交际主体个人因素及其差别和语境因素的推测、评估主要制约致歉言语行为发生的方式。致歉意图的落实和理解都离不开主体及其自身认知状况的参与。主体的地位、性别、年龄、职业、性格、情绪等以及主体间的社会距离、权势关系、性别差别、年龄差距等,这些因素都或多或少地影响致歉方话语形式的选择。语境是语言交际时的时空环境,是非常重要的语用因素,能对表达不充分的话语做出意义补充,影响致歉方语用策略和话语形式的选择。语境包括交际情境、交际背景和交际方式。我们依据对1000多个致歉语例的分析、研究,抽象、概括出致歉言语行为的六大类策略:陈述冒犯事实、解释冒犯原因、表达歉疚情感、提出补偿措施、保证改过自新、请求对方谅解。最后,我们探讨了指导致歉方顺利获得致歉言语行为成功的语用原则:真诚性原则、礼貌性原则、适宜性原则和关联性原则。AbstractThe speech act in modern Chinese apology belongs to the expression category of Searle speech act theory,which is one of our daily communication polite speech acts and one of civil liability in Chinese civil law,visible,it is a very important language phenomenon.Previous research on apology speech acts were mostly in certain aspects and clips,this text attempts to research under the overall framework of apology event,interpret the realization process of apology speech act in order to obtain comprehensive and profound cognition of modern Chinese apology speech act.First,we need to clear and sort out the basic situation of apology speech act.Redefine apology speech acts are“Communication between A and B,A due to offend,guilt caused by other reasons,apologize to B compensatory speech acts,in order to restore interpersonal harmony between A and B(A is apologize side,B is affected apologize side)”. Definition emphasizes the causes and consequences of behavior.Speech act of apology and compensatory nature is triggered,it generates for a reason,offensive behavior is caused by psychological trigger guilt; Its implementation is based on compensation,the compensation can be divided into two cases: offset losses,consumption and make up the shortcomings and the differences.Speech act of apology reflects the compensation requires of apology side in specific implementation process,calm down anxiety of apology side and repairs the relationships between both sides.Among them,the compensation requires of apology side and calm down anxiety of apology side are direct functions,repair the relationships are indirect function.Based on the distribution of direct function,we divide the apology speech act into four virtual apology speech act,pararuistic behavior,self-serving apology speech act,win apology speech acts,relative to virtual apology speech acts,the first three can be called real apology speech act,and this article focuses on real apology speech act.The structure of apologize apology speech act includes main body,the intention of an apology,the way of an apology and so on.The main body of apology is an apology speech act of the perpetrators and receiver respectively is an Apology party and apology receiver.First of all,the subject is the social main body; the main body of apology has the social role which is relatively fixed.Secondly,the main body of apology is communication subject,the main body of apology has communication role which is temporary.The Apology party and the apology receiver are temporary communicative roles; their apology speech act is influenced by its inherent social role factors.In addition,the apology party originates in offending party that transforms communication role; apology receiver originates in the offended party that transforms communication role.Apology intention is the core of apology speech act; apology speech act is the starting point and the point of the returning.Apologize for the realization of the intention or not is the most important standard.Apology intention carrying out apology speech act is an apology sincerely of intrinsic motivation,through the questionnaire we know apology intentions causes stems mainly from offending fact,the guilt of apology party,considering apology receiver's heart feeling,maintaining the harmonious of the interpersonal relationship and social rules and so on five aspects.Among them,the occurrence of offense is prompt apology attempt of the cause of the most important and core.Recognizing offense has two standards: one is from the Angle of the offender to recognize,this is the most important standard.The feelings for the offended play a decisive role in defining whether a particular act constitutes offensive.Second,it can be identified from the perspective of the offender,which is a secondary standard.The offended and the offender judge offensive behavior mainly on the acquisition of the ethical conduct of social groups,recognition feelings,personal life and special experiences during growing up.parahough the sources of that standard of both sides are the same,the specific standards they hold varies,resulting from the differences where each body learn moral codes of social groups and behavior standards,recognition of different circumstances,personal life and special growing-up ex periences.The structure of apology intention is: apology[X],which indicates the apology intention made by apology party on X,the content of the apology.As a whole part,the intention and content of apology both do exist.However,in the specific verbal expression of apology,it differs in the language chosen to express the structure of apology intention.Apology intention mainly uses apology signs.The implementation of speech act of apology lies in linguistic form and accompanied by nonverbal form.The language form of speech act of apology mainly performs as the language form of identifying the apology intention,the language form of identifying the apology subject and the language form of identifying the apology degree.Apology intention must be realized within the framework of the event,and the process of its implementation is also the process to construct the significance of apology.Apology signs include per formative verbs and idioms people are accustomed to,such as to,apologize,sorry,feel shy and so on.They all have their own characteristics in syntactic,semantic and pragmatic.The appellation is generally located in the beginning of sentences and is the position of the apology party apologizing to your own and the other communicative role.The appropriate use of appellations can create the better apology atmosphere,reaching the ideal perlocutionary effect.The appellation of the people who receives the apology mainly manifests in the kinship appellation,social appellation,name appellation and courtesy appellation which is one of the four big pronominal appellation systems.Self reference mainly performs depreciation of,normal self referential,normal self referential,fuzzy self referential.Apology degree is the degree of one party expressed in the speech act of apology.Apology degree is important to both apology party and the apology party.For the apology party,the appropriate of apology is helpful to avoid the loss of too much“face”.And at the same time,it can achieve successful and graceful apology.For the apology party,because suffering from some degree of offense,he or she is expected to receive the apology,only the apology can meet the expectation from him or her,the person who receive the apology can forgive the apology party.If the apology is much higher than offence degree,the apology receiver will question the communicative intention.The apology and of fensive behavior is closely related to the degree of the offence.The apology degree is mainly depend on the quantity iconicity principles,take the language syntax,words,overlapping,strategy and non language expressions,means in action.The implementation ofthe apology speech behavior will be effected by the offensive behavior factors,the apology party attitude of apology speech behavior,the personal factors and its differences of communicative subject,and the context factor etc.We believe that the offensive behavior is the most important factor in the apology speech behavior; it not only affects the likelihood of their occurrence,but also restricts the way of occurrence.The apology party attitude of apology speech behavior mainly affects the likelihood of behavior occurrence.The speculation and the evaluation about the personal factors of communicative subject and the contextual factors made by the apology party attitude mainly restrict the way of the apology speech behavior occurrence.The implementation of the apology intention and the understanding cannot do without the subject and its own cognition participation.The subject status,gender,age,occupation,character,emotion,as well as the intersubjective social distance,power relations,gender differences,age difference,etc.,all these factors have more or less impact on the choice of speech form of the apology party attitude.The context is the time-space environment of language communication and very important pragmatic factor,and it can make fully significance supplement on the inadequate expression of speech,affecting the pragmatic strategies and the choice of the speech form.The context includes the communicative context,communicative background and communicative way.Based on the study and research of more than 1000 apologies cases,six kinds of expressions of the speech act of Apology have been summarized: Statement of fact,explain offend reasons,expression of guilt emotion,puts forward compensation measures,ensure to start with a clean slate,request others to forgive.At last,the pragmatic principles,which are used to give someguidance to apology party to get the successful apology speech act.That is sincerity principle,polite principle,appropriate principle and relevant principle.
关键词: 现代汉语  言语行为  致歉言语  

城镇语言生态现状研究

作者: 张先亮
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:98次
简介: 本书主要以语言生态理论为依据,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,运用文献综述、理论推导、语料统计、问卷调査、访谈、测试等手段,对新型城镇化进程中各类城镇语言生态现状作了较为全面的考察。包括对城镇外观语言生态现状、城镇居民语言生态现状、城镇外来人员语言生态现状、城镇二代移民语言生态状况、城镇市民语言认同生态现状、城镇双言双语生态现状等内容进行了细致描写,分析了造成语言非生态的原因,并提出相应的对策。
关键词: 汉语  语言表达  城镇  语言生态  

五周岁汉语儿童的言语交际研究

作者: 罗黎丽
出版日期:2018-01-01
浏览次数:40次
简介: 汉语言学界从语言习得角度研究汉语儿童语言,在语音、语义、语法等方面取得了比较丰硕的成果,但他们未对儿童言语交际行为进行详尽的描写和分析。本文收集五周岁儿童的会话语料,从功能出发,描写五周岁儿童的言语交际行为,探讨儿童在具体的语境中如何选择适当的策略开展与他人的交谈,如何选择适当的语言形式来表达自己的意图。
关键词: 汉语  儿童语言  言语交往  

人物访谈电视节目互动修辞研究

作者: 娄炜利
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:106次
简介: 众所周知,中华民族素有讲求口语修辞的优良传统:在古代,各诸侯国外交官员在彼此公务往来之时,就喜欢竞相引用《诗经》等文献来赋诗言志,藉以完成相关使命。诸子百家在民间开馆授徒之时,会时常灵活运用一些诸如讽喻、排比和引用等修辞手法来传道解惑。更有甚者,唐代一些僧众在开坛讲经之时,亦会或多或少涉及一些口语表达技巧。时至今日,尤其到了人际沟通表现形态日益丰富多彩的21世纪,伴随着多种现代口语交流活动的蓬勃兴起,我国口语修辞学的研究范围更是日趋广泛。于是,一方面为了能够更好地继承既有口语修辞学研究历史传统,另一方面也为了能够更好地拓宽我国口语修辞学今后发展思路,人物访谈类电视节目2987062便进入了我们的研究视野。基于以上诸种考虑,我们拟以“人物访谈电视节目互动修辞研究”为题,试图对国内一些主流人物访谈类电视节目中的典型互动活动从修辞学视角进行观照,希冀能够从其话语运用过程中总结出些许互动规律,间接促进我国口语修辞研究。诸多历史经验一再证明,大凡一门学科能否实现快速、持续和健康发展,很大程度上都离不开既有学科体系的构建与完善。而这往往又和自身研究视域广度和深度的有效拓展密切相关。值得一提的是,此
关键词: 谈话  电视节目  语言艺术  修辞  

现代汉语情态系统与表达研究

作者: 范伟
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:109次
简介: 情态是语言的重要内容。所谓情态,概括地说就是说话人对句子命题可能性情况的观点或态度,包括句子内容的真实性、事件发生的可能性等。情态是世界语言中普遍存在的一个语义范畴,在不同语言中有着丰富多样的表现形式。本书即以探讨现代汉语情态语义系统及其形式表达为主旨。本书主要借鉴国外情态研究的理论和成果,同时从现代汉语事实出发,重点探讨现代汉语的情态语义类型和形式类型,分析考察承载情态语义的语言成分和构式在情态表达中的特点,并以个案研究为例,对本书的理论体系进行落实验证。
关键词: 现代汉语  语言表达  

基于过程的汉语事态表达研究

作者: 税昌锡
出版日期:2016-08-01
浏览次数:4次
简介: 本书从时间和空间维度研究语言学意义的“事件”和“事态”, 在认知语言学、过程哲学相关理论的基础上对“事件”进行重新界定,建立事件过程结构模式,并讨论其动态特征。从类型学角度对汉英语事态范畴进行对比,指出造成汉英语事态差异的类型学原因,并详细讨论和概括汉语动词的事态结构类型。在汉英语对比观照下,从事件过程结构这一新的角度重新探讨汉语时体及相关问题。本书还从动态过程观的角度讨论了不同过程特征的动词的空间位置属性及其句法语义特征。本书视角和研究方法新颖独特,立意明确,观察入微,观点富有新意,对推动语言学及相关学科的发展富有启示意义。
关键词: 汉语  语言表达  

中国新生代农民工的语言使用与社会认同

作者: 付义荣
出版日期:2016-06-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: 经30余年的发展,新生代农民工已成为我国农民工群体的主体。然而,农民工群体的这种代际分化并未表现在他们的语言使用和社会认同上。无论是新生代还是老一代农民工,绝大多数都会说普通话与老家话,且能根据交际环境的不同自如地运用这两种语体。一般而言,他们在外部交际中使用普通话,而在内部交际中使用老家话。新老农民工如此使用语言,与他们对城市或农村的认同并无多大关系,而是缘于普通话可以方便他们在城市的工作与生活,甚至能拓展他们在城市的生存空间,而老家话则有助于他们维持与老乡之间的密切关系,从而在孤立无援时获得难得的社会支持或情感慰藉。在此,普通话并不是城市社会的标识,老家话亦不是农村社会的标识,新老农民工对普通话或老家话的使用更多地是出于现实利益的考虑,而不是出于表达社会认同的需要。实际上,农民工一开始就未确立对城市或农村的认同,即便发展至新生代这里,情况也未有明显的好转,这也预示着我国的城市化道路必将是一个艰巨而长期的过程。
关键词: 民工  言语  中国  

当代中国论辩研究范式的反思与重构

作者: 周强
出版日期:2015-09-01
浏览次数:8次
简介: 论辩,作为一种非暴力言语手段,可以调停相互冲突的利害关系,澄清和解决意见分歧,协调彼此的行动。与利用行政、高压、经济等手段处理冲突和矛盾相比,它是化解社会矛盾的最佳手段。此外,学术知识的产生和发展亦需要论辩的认证与驱动。然而,这一具有重大社会意义和学术意义的论辩研究在我国尚未得到充分开展,研究规模和投入较少,理论探索存在着观念陈旧、脱离实际等问题。这一现状不仅与这个概念在中华文明的轴心时代——先秦百家争鸣时期——被赋予的丰富意义和所享有的崇高研究地位大相径庭,而且跟它在当代西方话语中的流通和应用也形成明显的反差。本书针对上述问题,从历时和跨文化这两个视角对当代中国论辩研究中形成的一些观念在纵横两个维度上进行比较和解读,以期在此基础上为这一重要领域的健康发展勾勒出一个较有建设性的观念体系和理论框架。
关键词: 辩论  当代  中国   
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