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农村社会治理创新研究:基于河北省100个村庄的考察

作者: 耿永志 王慧军
出版日期:2016-01-11
浏览次数:73次
ISBN:978-7-5161-9279-5
简介: 本书基于河北省100个村庄的调查,从历史发展的维度、统筹城乡发展的维度、五位一体的维度,沿着“寻短板、找差距、构机制”的主线,对农村社会治理进行了全方位考察。所提出的核心观点包括:农村社会治理是农民在实践过程中不断自我教育和成长的过程;农村社会治理的最大短板在于经济与政治之间的裂痕;要多关注农民的现实需求和逻辑;从重点领域加以突破,沿着“民生—秩序—民主”的路径全方位推进,不断完善农村公共服务供给机制和配套措施。
关键词: 农村  社会管理  研究  河北  

中国农村的环保抗争:以华镇事件为例

作者: 邓燕华
出版日期:2016-01-01
浏览次数:34次
ISBN:978-7-5161-8826-2
简介: 有人问我:“你的书稿成于六年前,现在是否还有出版的必要?”我想了想,给予了肯定的回答,理由有三。首先,在过去几年时间里,有关中国环保抗争的专著十分罕见。在国内几大图书网站上,我们几乎找不到相关学术著作。其次,研究抗争政治之难是学界共识,我在合适时点获得关键人物的帮助,搜集到丰富的材料,自觉此等研究机会很难再现。因此,充分挖掘已有资料,推进相关研究,是在珍视自己的幸运。最后,本书的几个章节虽已在The China Quarterly、The China Journal、Journal of Contemporary China、《社会学研究》以及《管理世界》等杂志上发表,但文章终无法像专著那样,可以全面细致地梳理事件的来龙去脉。这一专著的原型是我的博士论文。论文得到了答辩委员会成员的肯定,并于2011年获得两岸四地第一届思源人文社会科学博士论文奖。在这本著作中,我认为以下几点对了解中国农村的环保抗争有一定帮助:(1)社会关系会影响农民对环境污染的容忍程度。在本书中,我区分了“自己人制造的污染”和“外人制造的污染”,并指出农民对外人制造的污染容忍度低,抗争意愿高。(2)环境问题与其他社会议题纵横交织,议题间的连带拓宽了抗争机会结构。但是,行动者对各种机会并非均力使用,而会有选择地利用更具操作性的议题机会,以解决他们真正关注的问题,如本书第二章分析的“借土地问题做环保文章”现象。(3)污染受害者虽然得到中央政府的同情,但在地方参与环保抗争仍然极具风险。本书重点介绍了华镇积极分子所采取的各种风险降低机制,如发挥老年人的“弱武器”、利用老年协会的组织包容性、依靠村委会选举这一合法平台、将空间作为动员结构以及借助传统仪式开展抗争表演。(4)我运用深入访谈获得的信息以及翔实的档案资料,分析各级政府对华镇环保抗争的回应。我尤其关注地方政府动员与抗争者有关的体制内成员去开展的“关系控制”。当然,随着研究的深入发展,过去的发现很可能变成当下的常识。但我认为,只有那些最终能成为常识的发现,才值得我们孜孜以求。本书基本按我博士论文的原貌出版,只有个别处由于众所周知的原因而作了相应修改。因此,本书所参考的文献未必是时下最新的,希望读者能够原谅我的慵懒。但是,这样做也未必没有好处。如果读者(特别是像我一样刚走上学术道路的年轻博士)有兴致将本书与我同合作者发表的论文对照,则可以了解我们将博士论文转化为学术出版物的过程。在这方面,我是幸运儿,得到多位学术前辈手把手的指导,有他们陪我走过学术之路最坎坷的一段。本书能够写成,离不开众多支持。首先我要感谢为我田野研究提供帮助的朋友,感谢接受我采访的农民和官员。没有他们,就没有这个研究。匿名的感谢虽无以足够表达我的感激,但恐为最适切的致谢。华东师范大学高恩新博士与我分享了他的田野资料,我十分感激。我要感谢我的博士论文委员会成员,他们是杨国斌教授、曹景钧教授和詹晶教授,他们对我的研究提出了最早的批评和建议。我要特别感谢我的导师李连江教授和我的合作者欧博文(Kevin J. O’Brien)教授。李老师学高身正,让我敬佩,令我感动。每次与导师从香港中文大学联合书院走到大学站,都是愉悦的心智之旅。海阔天空的漫谈,不仅缓解了我的写作压力,也为论文的推进提供了思路。加州大学伯克利分校的欧博文教授对学术的热爱,令我钦佩。他在合作中给予我学徒式的指导,将使我终身受益。本书的出版得到了南京大学社会学院朱力教授主持的国家社科基金重大招标项目的支持(课题编号:14ZDA061),在此我对朱老师的慷慨表示感激。另外,我还要感谢中国社会科学出版社的冯春凤老师,她精心的编辑减少了本书原有的错误。最后,我希望将这本著作献给我的父母。他们都是普通善良的农民,从小教我如何向农民朋友学习。没有他们不倦的教诲,就不可能有我今日的成长。邓燕华2016年2月16日
关键词: 农业环境  环境保护  

进城落户农民的农村产权问题研究

作者: 任常青 郜亮亮 刘同山
出版日期:2016-01-10
浏览次数:119次
ISBN:978-7-5161-9206-1
简介: 摘要:随着城市化进程的不断加快,进城落户农民的数量越来越多。如何处理进城落户农民在农村的土地承包权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权是一项亟待解决的问题。2016年中央一号文件提出要维护进城落户农民的土地承包权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权,支持引导其依法有偿转让上述权益。维护权益的前提是赋权,要在坚持集体所有制的前提下,通过创新农村集体经济实现方式,从政策和法律上赋予农民在农村的上述权益。其次,要通过打破现有的集体经济的封闭边界,让农民权益的价值在更大的市场里得以体现。本书在案例分析的基础上,总结了一些地方在维护进城落户农民农村土地承包权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权方面的做法和经验。分析了维护和转让农民上述权益所存在的问题。提出要通过创新农村集体经济实现形式,分置农村居民的经济权益、政治权益和社会权益,通过土地确权和集体经营性财产股权量化到个人,允许其经济权益在更大的市场上依法自愿有偿转让,让农民享受到真正的财产权益。Abstract:With the accelerated process of urbanization,more and more migrant farmers settled in the city. How to deal with the rural land contract rights,the use right of homestead land and the right of collective income distribution in rural areas is an emerging issue in the process of rural reform. The No. 1 Document of CPC Central Committee of 2016 proposed to protect farmers' land contract rights,use right of homestead land and the right of collective income claim,to support farms voluntary trade these rights in accordance with the law. The prerequisite is to empower these rights to the farmers. Under the condition of adhering to collective ownership,to empower farmers' rural rights based on policy and law by innovating the proper implementation of rural collective economic system. Secondly,instead of inner-village transaction limitation,the market niche of rural rights should be opened to the outside to ensure farmer's asset be priced by the market. Based on the case study,this book summarizes the experiences and lessons of current initiatives in Chongqing,Zhejiang,Fujian and Ningxia. To analyze the problems existing in the maintenance and transfer of the farmer's rural rights. We proposed an innovative way to implement rural collective economy,which is that to empower farmer's economic rights,political rights and social rights separately instead of stimulatingly empowered. By issuing land ownership registration certification and quantify shares of collective assets to individuals,famer's should be allowed voluntarily to trade their rural assets in the open market in accordance with the law to ensure farmers' true value of property rights.
关键词: 民工  权益保护  研究报告  中国  

农村民主管理制度:法理分析与法治保障

作者: 胡建华
出版日期:2016-06-01
浏览次数:42次
ISBN:978-7-5161-8195-9
简介: 本书在学界已有研究的基础上,基于法治国家建设视野下自下而上的社会演进型路径与自上而下的政府主导型路径协同发展的分析视角,对农村民主管理制度展开了较为系统的研究。从法理分析的视域,在重新解构农村民主管理制度概念基础上,对农村民主管理制度的价值理念进行了深刻的剖析,深入挖掘其生发理论基础,为其法治运行中面临的困境寻求可能的原因,进而提出法治保障的思路,企图寻求农村民主管理制度在法治中国建设视野下,基于自下而上的社会演进型路径与自上而下的政府主导型路径协同发展机制中农村民主管理制度在法治层面应有的理论与实践价值。

我国农村建设用地流转机制研究

作者: 王贝
出版日期:2016-08-01
浏览次数:61次
ISBN:978-7-5161-8529-2
简介: 随着我国经济社会发展,农村建设用地资产价值逐渐显现。通过农村建设用地直接入市流转,不仅能减轻工业化、城市化发展对耕地保护的压力,而且能增加集体和农民的财产收入。但是,农村建设用地流转在法律上并未得到认同,农村建设用地流转机制并未真正形成。在各地创新试点经验的基础上,国家相继制定相关政策规范和引导农村建设用地流转。2008年,党的十七届三中全会提出:“逐步建立城乡统一的建设用地市场,对依法取得的农村集体经营性建设用地,必须通过统一有形的土地市场、以公开规范的方式转让土地使用权,在符合规划的前提下与国有土地享有平等权益。”为了进一步探索消除有关法律法规对农村建设用地流转掣肘因素的影响,2015年2月27日,十二届全国人大常委会第十三次会议通过了《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于授权国务院在北京市大兴区等三十三个试点县(市、区)行政区域暂时调整实施有关法律规定的决定》(以下简称《决定》),授权国务院在特定地区暂时调整实施《土地管理法》第四十三条和第六十三条、《城市房地产管理法》第九条有关“集体建设用地使用权不得出让等的规定”。《决定》要求:“在符合规划、用途管制和依法取得的前提下,允许存量农村集体经营性建设用地使用权出让、租赁、入股,实行与国有建设用地使用权同等入市、同权同价。”然而,如何完善农村建设用地产权制度,如何真正发挥农村建设用地市场的供求机制、竞争机制和价格机制,如何规范农村建设用地流转收益分配,如何进一步规范国家对农村建设用地市场的宏观调控等,都是需要解决的重要问题。本书基于成都市周边地区,尤其是都江堰市部分农村地区实施农村建设用地流转的实地调研,在农村建设用地流转动力机制分析的基础上,对农村建设用地产权制度创新、市场均衡及效率、收益分配、宏观调控等问题进行系统研究。本书的主要内容包括:第一,我国农村建设用地流转的动因。农村建设用地流转系统由外部环境和流转系统组成。外部环境包括政治、经济、文化、社会、生态等要素。流转系统由市场子系统和政府管理子系统组成。其中,市场子系统由农村建设用地产权、市场交易主体、中介机构、有形市场组成。从农村建设用地流转动因来看,我国经济社会发展是其外部根源,建设用地不足正制约着我国经济社会可持续发展,而农村建设用地浪费现象十分普遍。我国法律及管理体制为农村建设用地流转提供了可能性。首先,原则上禁止农村建设用地流转的法律规定和允许农村建设用地流转的法律规定并存,为农村建设用地流转提供了法律空间;其次,农村土地管理的组织构架、管理体制机制等为农村建设用地流转提供了操作空间。农村集体(农民)在宅基地流转和中小工业用地流转等方面的创新行为是农村建设用地流转的直接推动力。各级地方政府对这一创新行为的态度和行为存在差异,层级越低的地方政府,其支持态度越鲜明。农村建设用地流转中地方政府支持行为的归宿点是利益最大化。第二,我国农村建设用地产权制度创新。农村建设用地产权是一组权利束,应具备完整性和完全性特征。农村建设用地所有权和使用权是两种最主要的独立的土地权利,农村建设用地处分权和收益权则是非独立的权利。我国农村建设用地产权制度存在的缺陷表现为:首先,就所有权制度来看,表现为权利性质模糊、主体不明、权能残缺等。其次,除乡镇企业用地使用权制度比较完善外,宅基地等农村建设用地使用权制度存在的缺陷表现为产权性质不明、产权权能残缺等。我国农村建设用地产权制度创新表现在所有权制度和使用权制度两方面。农村建设用地所有权制度创新主要从合理界定所有权主体层级和相互关系、明确所有权主体实体、完善农村建设用地所有权权能几个方面入手。农村建设用地使用权制度创新主要从明确使用权物权性质、创新使用权产权确权登记、完善使用权产权类型和权能几个方面入手。第三,我国农村建设用地的供求及市场均衡。中小企业和城镇居民对农村建设用地的直接需求,受农村建设用地总量、资源环境和法律政策三种约束力量共同制约。从农村建设用地供给来看,我国对其直接供给流转经历了一个先松后紧再放松的过程,其最终目标是在坚持土地集体所有制前提下,建立城乡统一建设用地市场。农村建设用地的市场供求平衡是相对的、暂时的。从较长时间来看,农村建设用地市场交易量会逐步增加,土地价格会不断上升。从农村建设用地市场效应来看,其正效应表现在缓解土地供求紧张局面、改进社会福利分配格局。其潜在风险表现在土地供求失衡、土地收益分配失衡等。第四,我国农村建设用地流转收益分配。本书主要基于级差地租和绝对地租构建了农村建设用地流转价格的地租模型。农村建设用地绝对地租,不能通过产品市场价格高于生产价格的余额实现,只能是利润平均化前的扣除。农村建设用地级差地租基本类型包括级差地租Ⅰ、级差地租Ⅱ和级差地租Ⅲ。从农村建设用地流转收益分配来看,绝对地租产生的基础是土地所有权垄断,应归属农村集体(村民)。级差地租Ⅰ应主要归属农村集体,同时兼顾地方政府。级差地租Ⅱ有两种情形:Ⅱb是企业在微观层面追加投资、由建筑容积率不同等原因而形成,在租约期间应为企业直接占有,Ⅱa是农村集体或地方政府在整体层面投资所形成,应分摊在相邻土地和几次流转交易中逐步收回。级差地租Ⅲ的归属应归属农村集体。农村建设用地流转收益在集体内部的分配问题是一个农村自治问题,应由村民通过民主决策机制制订具体方案。地方政府应通过地租、税额、费用等途径参与农村建设用地流转收益分配。第五,我国农村建设用地流转宏观调控。为防止农地过度非农化和农村建设用地市场供求失衡风险,遏制土地收益分配失衡,消除对经济宏观调控的负面影响,应加强农村建设用地流转宏观调控:首先,加强土地利用规划、加强农村建设用地规划管理。其次,加强耕地保护制度、完善农村建设用地用途管制制度。最后,加强农村建设用地价格及收益分配调控。本书立足作为全国统筹城乡综合配套改革试验区的成都实践,以马克思主义历史唯物主义和辩证唯物主义为指导,以系统观为统领,以制度经济学理论、市场供求理论为基础,借鉴马克思地租理论并创立了农村建设用地地租理论模型,力求做到兼顾规范研究、实证分析和案例剖析。相信本书成果,能为理论上探索农村建设用地流转机制、为实践上完善农村建设用地流转过程提供有益启发和帮助。当然,由于笔者理论功底尚浅,分析能力不足,书中难免存在不足和瑕疵,恳请专家、同行批评指正。本书是国家社会科学基金特别委托项目“几个流行的民主化理论命题的证伪”的子课题“参与式民主与地方治理研究”的重要成果。课题组成员多次实地调研,积累了大量数据和案例,对于本书的写作给予了极大的支持和帮助,在此一并表示感谢。本书还受西华大学马克思主义学院专项课题“我国农村建设用地流转机制研究”的资助。
关键词: 农业用地  土地流转  流转机制  研究  中国  

中国农户家庭资产负债表与农村普惠金融建设

作者: 孙同全 董翀 陈方 韩磊
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:109次
ISBN:978-7-5161-9282-5
简介: In order to promote the development of rural inclusive finance,it is necessary to carry out reform and innovation of both the macro-system and financial institutions on the supply side. However,the supply-side reform must be based on the accurate knowledge of the demand characteristics. The household’s balance sheet can reflect the financial status of the household,such as asset stock and its composition,the debt stock and its composition,asset liquidity and solvency,savings rate and investment capacity,etc.,and help to more accurately understand the basic rules and operating mechanism of rural financial market,therefore provides the inspiration for the path and direction of the construction of rural inclusive financial system.Based on the data of farmer households surveyed by the National Rural Fixed Observation Point Survey System (hereinafter referred to as “the rural fixed observation point”) from 2009 to 2013,this report firstly screened out the eligible samples. Then,all the eligible samples were sorted according to the annual average households’ net income from low to high,and were divided into five groups according to the sample size. Each income group was further divided into two groups of borrowers and non- borrowers based on the sample’s borrowing behavior. We established the household balance sheet of samples in each income group as well as that of the borrower and the non-borrower,and analyzed the households’ financial information such as assets structure,asset-liability ratio,income repayment ratio,saving rate,credit value,impact on the balance sheet and the source,cost and use of the credit. The following conclusions can be drawn from the above analysis:Firstly,the reason why the farmers borrow money is their family financial resources are insufficient.The proportions of financial assets of borrowers are obviously lower and fluctuated greatly among different years,so does the savings rate.Secondly,with the rapid growth of rural financial markets,the number of borrowers decreased,while the average amount of credit significantly increased. The family financial assets-liability ratio of borrowers is very high,but the income debt service rate is very low,which shows that borrowers’ household debt level and liquidity risk are low. It is difficult to accumulate family wealth for them. Farmers’ credit services availability and their income levels are positively related.Thirdly,the foundational obstacle for financial institutions to support rural credit service is the “invalidity of resources” farmers held. Farmland and farmhouse can’t be used as financing guarantee because of the rural collective property right system. This made the low-income farmers be harder to get credit. Offering farmers the right to trade farmland and farmhouse can greatly increase their family assets,in order to reducing the credit risk and increasing the availability of credit for them. In particular,it can significantly narrow the gap of the total assets per household among the income groups,thereby significantly reducing the family’s asset-liability ratio of the low-income households,and improving its credit conditions.Fourthly,the foundational contradiction of the rural credit market is the “mismatch”,that is,the outflow of rural capital is serious. The farmers have a lot of deposits in financial institution,but can only get limited credit. Especially,low-income farmers get very little banking services. Rural private lending is the main source of farmer credit,means its existence is reasonable and necessary.Fifthly,the opportunities for farmers from different income groups to obtain formal financial services are unequal. More than two-thirds of the bank’s credit resources are allocated to the farmers from top-income group. Although RCCs have a relatively balanced distribution of credit resources,the farmers from top-income group still received almost half of entire credit. It is noteworthy that the farmers from second low-income group get the least loan from the formal financial institutions instead of those from lowest income group,who we think faced to the largest exclusion of formal finance. There are both complementation and substitution between formal finance and private lending. The more credit households can get from formal financial institutions,the less they rely on private lending. The phenomenon that farmers from lowest income group get more formal financial services than those from lower income group may be related to the government’s financial poverty alleviation policy,which included not only interest subsidized microfinance for poverty alleviation,but also formal financial credit with diverse guarantee mechanisms for poor households,and mutual-aid-funds specifically for poverty alleviation.Sixthly,the household’s credit is also a kind of assets,and can be taken as intangible assets in the family’s balance sheet. It can increase the total assets value,improve the asset structure and reduce asset-liability ratio,and is regarded as an important foundation for formal financial institutions and private lenders to provide credit. Therefore,the rural credit evaluation system has the function of “resource creation”,which is the basic means for the rural financial institutions to carry out the business. It can effectively alleviate the dilemma of the rural households“inefficiency of resources” and improve their availability of credit services.Seventhly,the basic shortcoming of the rural inclusive financial system is the lack of financial service system,service mechanism and product design which can overcome the above basic obstacles and contradictions and meet the real demand of rural credit,while both lack of farmers’ cooperative financial organizations,and lack of the service mechanism and product design that can meet farms’ demand (especially for low-income farmers).Eighthly,interest rates in China’s rural financial market were too low because of long-term regulation,which restrained the willingness of financial institutions to carry out credit services. Therefore,rural borrowers were harder to get credit,or suffering additional charging. Several cases in this report show that the cost of getting credit from formal financial institutions has not been significantly reduced from 2007,even rising somewhat after the marketization of interest rates in 2013. The rising interest rate has a positive incentive for developing rural finance service and will help reduce the credit costs.Ninthly,deposit is the basic means of wealth management for farmers. The proportion of external investment of household is very low and the proportion of deposits is very high. On the one hand,it may indicate that farmers’ investment capacity is still very weak;On the other hand,it also indicates that farmers’ investment channels are little. An important reason for the rural fund-raising fraud in recent years is lack of financial investment channels and knowledge for rich farmers.There are several implications on the method and objective of rural inclusive finance can be drawn from the above conclusions:Firstly,rural area development is the key and aporia of building a moderately prosperous society. Although the number of households with credit demand may reduce,the average amount of credit per household needed is keeping increasing. It is necessary to promote the development of rural inclusive finance to meet the expanding credit demand and new financial services demand in rural area.Secondly,inclusive finance reflects the spirit of “open,inclusive,sharing development”,and it focus on financial services for disadvantaged areas and vulnerable groups,which is drastic of social cognition of profit maximization principal. Therefore,the principal of pushing on inclusive finance should include the combination of market leading and government guiding,as well as the balance of business profit and social responsibility. The government should enact fiscal,monetary and supervisory policies to support and guide the inclusive finance development,while financial institutions and the whole society should change their understanding,emphasizing on their social responsibility.Thirdly,the basic thinking of promoting rural inclusive finance should be to overcome the “invalidity of household’s resource” and “mismatch of rural credit resources”. According to the basic characteristics of farmers’ credit demand,we should promote the service mechanism system construction and financial service and products innovation and reform from the supply side.Fourthly,from the macro-level of the supply side,the government should establish the financial policy system based on the characteristics of the rural financial market,improving the rural financial environment and the rural financial service system,supporting financial institutions to carry out rural financial activities,reducing rural capital outflows,and even leading the urban capital to flow back. To keep pushing on the reform of the rural property mortgage credit pilot;explore the chattel mortgage policy system. Building trustworthy environment to enhance the confidence of financial institutions for developing rural financial business;encouraging and supporting the rural financial institutions to construct credit evaluation system and offer credit loans;confine the business scope of the county financial institution within the county level or below,encouraging the well-operating financial institutions to do business over the counties;continue to improve the existing agriculture-supporting-relending and small-scale-supporting-relending policies,design good poverty-alleviation-relending policy system,and provide low-cost funding resources for rural and small and medium financial institutions to provide agricultural credit services;establish rural inclusive financial development foundation to guide and support financial institutions and poverty alleviation microfinance institutions to support services in poor areas;support the rural internet finance and supply-chain finance development,lead the capital flow to rural areas;improve the rural financial institutional system,support and standardized the development of farm cooperative financial organization within rural community,passing laws for rural cooperative finance based on the relative regulations and lows;regulate and protect the private lending. To strengthen the construction of rural financial infrastructures,especially payment infrastructure in poor areas in rural areas,promoting the settlement accounts,payment instruments and payment settlement networks;expand the coverage of convenient withdraw for farmers in the remote villages;encourage to explore the mobile payment,internet payment and other emerging electronic payment methods to develop payment services market in rural area. The development and application of information technology have provided potential solutions to overcome the difficulties of traditional rural financial service,and it will become the important leading force of rural financial development in the future. According to the advanced principles confirmed in the G20 Hangzhou Summit,the government should improve the rural digital financial services infrastructure construction to promote inclusive financial development.Fifthly,from the financial services and product system level in the supply side,the rural financial institution should break through the restriction of traditional collateral,and build reasonable rural credit evaluation system,especially in areas besides the “two rights mortgage credit” pilot,to sustain the rural inclusive financial service system. They should also innovative financial services mechanisms and product system based on the characteristics of agricultural production,farmers’ living demand,local industry and relative policies and resources. It is necessary to actively develop digital financial technology,improve infrastructure,service mechanisms and products,deepening the rural inclusive financing services.Sixthly,special attention should be paid to reduce inequality in access to formal financial services among households from different income groups. The current precise anti-poverty policy requires financial institutions to provide credit to poor households recorded in the poverty files. This policy may exacerbate inequality in access to formal financial services among households in different income groups,especially for the farmers from sub-low income groups who were not recorded in poverty file. It is not consistent with the target of rural inclusive finance. Therefore,both the macro-level system and the financial institution service mechanism should pay special attention to eliminate such discrimination.Seventhly,to encourage financial institutions to actively and orderly explore new mode of rural investment and financial products and services,broadening the channels for investment and financial management of farmers,expanding the income sources of rural financial institutions. To offer financial education for farmers to protect their rights of financial consumption,cracking down the illegal fund-raising.
关键词: 农村金融  资产负债表  

新型农村合作医疗改革与发展研究:基于统筹城乡视角

作者: 李鸿敏
出版日期:2012-01-01
浏览次数:33次
ISBN:978-7-5161-1234-2
简介: 本书基于统筹城乡的视角,关注新型农村合作医疗的改革与发展。首先对统筹城乡医疗保障制度的相关理论进行了梳理。其次对新型农村合作医疗的制度变迁和现行政策进行了评析。然后针对新城乡二元医疗保障制度所引发的新问题,分析了新型农村合作医疗改革和统筹城乡医疗保障的必然性和可行性,并分析了改革的经济环境、人文环境和社会环境。接着参考了国外典型国家农村社会医疗保险制度的经验,提出了对我国新型农村合作医疗改革的借鉴。再次用案例分析的方法对我国新型农村合作医疗改革和部分地区统筹城乡医疗保障的实践探索进行了研究和评价。最后提出新型农村合作医疗改革思路和统筹城乡医疗保障制度发展的对策及保障措施。

西部新型农村社会救助制度研究

作者: 焦克源
出版日期:2012-01-01
浏览次数:24次
ISBN:978-7-5161-0852-9
简介: 20世纪90年代以来,包括政府绩效管理在内的一系列公共管理理论、方法、工具以及相关的公共管理实践活动被大量地介绍到我国。中国学者从我国体制改革和公共管理学科建设需要出发,在吸收消化基础上,进行了创新性的研究,取得了丰硕成果。中国的体制改革是从经济体制改革开始,由承认生产者经营自主权切入。在农村实行家庭联产承包责任制,在工商企业和城市经济中,实行多种形式的承包经营责任制和资产租赁经营责任制。当时把这一系列的改革形式叫做放权松绑。这不仅仅是经营形式的调整,而且意味着政府与企业、政府与农业生产单元——家庭的关系在发生着深刻变革。改革的深化使市场机制的作用越来越大,在商品市场成长完善的同时,要素市场也发展起来。建立社会主义市场经济体制成为我国改革的目标,要求政府在市场配置资源这一基础作用下发挥作用、履行职能,并界定政府与市场的关系。面对这一新型关系,政府面临着严峻的考验与挑战。政府职能需要转变,角色需要重新定位,政府体制改革提上了议事日程。建设服务型政府成为这一改革的目标。政府的成本与绩效、政府的职能架构与职责、政府的行为与价值取向、政府的工具与能力等重大理论问题需要解决。行政管理体制改革的重要成果就是对政府有了全新的认识,就像当年对市场的认识一样,我们得出一个基本结论:政府不是万能的,也不需要万能的政府。因为随着政府与社会、政府与市场关系的调整,政府使命的重新界定,它在社会治理和公共管理中的角色与作用需要重构。一是公共管理的主体由一元向多元发展,在公共管理中,一个包揽一切的无限政府完成了它的历史任务;二是政府管理向公共治理转变,政府既是公共管理的重要主体,同时与其他主体构成了伙伴关系,共同承担管理公共事务的职责;三是在这个主体结构中,政府的行为方式在发生变化,由计划、命令式向合作、协商、协同等方式转变。与此相适应,非政府组织在蓬勃发展,公民社会在兴起。公民自我意识的觉醒为政府体制的创新和行为的理性回归创造了条件。这种互动关系的形成,可以说既是行政管理体制改革的重要成果之一,更是公共管理体制创新的重要任务。公共管理学科建设首先基于人才培养的需要。从20世纪80年代末在大学开设行政管理专业,1997年我国开始单独设立管理学门类,到1999年教育部决定进行MPA教育试点,公共管理教学体系和学科体系逐步趋于完善。与之相适应的学术研究也从学科的基础问题向理论和实践更广泛的领域拓展。由兰州大学中国地方政府绩效评价中心的专家、教授完成的《公共管理与政府绩效管理丛书》适应了公共管理实践和学术研究的需要。一方面以政府绩效管理为主线选题,突出特色;另一方面又选取了目前公共管理学术研究领域的热点问题,显现出内容的丰富广泛性。丛书包括包国宪教授的《中国地方政府绩效评价的组织模式与管理研究》、高小平教授的《政府生态管理》、沙勇忠教授的《政府危机管理的信息问题研究》、吴妤教授的《理想中的城市——建设生态与循环型城市的理论与政策》、焦克源教授的《西部农村社会救助制度研究》、王海鸿教授的《土地资源管理与政策》、李少惠教授的《行政文化与公共精神》、王浩权的《公共项目管理:理论、方法与案例》、张定安博士的《基于平衡计分卡的公共部门绩效管理》和2006年9月23日在兰州大学召开的全国政府绩效管理研究会成立大会暨首届“政府绩效评估与行政管理体制改革”研讨会上的优秀论文结集而编的《政府绩效评价与行政管理体制改革》等10部著作。本丛书得以出版,得到了国家自然科学基金委管理科学部的支持和兰州大学国家“985工程”计划的资助,也得到了很多领导和专家的支持帮助。他们是兰州大学党委副书记兼副校长甘晖教授、兰州大学发展规划办主任张正国研究员、副主任李兴业同志、兰州大学西部经济社会发展哲学社会科学创新基地负责人杨建新教授、聂华林教授、兰州大学科研处常务副处长霍红辉同志、以及中国社会科学出版社责任编辑郭晓鸿博士。在此表示由衷的感谢!包国宪2007年7月19日于兰州大学
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