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民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制研究

ISBN:978-7-5227-2041-8

出版日期:2023-05

页数:288

字数:283.0千字

点击量:3228次

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基金信息: 国家社科基金一般项目“民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制研究”(批准号:15BMZ053) 展开
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图书简介

作为民族地区一种特殊的乡村旅游,民族村寨旅游随着乡村旅游的发展和扶贫攻坚战略的实施,得到了迅速发展,逐渐成为推动民族地区经济和社会发展的重要突破口和主要抓手。经过几十年的发展,民族村寨旅游由点到面、由小到大,在促进民族地区经济增长、民生改善、脱贫致富和扩大就业等方面发挥了非常重要的作用,使许多民族旅游村寨提前实现了整体脱贫并迈向小康社会。但是,旅游是一把“双刃剑”,民族村寨旅游在促进民族地区经济发展的同时,由于开发不当,也给不少民族村寨造成了生态环境破坏、民族文化认同感失落、民族文化被过度商业化利用、社区居民不能获得公平的参与机会与利益分享、各利益主体之间矛盾日趋激化等诸多问题。这些问题的存在与蔓延,已经成为影响民族村寨旅游发展的严重障碍。不少民族旅游村寨在经历了一段红红火火的发展之后,便开始出现危机甚至走向了衰落。如何破解民族村寨旅游发展中的诸多问题,保证民族村寨旅游又好又快地发展,已经成为一个非常紧迫的现实问题。2020年,既是脱贫攻坚的收官之年,也是全面建成小康社会的关键之年。民族村寨在实现整村脱贫之后,仍然面临着如何防止返贫和消除相对贫困的艰巨任务。与此同时,党的十九大提出了乡村振兴的重大战略决策,民族村寨旅游如何对接和助力乡村振兴,实现民族村寨旅游和乡村振兴的协同发展,仍面临着许多新的问题与挑战。因此,无论是从继续发挥民族村寨旅游的积极作用和破解其发展中所存在的诸多问题的角度,还是从审视和解决新时期民族村寨旅游所面临的新问题、新挑战的角度,民族村寨旅游可持续发展问题都是一个非常紧迫而有意义的研究课题。而开展民族村寨旅游可持续发展动力机制研究,则是系统分析和揭示民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力需求、动力状况及赋能对策的有益探索,是关于民族村寨旅游可持续发展的首要性的关键问题研究,具有重要的理论与现实意义。从理论上讲,开展本书研究,可以构建一套较为完整的民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统及动力机制模型,以丰富相关理论研究。从实践上来讲,开展本书研究,则可为民族村寨旅游提供破解现实问题、获取发展动能的有效方案,推动民族村寨旅游又好又快地发展。

本书研究坚持政策与问题双导向,坚持理论与实践相结合,以现有文献和民族村寨旅游发展现实为研究基石,充分运用系统论、可持续发展理论、系统动力学理论等多学科理论和文献研究、重点访谈、问卷调查、统计分析及建模分析等多种方法,紧紧围绕“民族村寨旅游可持续发展的必要性”“民族村寨旅游可持续发展的内在诉求与外显标志”“民族村寨旅游发展的影响因素”“民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统”“民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制与保障对策”五大问题开展研究,并获得了相应的研究结论与成果。

(1)民族村寨旅游可持续发展的必要性研究。本书研究以可持续发展理论为指导,通过对民族村寨旅游发展的现状分析与问题揭示,提出了促进民族村寨旅游可持续发展的五大必要性,即脱贫致富和同步小康建设的需要;民族文化保护与传承的需要;生态文明与美丽乡村建设的需要;乡村振兴与农业农村现代化建设的需要;破解困局与村寨旅游高质量发展的需要。

(2)民族村寨旅游可持续发展的内在诉求与外显标志研究。本书研究基于对相关文献的扎根分析和专家意见征询,首先构建起民族村寨旅游可持续发展的内在诉求和外显标志的指标体系,然后运用重点访谈和问卷调查的方法,选择15个民族旅游村寨为样本进行了数据采集与相应的实证分析。在研究中,我们选择利益诉求和条件诉求两个维度进行分别揭示与比较。通过实证分析与讨论,得出民族村寨旅游可持续发展的利益诉求依重要程度大小主要表现为经济增长、社会进步、文化传承和环境优化四大方面,具有明显的功利性与现实性特征。条件诉求依重要程度大小主要表现为观念可持续更新、资源可持续利用、文化可持续传承、外力可持续推动、产品可持续吸引、产业可持续支撑、资本可持续投入、产业可持续支撑、环境可持续保障八个方面,具有明显的理性思维特征。两相比较,条件诉求是最基本的前置性诉求,只有条件诉求满足之后,利益诉求才有可能满足。条件诉求更能反映民族村寨旅游可持续发展的基本诉求。至于外显标志的揭示,通过实证分析与讨论,认为民族村寨旅游可持续发展的外显标志按照受访者感知的敏锐度强弱依次表现为:人气与口碑、规模与效益以及环境与氛围。分析和揭示民族村寨旅游可持续发展的内在诉求与外显标志为进一步分析民族村寨旅游发展的影响因素和揭示民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力因子提供了基础性信息与依据。

(3)民族村寨旅游发展的影响因素研究。开展本书研究是进一步探寻民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力因素并构建其动力系统的前提与基础。本项研究中,我们跳出了已有研究的笼统思维或问题揭示的传统视角,引入可持续和非可持续的概念,努力从民族村寨内、外和可持续发展正、逆视角来系统探寻民族村寨旅游发展的影响因素。本书研究基于文本分析,分别从可持续和非可持续的角度,构建起民族村寨旅游发展影响因素指标体系,并选择以10个民族旅游村寨为样本,进行数据采集。然后分别进行一般性统计分析与层次分析,并用层次分析的结果来纠正统计分析中的偏差,最后得出:影响民族村寨旅游可持续发展的因素依重要程度大小主要表现为:与时俱进的思想观念与创新精神、村寨自然与人文景观丰富且具有特色、民族文化得到有效保护传承与合理利用、不断高涨的人气和源源不断的游客来访、政府政策支持与引导性资金投入、良好的口碑与深刻的旅游体验、社区参与程度、产业发展良好、高效有序的经营与管理、村寨聚落环境优美且有特色、村容村貌整洁卫生、良好的品牌效应与市场影响。影响民族村寨旅游非可持续发展的因素依重要程度大小依次表现为:村寨普通没有特色与核心吸引物、民族文化得不到保护并遭到破坏、政府关注和支持不够、没有产业支撑、生态环境破坏、村民社区参与程度不高、旅游体验感差、村民思想保守落后、没有外来资本投入或外来资本投入不够、缺乏科学的管理与运营。这些可持续和非可持续影响因素的揭示,为进一步从中探寻影响民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力因素(动力因子)和阻碍因素(阻力因子)提供了依据。

(4)民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统研究。要研究民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制,必先构建民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统。本书研究中,我们提出了有效动力的观点,认为推动民族村寨旅游可持续发展的真正动力并不是单纯的动力所为,而是动力克服阻力之后的有效动力。构建民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统,不应该只追求由动力因子所构成的动力系统,而应该以构建更加完整、更具价值的有效动力系统为目标。基于此认识,本书研究分别从相关文献和前面有关实证研究中,探寻民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力因子和阻力因子,并按照“动力因子→动力”“阻力因子→阻力”的生成规律,分别构建起民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统和阻力系统框架结构模型。然后在此基础上,遵循“动力—阻力→有效动力”的基本思维,构建起民族村寨旅游可持续发展的有效动力系统框架结构模型。该模型表明:民族村寨旅游可持续发展的有效动力系统是一个包括动力和阻力在内的复杂的巨型系统。在该系统中,动力系统主要表现为由来自村寨内外的思想引领力、产品吸引力、产业支撑力、环境保障力、文化根基力、机制协同力、社区促动力、市场拉动力、政府引导力、中介促进力10个子动力交互作用所形成的合动力系统。阻力系统则主要表现为由思想阻力、产品阻力、文化阻力、环境阻力、资金阻力和机制阻力6个子阻力所形成的合阻力系统。

(5)民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制与保障对策研究。本书以民族村寨旅游可持续发展的有效动力系统框架结构模型为基础,运用系统动力学的基本原理与方法,进一步构建起民族村寨旅游可持续发展动力机制因果互动结构模型,并从结构、功能和因果互动关系三个方面进行了机理分析。认为:从结构上讲,推动民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统是一个包含动力和阻力在内的巨型复杂系统。在该系统运动中,各种动力和阻力交互作用、彼此制约,形成了相互抗衡、此消彼长的力量作用态势。当动力大于阻力并成功克服阻力时,这种动力方为有效动力。只有有效动力才是推动民族村寨旅游可持续发展的真正动力。反之,当阻力大于动力并抵消动力时,那么这种动力为无效动力。这时各种阻力会成为阻碍民族村寨旅游可持续发展的主要力量。从功能上讲,系统中的各种动力和阻力均扮演着不同的角色,发挥着不同的功能。其中,民族文化根基力是民族村寨旅游发展的一种本底性动力,它构成了民族村寨旅游发展的本底基础。思想引领力是统领和指引民族村寨旅游可持续发展的一种方向性动力,是民族村寨旅游的风向标,具有战略性的引领功能。市场拉动力、产品吸引力、环境保障力、社区促动力和产业支撑力5种动力,都属于一种支撑性动力。其中,市场拉动力和产品吸引力是直接影响民族村寨旅游发展的、不可或缺的核心支撑力。政府引导力、中介促进力和机制的协同力则构成了民族村寨旅游可持续发展的一种支持性动力,主要起保障或促进作用。从因果互动上来看,合动力与有效动力之间表现为正强化因果关系,合阻力与有效动力之间表现为负减弱因果关系。合动力与合阻力,以及各子动力与相应的子阻力之间,均表现为负减弱性的互为因果关系。至于各子动力之间,或各子阻力之间,或存在“一因一果”“一因多果”正强化因果关系,或存在“一因一果”正强化因果互动关系。基于上述机理分析与揭示,为保证民族村寨旅游可持续发展动力机制的高效运行,我们提出了与时俱进,强化思想引领;突出特色,打造精品名牌;固本强基,善待民族文化;坚守本底,强化环境保障;促进融合,夯实产业支撑;创新机制,强化多元协同六大保障对策。

本书研究成果最重要的学术价值在于从可持续和非可持续发展角度分析和揭示了影响民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力和阻力因素,并遵循“动力—阻力→有效动力”的基本思维,构建了一套较为完整的民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力系统及动力机制模型,丰富和完善了旅游发展动力机制的理论分析框架。本书成果的应用价值突出表现在能为民族旅游村寨及时破解发展问题并获取新的动能提供有效方案,促进民族村寨旅游又好又快和可持续发展。

关键词:民族村寨旅游;可持续发展;动力机制

Abstract

As a special kind of rural tourism in ethnic minority areas,ethnic village tourism has gained rapid development with the development of rural tourism and the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies,and has gradually become an important breach and main point to promote the economic and social development of ethnic minority areas.After nearly 40 years of development,ethnic village tourism has grown from point to surface and from small to large,playing a very important role in promoting economic growth,improving people's livelihood,getting rid of poverty and becoming rich and expanding employment in ethnic minority areas,making many ethnic tourism villages realize overall poverty alleviation ahead of time and move towards a welloff society.However,tourism is a double-edged sword.While promoting the economic development of ethnic areas,ethnic village tourism,due to improper development,also causes many problems such as ecological environment damage,loss of ethnic cultural identity,excessive commercialization of ethnic culture,unfair participation opportunities and benefit sharing of community residents,and increasingly intensified conflicts among various interest subjects.The existence and spread of these problems has become a serious obstacle to the development of tourism in ethnic villages.After experiencing a period of flourishing development,many ethnic tourism villages begin to face crisis and even decline.How to crack the ethnic problems in the development of ethnic village tourism,guarantee ethnic village tourism to develop fast and well,has become a very urgent practical problem.The year 2020 is the final year of poverty alleviation and a crucial year for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.Ethnic villages still face the arduous task of how to prevent their return to poverty and eliminate relative poverty after the whole village has been lifted out of poverty.At the same time,The 19th Communist Party of China National Congress put forward a major strategic decision on rural revitalization.There are still many new problems and challenges in how to coordinate and contribute to rural revitalization and realize the coordinated development of ethnic village tourism and rural revitalization.Therefore,the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is an urgent and meaningful research topic from the perspective of continuing to play the positive role of ethnic village tourism and solving many problems existing in its development,and from the perspective of examining and solving new problems and challenges faced by ethnic village tourism in the new era.The research on the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is a beneficial exploration to systematically analyze and reveal the dynamic demand,dynamic situation and enabling countermeasures for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.It is also a key research on the primary importance of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,which has important theoretical and practical significance.Theoretically,this research can build a set of relatively complete dynamic system and dynamic mechanism model for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,so as to enrich relevant theoretical research.From a practical point of view,this research can provide an effective solution to solve practical problems and gain development momentum for ethnic village tourism,so as to promote ethnic village tourism to develop fast and well.

This research adheres to the dual orientation of policies and problems and the combination of theory and practice.Based on existing literature and the reality of tourism development in ethnic villages,it makes full use of multi-disciplinary theories such as system theory,sustainable development theory,system dynamics theory,and many methods,such as literature research,key interviews,questionnaires,statistical analysis,modeling analysis.The research focuses on five major issues,including“the necessity of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism”,“the internal appeal and explicit symbol of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism”,“the influencing factors of ethnic village tourism development”,“the dynamic system of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism”and“the dynamic mechanism and guarantee countermeasures of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism”,and the corresponding research conclusions and results are obtained.

(1)Research on the necessity of sustainable development of ethnic villages tourism.Guided by the theory of sustainable development,this research puts forward five necessities to promote the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism by analyzing and revealing the current situation and problems of ethnic village tourism development,namely: poverty alleviation and the need of synchronous well-off construction; The need of national culture protection and inheritance; The need of ecological civilization and beautiful countryside construction; The needs of the country revitalization and modernization of agriculture and rural areas construction; The need to overcome difficulties and develop with high quality.

(2)Research on the internal appeal and explicit symbol of sustainable development of ethnic villages tourism.Based on the grounded analysis of relevant literature and expert opinion consultation,this research first constructed the internal appeal and explicit indicator system for the sustainable development of ethnic villages tourism,and then selected 15 ethnic tourism villages as samples for data collection and corresponding empirical analysis by means of key interviews and questionnaires.In the research,we choose two dimensions of interest demand and condition demand to reveal and compare them respectively.Through empirical analysis and discussion,it is concluded that depending on the degree of importance,the interest demands of sustainable development in ethnic villages tourism are mainly manifested in four aspects,including economic growth,social progress,cultural inheritance and environmental optimization,with obvious utilitarian and realistic characteristics.According to the degree of importance,the requirements are mainly manifested in the sustainable updating of concepts,the sustainable use of resources,the sustainable inheritance of culture,the sustainable promotion of external forces,the sustainable attraction of products,the sustainable industry support,the sustainable capital investment,the sustainable industry support,and the environment Eight aspects including sustainable protection.It has obvious rational thinking characteristics.In comparison,the conditional appeal is the most basic prepositional appeal,and only after the conditional appeal is satisfied,can the interest appeal be satisfied.In comparison,the conditional appeal is the most basic prepositional appeal,and only after the conditional appeal is satisfied,can the interest appeal be satisfied.The condition appeal can better reflect the basic appeal of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.As for the revelation of explicit signs,through empirical analysis and discussion,it is believed that the explicit signs of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism in accordance with the sensitivity perceived by the interviewees are in turn manifested as popularity and public praise,scale and benefit,and environment and atmosphere.Analyzing and revealing the internal appeal and explicit symbol of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism provides basic information and basis for further analyzing the influencing factors of ethnic village tourism development and revealing the driving factors of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.

(3)Research on the influencing factors of tourism development in ethnic villages.This research is the premise and foundation to further explore the driving factors of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism and to construct its driving system.In this study,we break away from the existing research of general thinking or problem reveals the traditional perspective,introduce the concepts of sustainable and non-sustainable,and strive to systematically explore the influencing factors of tourism development in ethnic villages from the perspectives of internal,external and positive and inverse sustainable development.Based on text analysis,this study constructed an index system of factors affecting ethnic villages tourism development from the perspectives of sustainable and non-sustainable,and selected 10 ethnic tourism villages as samples for data collection.Then general statistical analysis and analytic hierarchy process are respectively carried out,and the deviations in statistical analysis are corrected with the results of analytic hierarchy process.Finally,it is concluded that the factors affecting the sustainable development of tourism in ethnic villages are mainly shown as follows: ideas and innovative spirit of keeping pace with the times,rich and distinctive natural and cultural landscapes of villages,effective protection,inheritance and rational use of ethnic culture,rising popularity and continuous tourists,government policy support and guiding capital investment,good public praise and profound tourism experience,community participation,good industrial development,efficient and orderly operation and management,beautiful and distinctive environment of villages,clean and hygienic appearance of villages,good brand effect and market influence.The factors affecting the nonsustainable development of tourism in ethnic villages are,in order of importance,as follows: villages have no characteristics and core attractions; ethnic culture is not protected and destroyed; insufficient government attention and support; no industrial support; ecological environment destruction; villagers´community participation is not high; tourism experience is not good;villagers´thoughts are conservative and backward; no foreign capital investment or foreign capital investment is not enough,lack of scientific management and operation.The revelation of these sustainable and non-sustainable influencing factors provides a basis for further exploring the driving factors(driving factors)and hindering factors(resistance factors)that affect the sustainable development of tourism in ethnic villages.

(4)Research on the dynamic system of sustainable development of tourism in ethnic Villages.In order to study the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,we must first construct the dynamic system of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.In this study,we put forward the viewpoint of effective driving force,believing that the real driving force to promote the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is not the pure driving force,but the effective driving force after the driving force overcomes the resistance.To build the dynamic system for sustainable development of ethnic village tourism should not only pursue the dynamic system composed of dynamic factors,but should aim at building a more complete and more valuable effective dynamic system.Based on this understanding,this study explores the dynamic factors and resistance factors of the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism from relevant literature and previous empirical studies,and constructs the framework structure model of the dynamic system and resistance system for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism according to the generation law of“dynamic factor→dynamic”and“resistance factor→resistance”.Then,following the basic thinking of“dynamic-resistance→effective dynamic”,the frame structure model of effective dynamic system for sustainable development of tourism in ethnic villages is constructed.The model shows that the effective dynamic system for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is a complex giant system including dynamic and resistance.In this system,the dynamic system is mainly represented as a dynamic system formed by the interaction of 10 sub-forces,including the thought leading force,product attraction force,industrial support force,environmental protection force,cultural foundation force,mechanism synergy force,community promoting force,market pulling force,government guiding force and intermediary promoting force,which come from inside and outside the village.The resistance system is mainly manifested as a combined resistance system formed by six sub-resistances including ideological resistance,product resistance,cultural resistance,environmental resistance,capital resistance and mechanism resistance.

(5)Research on dynamic mechanism and guarantee countermeasures of sustainable development of tourism in ethnic villages.Based on the effective dynamic system framework model of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,this study further constructs the causal interaction structure model of the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism using the basic principles and methods of system dynamics,and analyzes the mechanism from three aspects of structure,function and causal interaction.It is believed that,structurally speaking,the dynamic system to promote the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is a huge and complex system including dynamic and resistance.In the motion of the system,various forces and resistances interact with each other and restrict each other,forming a counterbalance and counterbalance of forces.When the force is greater than the resistance and the resistance is successfully overcome,the force is the effective force.Only effective driving force is the real driving force to promote the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.On the contrary,when the resistance is greater than the force and counteracts the force,then the force is ineffective.At this time,all kinds of resistance will become the main force hindering the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.In terms of function,all kinds of dynamic and resistance in the system play different roles and play different functions.Among them,the foundation of national culture is a background driving force of the development of ethnic village tourism,which constitutes the background foundation of the development of ethnic village tourism.The thought leading force is a kind of directional power to guide and guide the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism.It is also the weathervane of ethnic village tourism and has a strategic leading function.There are five kinds of driving forces,namely,market driving force,product attraction,environmental protection force,community driving force and industry supporting force,all of which are supporting forces.Among them,market pull force and product attraction are the indispensable core supporting force that directly affects the development of ethnic village tourism.The governmental guiding force,intermediary promoting force and cooperative force of mechanism constitute a supporting force for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,which mainly plays a role of safeguarding or promoting.The resultant force and effective force show a positive strengthening of causality,and the resultant resistance and effective force show a negative weakening of causality.From the point of view of causal interaction,the relationship between the syndynamic and the syndynamic resistance,as well as between each subdynamic and the corresponding subresistance,shows a negative weakening mutual causal relationship.As for the causality among the forces or among the resistances,there is either“one cause and one effect”,“one cause and many effects”positive reinforcement causality,or“one cause and one effect”positive reinforcement causal interaction.Based on the above mechanism analysis and revelation,in order to ensure the efficient operation of the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of ethnic village tourism,we put forward the idea of advancing with The Times and strengthening the guidance of thought.Highlight characteristics,create high-quality goods brand; Strengthen the foundation,treat national culture; Adhere to the background,strengthen environmental protection;Promote integration and consolidate industrial support; Innovation mechanism,strengthen multiple coordination and other six guarantee countermeasures.

The most important academic value of the research results lies in analyzing and revealing the factors affecting the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism from the perspective of sustainable and non-sustainable development,and following the basic thinking of“power-resistance→effective power”,a set of relatively complete dynamic system and dynamic mechanism model for the sustainable development of ethnic village tourism is constructed,enriching and perfecting the theoretical analysis framework of the dynamic mechanism of tourism development.The application value of the results of this study is highlighted in that it can solve the development problems of ethnic tourism villages in a timely manner and provide effective solutions to obtain new driving forces,so as to promote the good,rapid and sustainable development of ethnic tourism villages.

Keywords: ethnic village tourism; sustainable development; dynamic mechanism

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
邓辉.民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2023
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MLA 格式引文
邓辉.民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2023E-book.
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APA 格式引文
邓辉(2023).民族村寨旅游可持续发展的动力机制研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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