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宋元时期汀州区域开发与客家民系形成

ISBN:978-7-5161-5250-8

出版日期:2015-03

页数:313

字数:328.0千字

丛书名:《客家研究新视野丛书》

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文章从民族史、经济社会史、移民史、人口发展史、历史地理学等角度,探究宋元时期汀州经济发展与社会变迁轨迹,以及汀州客家形成核心地位的演变过程。从秦汉时期开始,中原与福建的交通路线对历代南迁入闽移民活动的基本方向与走势产生了直接影响,南迁入闽的北方汉人从闽北进入福建。闽西始终处于国家权力扩展的边缘。直到唐宋以降,闽西山区才逐步得到开发,五代末期至北宋初年是汀州第一次接受大批北方移民的时期,两宋之际是汀州第二次接受大批北方移民的时期。交通也随之发展。九龙溪航道在唐代就已经开发利用,在唐宋时期其重要性高于汀江。南宋绍定以前,汀江处于自然开发状态。南宋后期,汀江航道得到改善,为元代隆兴至潮州驿道的开通奠定基础。元代隆兴至潮州驿道的开通,使汀州成为闽粤赣边区的重镇和交通枢纽,促进了以汀州为中心的闽粤赣边经济区的形成。交通的发展促进了宋代汀州经济发展。北宋时期,矿冶业是汀州的支柱产业,南宋时处于没落阶段,元代则处于停摆状态。南宋时期,私盐贩卖成为汀州经济生活中大部分人赖以谋生的重要产业,是后代汀赣间进行钱粮贸易的滥觞。宋代汀州的集市层次非常完整,大部分集中在北部,表明宋代汀州的对外交通依然以闽北为主。宋元时期汀州文教有了较大发展。汀州的教育机构完备,理学有所发展,并以汀州为中心形成了定光佛信仰圈。文教的发展促进了汀州社会风气的变化。宋元时期汀州的社会矛盾激烈。北宋时期,汀州社会冲突危害轻微。南宋汀州动乱由百姓与政府争利的经济冲突,演变为以推翻地方政府为目的叛乱行为。宋末元初,汀州抗击元军的军队多为购募,中后期义军以“复宋”为口号,动乱已经演变为带有强烈民族反抗意识的斗争。客家民系在南宋初步形成后,经历了宋末元初直至元朝末期的长期畲汉联合抗元斗争。在这个过程中,畲汉族群互相融合,主流是畲民汉化,壮大了客家民系。客家民系迎来了第一次大发展高潮。

This article studies on economic development and social change trajectory of Tingzhou in Song and Yuan Dynasties,exploring the process to form the hakka core of the Tingzhou,mainly from the angle of National History,Economic and social history,History of immigration,History of the development of population,Historical Geography,and so on.The route from Fujian to Central China directly impacted on the basic direction and trend of northern migration to Fujian since Qin and Han Dynasties. West Fujian has been marginalized in the national power. Until Tang and Song Dynasties,its society and traffic were gradually developed. The waterway of Jiulong River had been opened in Tang Dynasty. It was more important than Ting river then. The waterway of Ting river did not open before Shaoding of Southern Song Dynasty. It was developed in the late of Southern Song Dynasty and laid the foundation for the opening of Chaozhou post road to Longxing in Yuan Dynasty. This post road made Tingzhou as a traffic center in Jiangxi and Fujian border.The development of transportation promoted the economic development in Tingzhou in Song Dynasty. Mining industry was a pillar industry of Tingzhou in Song Dynasty. In Southern Song Dynasty it was in the decline stage. In Yuan Dynasty,It almost stopped. Most people made a living with smuggling salt in Tingzhou in Southern Song Dynasty. As a result,the trade between money and grain developed and the social conflicts because of smuggling salt never stopped until Yuan Dynasty. During this period,various ethnic groups who lived here gradually formed a new group.The education had made great progress in Tingzhou in Song and Yuan Dynasties. It had a good education system. Neo Confucianism had made significant progress too. And it formed a culture circle of the Faith in Dipamkara. Educational development changed the social customs. It formed Unique and outstanding of the Hakka people.Tingzhou was not a peaceful place in history. There were too many social conflicts. These social conflicts caused minor damages in Northern Song Dynasty. But in Southern Song Dynasty they became a threat to local governments. To Yuan Dynasty,the unrest of Tingzhou has turned into a strong sense of national resistance struggle.The Hakka was initial formation in the Southern Song Dynasty. They fight against the Yuan Dynasty with The She nationality for long time until the demise of the Yuan Dynasty. In the process,The She nationality and The Han nationality formed merge with each other. This promoted the growing of the Hakka people. The Hakka people came the first development climax.

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
靳阳春.宋元时期汀州区域开发与客家民系形成[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
靳阳春.宋元时期汀州区域开发与客家民系形成.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
靳阳春(2015).宋元时期汀州区域开发与客家民系形成.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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