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中国道路景观文化研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-8827-9

出版日期:2016-07

页数:252

字数:216.0千字

点击量:6401次

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基金信息: 国家社科基金“人文视野下的中国道路景观文化研究”(编号:10BZX80) 展开
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一“建筑是人和社会存在的环境,建筑也是人的本质力量的文化符号。”郑时龄:《建筑批评学》,建筑工业出版社2001年版,第1页。道路作为建筑范畴的人工构筑物,当然也属于“人和社会存在的环境”和“人的本质力量的文化符号”。但相当一段时期以来,人们对道路的认识基本上停留在它的交通功能上,即道路是实现人流物流的载体。但事实上,道路除了为人们提供人流物流、方便人们的交往外,还有诸多其他功能。正如沈福煦教授所说:“建筑不仅仅是满足人的物质活动的对象物,也须满足人的种种精神活动的需要,如心理的、伦理的、宗教的、审美的。”沈福煦:《中国建筑文化史》,上海古籍出版社2001年版,第1页。建筑是一个非常复杂的现象,具有自然科学、社会科学和艺术学的多种属性,要真正认识到建筑的“核心关节中去,最终的归属必然是文化”萧默:《建筑的意境》,中华书局2014年版,第2页。。属于建筑范畴的道路及景观形态,也同样具有满足人的文化需求的功能,甚至成为人们首先认识一个国家、地区或民族的标志之一。笔者进行的一个针对四大洲(亚洲、美洲、欧洲、非洲)八个国家(中国、越南、哈萨克斯坦、美国、加拿大、英国、法国、贝宁)600人的调查表明,72%的人首先是通过一个国家的道路(街道)景观形态而对这个国家和城市产生初步印象的。可见,道路除了实现交通功能外,还有体现国家与城市形象、文化与特征的功能。一个国家或城市的特征,就外在来讲,分为两大方面:一是从自然角度来看,是这个国家或城市的山川河流,地形地貌,气候物候,植被生态;二是从人工构筑物与自然的结合来看,是这个国家中的城市的重要建筑物景观,包括道路、边界、区域、节点、标志物[美]凯文·林奇:《城市意象》,方益萍、何晓军译,华夏出版社2001年版,第35—69页。,等等。从精神文化角度来看,精神的东西总会体现在物质上,人造物的形态是人的本质力量对象化的结果。因此,辨识一个国家或城市的人文风情、思想文化、政治制度等不仅仅可以通过与这个国家和城市的人员进行交往和学习他们的政治、法律制度,同时也可以通过对其中的构筑物——建筑、道路、标志物、绿化等景观的解读来达到。建筑不只是建筑材料的堆砌,还是建筑思想的物化表达,道路沿线的景观也一样。不同的国家与城市,细心的人总能从道路景观形态背后找出它们的某些文化特点。总之,道路的作用不仅仅体现在实现人流物流的交通功能上,在它的景观形态背后,还蕴含着文化功能、艺术功能、教育功能等。迄今为止,人们对建筑、建筑史都著述颇多,建筑文化研究的论文和专著也陆续有作品问世。对归为建筑大类的道路工程建设的研究,无论理论还是实践都成果丰硕。同时,道路景观的研究著述也不少。从20世纪90年代至今,关于道路(公路)景观、美学之类的论文专著都不少,以书籍为例,就有张阳的《公路景观学》张阳:《公路景观学》,建筑工业出版社2004年版。,史忠礼等人的《城市道路绿化景观设计与施工》史忠礼等:《城市道路绿化景观设计与施工》,中国林业出版社2005年版。,熊广忠的《论道路美学》熊广忠:《论道路美学》,人民交通出版社2009年版。,李祝龙的《公路环境与景观设计咨询要点》李祝龙:《公路环境与景观设计咨询要点》,人民交通出版社2011年版。,胡长龙的《道路景观规划与设计》胡长龙:《道路景观规划与设计》,机械工业出版社2012年版。等。至于道路景观的相关论文更是汗牛充栋,举不胜举,如果在中国知网上以主题搜索“道路景设计”,会获得9033篇论文,但如果搜索“道路景观文化”,相关数据就会大大降低,只有5581篇论文;如果从研究的角度更进一步去搜集相关论文,不难发现,真正从道路景观文化来展开研究的,只是凤毛麟角。这说明,人们对道路景观(包括城市街道景观)表达的城市个性、蕴含的文化价值取向并未十分重视。换个角度来说,就是对一个国家、一个城市的精神文化、审美心理与这个国家的城市道路、公路景观等方面的内在联系研究较少。拙著《中国道路景观文化研究》正是针对这方面的问题来展开研究的,如果能因此引起相关人士的关注,笔者将不胜欣慰,或许这正是它的意义所在。从世界历史角度来看,作为精神文化的东西总会包含着某些基本的或核心的概念。如果古希腊文化的核心概念是逻各斯(logos),那么,中国文化传统的核心范畴就是“道”。杨国荣:《中国文化中的“道”——杨国荣教授在上海外国语大学的讲演》,《文汇报》2010年5月8日。“道”的原始本义是“道路”。《诗经·小雅·大东》有“周道如砥,其直如矢”,其中的“道”指的就是道路。道路作为人的通行空间,具有由此及彼的通达目标的特征。道路所固有的由此空间到彼空间的通达特征,使它具有通江达海、延伸四方的功能性特点,这就将道提升为实现人与人的交往、人与社会的交往,从而达到社会的有序、规范运行的高度具备了可能。因此,道这个本身作为物理空间的名词就被人们赋予了人与人之间交往、人与社会交往的哲学意涵,形成为人之道、立世之道,并更高层次地泛化为覆盖宇宙与人生的普遍原理的中国式哲学语言。作为宇宙与人世的普遍原理,“道”一方面用来述说、解释宇宙与人类社会中各种不同的现象;另一方面又被视为存在的终极根据:纷繁复杂的大千世界,千差万别的各种事物,追根溯源往往都被归结于“道”。道又被分为天道和人道。天道与天体、宇宙等自然界相联系;人道从广义上讲,是与人以及人的活动、人的社会组织等相关联,表现为社会活动、历史变迁中的一般原理。杨国荣:《中国文化中的“道”——杨国荣教授在上海外国语大学的讲演》,《文汇报》2010年5月8日。人道意义上的“道”,“首先涉及广义的社会理想、文化理想、政治理想、道德理想等等,它同时也被理解为体现于社会文化、政治、道德等各个方面的价值原则”同上。。可见,所谓人道之“道”就是要将作为自然的人引向具有某一社会性质的文明开化之人,实现人的社会性目标。“道不远人”(宋)朱熹:《四书章句集注·中庸章句·第十三章》,中华书局1983年版,第23页。即指道与人们的实践相关,这就规定了道和人的实践活动无法相分,而“百姓日用即道”龚杰:《王艮评传》,南京大学出版社2011年版,第74页。之“道”是以人的“日用常行”同上。为内容的。这就将“道”与“事”、“形而上”与“形而下”在日常的人生体验中交融贯通起来。在与人生活密不可分的建筑中,理所当然地融入了中国文化中“道”的精神内涵。过去,人们对四合院、三合院、中国园林、紫禁城、天坛、地坛、日坛、月坛等予以了更多关注,而对同样作为建筑的道路及其两侧建筑立面景观所彰显的文化内涵研究却较少。但事实上,道路作为线形的空间景观同样具有丰富的“道”的内容。也就是说,哲学意义上的“道”具有丰富的思想文化内涵,它会作为一种意识或思想价值观来指导具有代表意义的实体道路的设计与建设,因此,道路就具有了“弘道”的意义,这样,文化意义上的“道”就与实体的“道路”融为了一体,使实体道路不仅具有了实现人流物流的交通功能,同时也具有了“传道”与“弘道”的文化、宣传、教育功能。这是过去的研究者没有注意的。人们如何理解道路景观,决定了他们如何设计道路景观。道路景观文化研究,就是对现存的道路景观进行分析、批判、研究,从中发掘出有文化意义的东西,以加深对道路景观的理解,从而为未来的道路景观设计奠定相应的基础。拙著作为国家社科基金项目资助的研究文本,侧重从文化视野的角度来着力研究道路景观。因此,它对于道路景观设计者而言,如果有意义那仅仅是指设计的思想方面的而非技术方面的。而文化是一个很大的概念,百科名片说,有关文化的各种不同的定义至少有两百多种。人们对“文化”一词的纷繁复杂的解读,虽然分歧众多,但有几点是共同的。“第一,都把文化理解为人类活动的产物,而不是与人的活动无关的自然物……第二,即使是指物质的东西,无论是人造的还是自然的,人们关注的也不是这些物质事物的物理的化学的属性,而是体现在其中的精神内容。第三,尽管都把文化理解为与经济、政治、社会、生态不同的概念,但都没有把它们看成互斥的关系,更没有理解为逻辑上的上位概念与下位概念的关系。”陶德麟:《略论文化建设中的传承与借鉴》,《哲学研究》2012年第6期,第3—10页。笔者很赞成将文化分成四个层次的说法,即物态文化、制度文化、行为文化、精神文化。冯辉:《关于文化的分类》,《中州大学学报》2005年第4期,第40—47页。按这个分层来认识道路景观文化,可以全面覆盖道路景观的各个方面。第一,道路景观本身是物态的文化,不同的时代道路的质地、材料、空间宽幅是不一样的,这反映的是那个时代的科学技术水平与生产力水平。第二,道路景观形态又反映了不同时代交通的制度文化的特点。如,古罗马的《森普罗尼乌斯道路法》规定,每一罗马里(古罗马的“里”等于一千步,约1.485公里)设置一根石柱,这就是里程碑——于是古罗马军用大道沿途就有了里程碑Romolo Augusto Staccioli,The Roads of the Romans,The J.Paul Getty Museum,Los Angeles,2003,p.86.景观;中国古代交通确立的驿亭制度,使古代中国驿道有了长亭短亭的道路景观。第三,“亭”这种道路景观还是古代中国人送行文化(属于行为文化的一种)的重要载体;中国古代道路两旁多植柳树,这是道路的绿化景观,而这却源于中国古代男女相别时常常折柳相送这一风俗文化,“柳”谐音“留”,以此表明恋人们、友人们对对方的留恋。可见,人与建筑的关系同样适宜于道路与人的关系。第四,道路景观还蕴含着深刻的思想文化内涵。古今中外的建筑史告诉我们,建筑不仅仅受到科学技术的制约,还必须按照科学技术的要求与规范来建设,同时又受建筑思想的制约,而建筑思想是与时代的价值取向、审美文化、民族心理相统一的,所以不同时代、不同地域、不同民族的建筑,反映的是那个时代、那个区域和那个族群的价值取向、审美文化与民族心理。人们总是按照自己认为正确的、美观的标准来构建人工构筑物,道路的建设也是这样,不同的人有不同的爱好,不同的民族有不同的审美取向,当这些不同文化背景的人们按照自己的实用标准和审美取向来进行道路建设时,道路的景观就会各具特色。例如,古罗马建筑师维特鲁威的《建筑十书》对建筑的设计原则是“坚固、适用、美观”[古罗马]维特鲁威:《建筑十书》,高履泰译,知识出版社2001年版,第16页。。他对建筑的基本要求有一个“美观”,美观就与审美相联系,而美肯定属于哲学范畴,因为审美离不开美学,美学属哲学的分支,同时还受民族文化与心理影响。中国北宋时期李诫的《营造法式》一书,由文本与图样构成,其中图样不仅反映建筑样式,更重要的是它也反映了中国人的建筑审美。邹其昌教授就认为《营造法式》的理论体系存在显体系和隐体系两个基本面,所谓显体系是指文本构成体系,如制度、功能、料例、图样之类;所谓隐体系是指《营造法式》中的文化精神。同样是注重建筑美,但中西建筑空间形态大异。这是为什么呢?因为中国人有中国人的文化特征,这种特征必然体现在建筑上,由建筑空间形态来反映中国文化背景下的中国特有的审美文化与审美心理。“建筑是一个时代社会生活的集中体现,包括自然的、政治的、经济的、文化的、习俗的等方面的综合因素及其影响。”(宋)李诫:《营造法式》,邹其昌点校,人民出版社2006年版,“校勘说明”第2页。中国与古罗马在上述自然的、政治的、经济的、文化的、习俗的等诸多方面都不一样,建筑空间形态当然也不一样。所以,中西建筑空间形态有不同是正常的,如果中西建筑空间形态相同那倒反而不正常了。道路也是这样。它的空间特点往往是由文化决定的。古罗马是一个重武的国家。罗马人修路不是为了发展经济(虽然在客观上也推动了经济发展),而是为了征服。它的道路修筑到哪里,军队就开到哪里。从某种意义上说,古罗马大道是古罗马军事政治文化的物化表达,而在古代的军事中,骑兵较步兵不仅更机动快速,而且战斗力更强,为了让这个军事要求得到实现,古罗马军用大道的空间形态就修成了两侧的骑兵道高于中间的步兵道,这也是今天城市道路的基本形态。古希腊神话中,虽然“神人同形”“神人同性”,但诸神都住在奥林匹亚山上,神是不死的,人要朝觐他们,所以雅典宽广的道路总是通向山顶的神庙的。雅典的民主政治决定了城市需要广场集合听众,让公民得以了解竞选者的施政主张,因此通往广场的道路也都是宽阔的。相比之下,中国的御道更显特别:它一分为三,中间是皇帝专用,两侧是平民来往通道。原因在于中国古代的观念认为皇帝是天子,尊贵超越常人,而中国人的尊卑思想反映在空间上是高为尊,低为卑,中为尊,侧为卑;反映在道路建设上,就成了御道在中间,民道在两侧,御道路面高于两侧的民道。以此来观察今天的道路景观建设与城市空间建设,其存在的“千城一面”“千街同貌”的西化景观问题,已不仅仅只是城市建设与道路建设的问题,而同时也反映了思想文化认识的问题,反映了城市建设思想中的中国文化融入的问题。只有从思想文化上解决了问题,城市建设、道路景观建设存在的问题才能从根本上得到解决。二近现代以来,工业革命兴起,科学技术所要求的标准化在全球范围内迅速推广,汽车文明使公路建设广被世界各国,受标准化和现代主义建筑的影响,道路景观的文化特色在一定程度上受到了冲击。正如现代主义建筑受到人们的广泛质疑,并由此催生了后现代主义建筑一样,道路标准化导致的景观类同也使人们产生了深刻的反思。20世纪60年代以来,道路景观特色建设引起了世界发达国家的重视。以美国为例,这个曾经深受现代主义建筑影响(美国的现代主义建筑思想由现代主义建筑的发源地德国的Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar于20世纪30年代陆续传入),并将现代主义建筑传至世界各国,也最先兴起后现代主义思潮。自20世纪60年代以来,美欧等发达国家的后现代主义建筑也如雨后春笋般地兴起。与之相对应的是,在这一时期,美国的道路景观建设与保护也得到了高度重视,风景道(scenic road)的建设与保护就是其重要代表。美国风景道的一个重要特点是各具特色,都有其独特性。从20世纪60年代到90年代,美国先后出台了《公路美化法案》(Highway Beautification Act of 1965),《风景道和公园道发展建议报告》( A Proposed Program for Scenic Roads and Parkways,1966),1973年又提出了《国家风景公路体系可行性报告》(FEAS Ability of Developing a National Scenic Highway System)Lindsey G.,“Use of Urban Greenways:Insights Form Indianapolis”,Landscape and Urban Planning,1999(45),pp.145-157.。1991年1月,美国国会提交了《国家风景道研究报告》(National Scenic Byways Study,Report to Congress),在这个文件中提出了“对风景识别好、历史价值高的道路提名、促进、保护的计划及操作方法”Federal Highway Administration,National Scenic Byways Study,Washington,D.C.:U.S.Department of Transportation,1991.。同年12月,美国国会正式通过了《美国交通运输道路效用法案》(Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991,ISTEA),在该法案下专门设立了风景道暂行法案,在风景道暂行法案中提出了“国家风景道计划”。还在国家公路秘书处下成立了“国家风景道顾问委员会”。美国国会于1995年审核并正式通过了《国家风景道计划》(National Scenic Byways Program,1995),提出:“在联邦政府投资下,国家风景道计划帮助美国公路景色、历史、文化、休闲娱乐和自然资源的确认和保护,并促进这些道路与众不同。”Ibid.,1995.与之相对应,美国联邦公路管理局(FHwA)还推出了“公路设计的灵活性”(FlexibiIity in Highway Design)规则,提出了“每一个公路建设项目都具有特殊性,包括项目所在区域的地理位置、地形地质条件、沿线社会环境特点等因素,公路使用者的需求以及所面临的挑战与机遇。设计者所面临的任务是寻求一种安全前提下同时使道路和周围自然以及人类环境之间的协调的设计”,基于这一理念,设计师可以根据公路建设需要而灵活设计。Federal Highway Administration,Flexibility in Highway Design,http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/publications/flexibility.由此,美国在道路建设上基本突破了因标准化而引起的道路景观类同化,完成了道路建设从规划、设计到工程实施的规范与指导文本,较好地推动了道路景观建设中的自然景观与人文景观的有机统一。至今,美国各州实施《风景道计划》(State Scenic Byways Programs)的达40多个,大多数州都在国家风景道计划的框架下制定了有本州特色的、更具体的、更细致的风景道择选确定标准。以加利福尼亚州为例,《加利福尼亚州景观公路指南》(State of California Scenic Highway Guidelines)就涉及风景公路的全方位内容,包括背景简介、景观公路的标准、提名程序、立项程序、景观公路标志、合格性审查、撤销程序、争端处置程序、杂项(包括线路调整、变更、线缆掩埋等)等,甚至还收录了相关立法材料,如《街道和公路法》《公共设施法》《公共资源法》之《加利福尼亚环境质量法案》,等等,形成了完整的体系。因此,美国在道路景观建设与保护上,无论是规划管理还是法制建设,无论是技术规范还是工程实践,都建立起了一套从国家层面到州、县级政府的完整体系,这些都真真切切地推动了美国道路景观的建设与发展。依据《国家风景道计划》的程序和标准,美国形成了泛美风景道、国家风景道和州级风景道三级风景道体系,并分别在“1996年、1998年、2000年、2002年、2005年分5批共评选出32条泛美风景道和133条国家风景道,遍布美国各州县和乡村”余青、胡晓苒、宋悦:《美国国家风景道体系与计划》,《中国园林》2007年第11期,第73—75页。。截至2009年,泛美风景道增至37条,国家风景道增至170条,加上50个州的州级风景道,整个美国国家风景道体系(NSB)总长度达到了24548英里。《国外风景道体系研究》,http://www.chinahighway.com/news/2011/481977.php。在城市街道建设方面,尽管现代主义建筑从欧洲传到美国,并由美国而广被世界,但西方发达国家总体上非常注重保护本国的历史文化特色和精神风貌。考察欧美国家的城市建设,通过城市道路来表达城市特色、凸显城市魅力、弘扬精神文化是一种十分普遍的做法。从罗马的帝国大道到伦敦的舰队街,从巴黎的香榭丽舍大街到美国的华盛顿林荫大道,从莫斯科的阿尔巴特大街到东京的涩谷大街,从维也纳的纳克恩顿大街到柏林的菩提树大街,无论景观分析专家还是历史文化学者,都不难从中发现不同国家在这些城市道路中展示的文化特色、城市个性、审美偏好、历史文脉以及价值取向。因此,经典的城市道路,与建筑标志物一样,不仅起到了城市标徽(Logo)的作用,同时更是精神文明的橱窗、历史文脉的载体、城市个性的展台。20世纪60年代,随着生态文明的兴起,生态建筑也开始出现。景观生态学虽然早在20世纪30年代就由德国地理学家C.特洛尔提出,但得到迅速发展却是在60年代生态文明在西方发达国家兴起以后。欧美国家在建设生态建筑时,同样开始了道路生态的保护。进入21世纪初,以生态和工程实践为基础的道路生态学在发达国家开始形成。以景观生态学家、哈佛大学教授理查德T.T.福尔曼(Richard T.T.Forman)为首的科研团队,集合了包括生态学家、生物学家和交通工程学家总共14人,总结过去多年道路生态建设的实践,耗时27个月,于2003年推出了《道路生态学——科学与解决方法》(Road Ecology:Science and Solutions )一书,该书共4篇14章,五十余万言,分别从道路、车辆和生态,植物和野生动物,水、化学物质和大气,道路系统和未来展望等方面,对道路生态学展开了全方位的研究Richard T.T.Forman,Road Ecology:Science and Solutions,Isand Press,pp.vii-x.,产生了十分重要的影响。目前,一种新型的道路生态景观美学已在兴起,正逐步扩大影响,成为未来道路景观美学发展的新方向。从历史文化大背景的角度来看,发达国家道路景观建设,无论是规划、保护、评价、管理还是兴建,出现了一种由工业文明向后工业文明的现代转型。因此,这不仅是对作为物质文化的道路景观的打造与保护,更是一种思想文化或者价值追求在道路景观上的彰显,其意义不仅仅在于使道路景观更优美,而且是要达到文化的弘扬、文明的启迪、生态的保护等。当然这种转型的前提条件首先在于建造者对道路的功能在思想观念与认识上的变化,而这正是思想文化内容在道路建设上的体现。三中国从传统到现代的转型是在外来力量的刺激下开始的。这种现代转型如果从文化的角度来看,其先后顺序是物质文化(以洋务运动为代表,学习西方的坚船利炮)→制度文化(以戊戌变法、清末新政、辛亥革命为代表,学习西方的君主立宪与共和制度)→精神文化(以新文化运动为代表,学习西方的“民主”与“科学”等精神文化)。思想文化的转型当然会反映在物态文化上,“建筑语言表述社会文化和观念形态”沈福煦:《中国建筑文化史》,上海古籍出版社2001年版,第7页。。道路作为建筑的构成部分,当然也要“表述社会文化和观念形态”。中国的思想文化转型有一个对“旧文化”的否定,因此,这种思想影响下的建筑设计与道路景观建设,也存在一个对中国古代建筑与道路景观的否定过程。如今,民国时期仍古风犹存的“长亭外,古道边,芳草碧连天,晚风拂柳笛声残,夕阳山外山”(李叔同《送别》)古驿道景观早已难觅踪迹了。在外来文化的影响下,在新文化的构建中,民国时期的城市道路,或多或少,自觉不自觉地,总有些欧风美雨的味道,如20世纪90年代后期保护性整治的上海新天地,其实正是对晚清至民国时期殖民地半殖民地国家“华洋夹杂”的城市街道景观的恢复。紧跟上海同样推行这种城市道路保护性整治的如南京、武汉、重庆以及青岛的八大历史街区等,都可看到西方城市街道的影子,又都可以看到“华洋夹杂”的时代特征对城市道路景观的影响。新中国成立之初,曾有一个教育文化上的“全盘苏化”时期。因此,苏联的城建思想也影响到我国当时的城市建设。北京的十大建筑多是苏式建筑。从人民大会堂到军事博物馆,从历史博物馆到北京展览馆,这些建筑立面给北京的城市带形空间(大街)留下了不可磨灭的历史记忆。“文化大革命”时期,不少城市街道建设体现了那个时期独有的历史文化记忆——城市街道建筑立面上红底黄字的“毛主席语录”。唐山市城市街道两边的干打垒建筑,如果不遇到大地震及以后的城市重建,或许会给我们留下那个时代城市建设与城市道路的经典。同样,大庆市有意留下的干打垒房屋及街道,并非因为这样的建筑是当今城市街道之所需,而是为了保持和弘扬“干打垒精神”。改革开放之后,我国开始了大规模的城市道路、高速公路及普通公路的建设,开始建设的目的就是为解决交通问题,至于道路的美感、生态、文化均不是主要的考虑范畴。即使注意到了道路的美感,那也主要是从道路交通安全方面,以技术标准为出发点,从道路的“点、线、面”角度着眼的。交通部自20世纪80年代以来先后颁布了多个《公路线路设计规范》(分别是〔JL 3011—84〕、〔JTJ 011—1994〕、〔JTGD 20—2006〕),建设部也在1997年颁布了《城市道路绿化规划与设计规范》〔CJJ 75—97〕,这些文件从技术上规范了道路景观建设与绿化的标准,作为行业的技术标准无可非议,但如果从国家立法的高度、从景观文化与生态建设的角度来解决道路建设中的景观文化问题、生态问题、艺术问题等而言,却显然跟不上国家文化建设与生态建设在道路景观建设上的形势。另外,我国的城市化进程与城市建设规模宏大、速度迅猛,在规划、设计、建设等诸多方面都存在一些问题,如领导意志的干预、规划者的人文知识欠缺、市民参与的形式化等。这就使得我们的城市建设往往出现“千城一面”“千街同貌”的困境——作为城市带形空间的城市道路缺乏特色。值得欣慰的是,在大规模的城市建设与交通建设中,我国也涌现出了一些令人欣喜的亮点。如,深圳在20世纪80年代兴建了深南大道,客观上彰显了改革开放的成果,弘扬了这个城市改革开放的精神,凸显了它勇于创新的城市性格;上海在90年代以开放的姿态,招标引入世界一流景观设计公司——法国夏氏—德方斯公司,设计出了彰显上海城市和中国文化的景观大道——世纪大道,不仅强化了道路的景观意义,而且表达了建设方在这些景观背后所注重的文化内涵和生态意义。这些城市道路的建设,尽管存在这样那样的问题,引起了人们的争议孙靓:《交通 景观 人——比较世纪大道与巴黎香榭丽舍大道》,《华中建筑》2006年第12期,第122—124页;陆细军:《浦东世纪大道城市设计之得失》,《规划师》2005年第10期,第106—107页。,但其方向无疑是值得肯定的。交通运输部于2014年推出了新的《公路工程技术标准》(〔JTGB 01—2014〕),新标准为公路从运输功能向旅游功能、文化功能的转变提供了技术指导,适应了新的形势。在道路生态建设方面,我国紧跟国际前沿,不仅研究道路生态学的新成果,而且运用于工程实践。进入21世纪初,交通运输部交通科学研究院等与相关建设单位为打造生态道路进行了许多研究与探索。在道路工程实践方面,由李海峰博士主导的四川二级公路川(主寺)九(寨沟)路、云南高速公路思(茅)小(勐养)路等都在交通行业内产生了重要影响。川九路改造,借助了美国的“公路设计的灵活性”,在“露、透、封、诱”的原则下设计施工,较好地保护了该路域的生态环境,道路原生景观得到强化,成为我国第一条高原区生态道路;思小路在生态上较好地保护了路域沿线的热带雨林,在景观上实现了“车在林中行,人在画中游”。尽管这些道路在现实中也存在诸多问题,引起了人们的新思考。如,思小路预留的亚洲象通道未能很好地起到引导亚洲象通行的作用,常出现象群上高速路,引发多起交通事故,但毕竟开辟了国内高速公路生态建设的新方向。在道路生态理论研究方面,也有一些成果。交通部科学研究院的王云博士、兰州大学的李太安博士等在研究国外道路生态学的基础上,撰写发表了一系列道路生态学的论文。而在专著研究方面,北京师范大学的刘世梁副教授出版了《道路生态学研究》。刘世梁:《道路生态学研究》,北京师范大学出版社2012年版。目前,国内道路交通大规模发展建设的时期已基本过去,后交通时代即将到来。历史和国际惯例证明,当道路发展已基本解决交通所需,进入后交通时代后,人们会更加重视道路的景观质量。道路景观质量不仅关系到行车安全,同时还关系到艺术、文化、生态等诸多方面。因此,在后交通时代,道路景观理应成为人们高度关注的对象。当前,国内道路景观建设的热情十分高涨,无论是高速路还是城市道路,无论是县城还是乡镇,无论是建设部门还是设计单位,无论是网上寻觅还是实地踏勘,只要你愿意,就会发现,人们打造道路景观的热情是无处不在的。每座城、每个县甚至每个镇几乎都有“景观大道”。一些城市的最美街道选美比赛,网上投票人数达数十万人甚至上百万人,获选街道达数十条。此等规模,即使从世界角度看,也是空前的。这无疑为未来道路景观建设奠定了相应的公众基础。另外,这种道路景观的美却并未摆脱“千街同貌”的窘境,对此,从专家到普通百姓都有非议俞孔坚:《城市需要一场“大脚的革命”》,《设计家》2010年第1期,第13—15页。,但十多年来,问题远未能从根本上解决。个中缘故,笔者认为,从根源上看,是因为人们重视了道路景观的点、线、面之类的形式美,而忽略了隐藏在形式之后的文化内涵、生态价值。换言之,道路景观问题,不仅仅牵涉到景观本身,而是关乎地域文化、城市个性、生态文明等诸多学术理论与现实问题,就景观而景观,无异于缘木求鱼,其结果必然是不得要领。只有站在文化建设和文化自觉的高度来打造道路景观,我们的道路景观才会有中国特色、城市个性、地域特点。站在这样的视角来分析问题,本书的研究内容或许可能对目前正大规模进行的城乡道路景观建设产生一点积极的影响。如果真能如此,本书也就达到作者希望达到的目的了。

"Architecture is the environment in which people and society exist, and architecture is also a cultural symbol of man's essential strength." Zheng Shiling: Architectural Criticism, Building Industry Press, 2001, p. 1. As an artificial structure in the category of architecture, roads are of course also "the environment in which people and society exist" and "cultural symbols of the essential power of man". However, for a considerable period of time, people's understanding of the road basically stays on its traffic function, that is, the road is the carrier to realize the flow of people. But in fact, in addition to providing people with flow logistics and facilitating people's communication, roads have many other functions. As Professor Shen Fuxu said: "Architecture is not only an object that satisfies people's material activities, but also needs for various spiritual activities, such as psychological, ethical, religious, and aesthetic." Shen Fuxu: A History of Chinese Architectural Culture, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2001, p. 1. Architecture is a very complex phenomenon, with a variety of attributes of natural science, social science and art, to truly recognize that the "core joint" of architecture, the ultimate belonging must be culture" Xiao Mo: "The Artistic Conception of Architecture", China Book Co., 2014 edition, page 2. The roads and landscape forms belonging to the architectural category also have the function of meeting people's cultural needs, and even become one of the symbols for people to first understand a country, region or nation. A survey of 600 people in eight countries (China, Vietnam, Kazakhstan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Benin) on four continents (Asia, America, Europe, and Africa) showed that 72% of people first had their initial impression of a country's road (street) landscape form. It can be seen that in addition to realizing the traffic function, the road also has the function of reflecting the image, culture and characteristics of the country and the city. The characteristics of a country or city, externally speaking, are divided into two aspects: one is from a natural point of view, it is the mountains and rivers, topography and landform, climate phenology, and vegetation ecology of the country or city; Second, from the perspective of the combination of artificial structures and nature, it is an important architectural landscape of cities in this country, including roads, boundaries, areas, nodes, and markers [US] Kevin Lynch: "Urban Imagery", translated by Fang Yiping and He Xiaojun, Huaxia Publishing House, 2001, pp. 35-69. Wait a minute. From the perspective of spiritual culture, spiritual things will always be embodied in matter, and the form of artificial objects is the result of the objectification of man's essential power. Therefore, identifying the cultural customs, ideological culture, and political system of a country or city can not only be achieved by interacting with the people of the country and city and learning their political and legal systems, but also by interpreting the structures in it - buildings, roads, landmarks, greenery and other landscapes. Architecture is not only a pile of building materials, but also a materialized expression of architectural ideas, and the landscape along the road is the same. In different countries and cities, careful people can always find some of their cultural characteristics behind the road landscape form. In short, the role of the road is not only reflected in the transportation function of realizing the flow of people and logistics, but also contains cultural functions, artistic functions, and educational functions behind its landscape form. So far, many people have written about architecture and architectural history, and papers and monographs on architectural culture research have been published one after another. The research on road engineering construction classified as a major category of construction has yielded fruitful results in both theory and practice. At the same time, there are many research works on road landscapes. From the 90s of the 20th century to the present, there are many papers and monographs on road (highway) landscape, aesthetics, etc., taking books as an example, there is Zhang Yang's "Highway Landscape Science" Zhang Yang: "Highway Landscape Science", Architecture Industry Press, 2004 edition. , Shi Zhongli et al., "Urban Road Greening Landscape Design and Construction", Shi Zhongli et al.: "Urban Road Greening Landscape Design and Construction", China Forestry Publishing House, 2005 edition. Xiong Guangzhong's "On Road Aesthetics" Xiong Guangzhong: "On Road Aesthetics", People's Communications Publishing House, 2009. , Li Zhulong's "Key Points of Highway Environment and Landscape Design Consultation" Li Zhulong: "Key Points of Highway Environment and Landscape Design Consultation", People's Communications Publishing House, 2011 edition. , Hu Changlong's "Road Landscape Planning and Design" Hu Changlong: "Road Landscape Planning and Design", China Machine Press, 2012. Wait. If you search for "road landscape design" by theme on CNKI, you will get 9033 papers, but if you search for "road landscape culture", the relevant data will be greatly reduced, only 5581 papers; If you go further and collect relevant papers from the perspective of research, it is not difficult to find that it is rare to really carry out research from the road landscape culture. This shows that people do not pay much attention to the urban personality and cultural value orientation expressed by road landscapes (including urban street landscapes). To put it another way, there is less research on the intrinsic relationship between the spiritual culture and aesthetic psychology of a country and a city and the country's urban roads and highway landscapes. The book "Research on China's Road Landscape Culture" is aimed at this aspect of the research, if it can attract the attention of relevant people, the author will be very gratified, perhaps this is its significance. From the perspective of world history, things as spiritual culture will always contain some basic or core concepts. If the core concept of ancient Greek culture was logos, then the core category of Chinese cultural tradition is "Tao." Leslie Yeung: "The Tao in Chinese Culture: Professor Leslie Yeung's Lecture at Shanghai Overseas Chinese University," Wen Wei Po, May 8, 2010. The original meaning of "Tao" is "way". "The Book of Poetry, Xiaoya, Dadong" has "Zhou Dao is like a stone, its straightness is like a arrow", and the "Dao" in it refers to the road. As a space for people to pass, roads have the characteristics of reaching the goal of this and the other. The inherent accessibility characteristics of the road from one space to another space make it have the functional characteristics of connecting the river to the sea and extending in all directions, which makes it possible to enhance the road to achieve the communication between people and people, the interaction between people and society, and thus achieve the height of orderly and standardized operation of society. Therefore, the term Tao, itself as a physical space, has been endowed with the philosophical meaning of communication between people and between people and social interaction, forming a Chinese philosophical language that is the way of man and the way of establishing the world, and generalized at a higher level into a Chinese philosophical language covering the universal principles of the universe and life. As a universal principle of the universe and the human world, "Tao" is used to describe and explain various phenomena in the universe and human society on the one hand; On the other hand, it is regarded as the ultimate basis of existence: the complex world, all kinds of things, are often traced back to the "Tao". The Tao is divided into heavenly and humane. The Heavenly Dao is connected with the celestial bodies and the universe and other natural worlds; In a broad sense, humanity is related to people, their activities, and their social organization, and is expressed as general principles in social activities and historical changes. Leslie Yeung: "The Tao in Chinese Culture: Professor Leslie Yeung's Lecture at Shanghai Overseas Chinese University," Wen Wei Po, May 8, 2010. "Tao" in the sense of humanity "first involves social ideals, cultural ideals, political ideals, moral ideals, etc. in a broad sense, and it is also understood as a value principle embodied in various aspects such as social culture, politics, and morality" Ibid. It can be seen that the so-called "Tao" of humanity is to lead man as a natural person to a civilized person with a certain social nature, and to achieve the social goal of man. "The Tao is not far away" (Song) Zhu Xi: "Four Books and Chapters and Sentences Collected Notes, Zhongyong Chapter 13", Zhonghua Book Company, 1983 edition, p. 23. That is, the Tao is related to people's practice, which stipulates that the Tao and people's practical activities cannot be separated, and "the people's daily use is the Tao" Gong Jie: Wang Geng Commentary, Nanjing University Press, 2011 edition, p. 74. The "Tao" is the same as above. for content. This connects "Tao" and "things", "metaphysical" and "metaphysical" in daily life experience. In the architecture that is inseparable from people's lives, it is natural to integrate the spiritual connotation of "Dao" in Chinese culture. In the past, more attention was paid to the courtyard, the triad, the Chinese garden, the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, the Temple of Earth, the Temple of the Sun, the Temple of the Moon, etc., but less research was carried out on the cultural connotations of the road that is also a building and the landscape of the facades on both sides. But in fact, the road as a linear spatial landscape also has rich "Dao" content. That is to say, the philosophical sense of "Dao" has rich ideological and cultural connotations, it will be used as a consciousness or ideological values to guide the design and construction of representative physical roads, therefore, the road has the meaning of "Hongdao", so that the "Dao" in the cultural sense is integrated with the "road" of the entity, so that the physical road not only has the traffic function of realizing the flow of people, but also has the cultural, publicity and educational functions of "preaching" and "propagating the Dao". This is something that past researchers have not noticed. How people understand the roadscape determines how they design the roadscape. Road landscape culture research is to analyze, criticize and study the existing road landscape, and discover something of cultural significance from it, so as to deepen the understanding of the road landscape, so as to lay the corresponding foundation for the future road landscape design. His book is a research text funded by the National Social Science Foundation of China, focusing on the study of road landscapes from a cultural perspective. Therefore, if it makes sense to road landscape designers, it refers only to the ideological aspects of the design, not the technical aspects. And culture is a big concept, and the encyclopedia says that there are at least two hundred different definitions of culture. Although there are many differences in people's complex interpretations of the word "culture", there are several points in common. "First, culture is understood as the product of human activity, not as a natural object unrelated to human activity... Second, even if it refers to material things, whether man-made or natural, people are not concerned with the physical and chemical properties of these material things, but with the spiritual content embodied in them. Third, although they all understand culture as different concepts from economy, politics, society, and ecology, they do not see them as mutually exclusive relationships, let alone the relationship between logical upper concepts and lower concepts. Tao Delin: "Inheritance and Reference in the Construction of Episodic Papers", Philosophical Research, No. 6, 2012, pp. 3-10. The author is very much in favor of dividing culture into four levels, namely, material culture, institutional culture, behavioral culture, and spiritual culture. Feng Hui: "On the Classification of Cultures", Journal of Zhongzhou University, No. 4, 2005, pp. 40-47. Understanding the road landscape culture according to this layer can comprehensively cover all aspects of the road landscape. First, the road landscape itself is a culture of things, and the texture, materials, and spatial width of roads in different eras are different, which reflects the level of science and technology and productivity of that era. Second, the road landscape form reflects the characteristics of the institutional culture of transportation in different eras. For example, the ancient Roman Law on the Roads of Sembronius stipulated that every Roman mile (the Roman "ri" is equal to a thousand steps, about 1.485 kilometers) is a stone pillar, which is a milestone - so there are milestones along the ancient Roman military road Romolo Augusto Staccioli, The Roads of the Romans, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 2003, p.86. Landscape; the Yiting system established by ancient Chinese transportation gave ancient Chinese Yidao a road landscape of long pavilions and short pavilions. Third, the road landscape of "pavilion" is also an important carrier of ancient Chinese send-off culture (which belongs to a kind of behavioral culture); Ancient Chinese roads are lined with willow trees, which is the green landscape of the road, but this stems from the ancient Chinese custom culture of men and women often folding willows to send each other when they are separated, "willow" homonymous "stay", in order to show the nostalgia of lovers and friends for each other. It can be seen that the relationship between people and architecture is also suitable for the relationship between roads and people. Fourth, the road landscape also contains profound ideological and cultural connotations. The history of ancient and modern Chinese and foreign architecture tells us that architecture is not only constrained by science and technology, but also must be built in accordance with the requirements and norms of science and technology, and at the same time constrained by architectural ideas, and architectural ideas are unified with the value orientation, aesthetic culture and national psychology of the times, so the architecture of different eras, different regions, and different nationalities reflects the value orientation, aesthetic culture and national psychology of that era, region and ethnic group. People always build artificial structures according to their own right, aesthetic standards, road construction is also the same, different people have different hobbies, different nationalities have different aesthetic orientation, when these people from different cultural backgrounds according to their own practical standards and aesthetic orientation to carry out road construction, the landscape of the road will have its own characteristics. For example, the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius's Ten Books of Architecture designed architecture as "solid, applicable, and beautiful" [Ancient Rome] Vitruvius: The Ten Books of Architecture, translated by Gao Chutai, Knowledge Publishing House, 2001, p. 16. His basic requirements for architecture have a "beauty", beauty is related to aesthetics, and beauty definitely belongs to the category of philosophy, because aesthetics cannot be separated from aesthetics, aesthetics belongs to the branch of philosophy, but also influenced by national culture and psychology. Li Yi's book "Building French Style" during the Northern Song Dynasty of China is composed of text and drawings, in which the patterns not only reflect the architectural style, but more importantly, it also reflects the architectural aesthetics of the Chinese. Professor Zou Qichang believes that the theoretical system of "Building French Style" has two fundamental aspects: the explicit system and the hidden system, and the so-called explicit system refers to the text composition system, such as system, function, material example, and pattern; The so-called hidden system refers to the cultural spirit in "Building French Style". It also pays attention to architectural beauty, but the spatial forms of Chinese and Western buildings are very different. Why is that? Because Chinese has Chinese cultural characteristics, this characteristic must be reflected in the architecture, and the architectural space form reflects China's unique aesthetic culture and aesthetic psychology in the context of Chinese culture. "Architecture is a concentrated embodiment of the social life of an era, including natural, political, economic, cultural, customary and other comprehensive factors and their influences." (Song) Li Yi: "Building the French Style", Zou Qichang, People's Publishing House, 2006 edition, "Proofreading Instructions", page 2. China and ancient Rome are different in many aspects such as natural, political, economic, cultural, and custom, and the form of architectural space is of course different. Therefore, it is normal for the Chinese and Western architectural space forms to be different, and if the Chinese and Western architectural space forms are the same, it is not normal. The same is true of the roads. Its spatial characteristics are often determined by culture. Ancient Rome was a heavily armed country. The Romans built roads not to develop the economy (although objectively it also promoted it), but to conquer. Wherever its roads are built, the army goes. In a sense, the ancient Roman avenue is the materialized expression of the ancient Roman military and political culture, and in the ancient military, cavalry is not only more mobile and fast than infantry, but also stronger combat effectiveness, in order to achieve this military requirement, the spatial form of the ancient Roman military avenue is built into a cavalry road on both sides higher than the infantry road in the middle, which is also the basic form of today's urban roads. In ancient Greek mythology, although "gods and men are the same" and "gods and men are of the same sex", the gods all live on Mount Olympia, the gods are immortal, and people want to pilgrimage them, so the wide road of Athens always leads to the temple on the top of the mountain. The democracy of Athens dictated that the city needed the square to gather the audience so that the citizens could understand the candidates' policies, so the road to the square was also wide. In contrast, China's imperial road is more special: it is divided into three, with the emperor in the middle and the passage of commoners on both sides. The reason is that the ancient Chinese concept believes that the emperor is the Son of Heaven, and the dignity surpasses ordinary people, and the Chinese's idea of respect and inferiority is reflected in the space of high for respect, low for humble, middle for respect, and side for humility; Reflected in the construction of the road, it becomes that the royal road is in the middle, the civil road is on both sides, and the surface of the royal road is higher than the civil road on both sides. In this way, to observe today's road landscape construction and urban space construction, the Westernized landscape problems of "one side of a thousand cities" and "one thousand streets with the same appearance" are not only problems of urban construction and road construction, but also reflect the problem of ideological and cultural understanding, and reflect the integration of Chinese culture in urban construction thinking. Only by solving the problem ideologically and culturally can the problems existing in urban construction and road landscape construction be fundamentally solved. Since modern times, the rise of the industrial revolution, the standardization required by science and technology has been rapidly promoted around the world, and the automobile civilization has made highway construction widely used in all countries in the world, affected by standardization and modernist architecture, and the cultural characteristics of the road landscape have been impacted to a certain extent. Just as modernist architecture was widely questioned and gave rise to postmodernist architecture, so too has the landscape similarity caused by the standardization of roads leading to deep reflection. Since the 60s of the 20th century, the construction of road landscape characteristics has attracted the attention of developed countries in the world. Taking the United States as an example, this was once deeply influenced by modernist architecture (American modernist architectural ideas were introduced by Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar in Germany, the birthplace of modernist architecture, in the 30s of the 20th century), and spread modernist architecture to countries around the world, and also the first to rise postmodernism. Since the 60s of the 20th century, postmodernist architecture in developed countries such as the United States and Europe has also sprung up. Correspondingly, during this period, the construction and protection of road landscapes in the United States have also received great attention, and the construction and protection of scenic roads is an important representative. An important feature of the American Scenic Trail is that it has its own characteristics, each with its own uniqueness. From the 60s to the 90s of the 20th century, the United States successively introduced the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, A Proposed Program for Scenic Roads and Parkways (1966), and in 1973 the FEAS Ability of Developing a National Scenic Highway System)Lindsey G.,“Use of Urban Greenways:Insights Form Indianapolis”,Landscape and Urban Planning,1999(45),pp.145-157.。 In January 1991, the U.S. Congress submitted the National Scenic Byways Study (Report to Congress), which proposed "plans and methods of operation for the nomination, promotion, and protection of roads with good scenic recognition and high historical value" Federal Highway Administration, National Scenic Byways Study,Washington,D.C.:U.S.Department of Transportation,1991.。 In December of the same year, the U.S. Congress formally passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), under which a special scenic interim act was established, and the "National Scenic Trail Plan" was proposed in the Scenic Interim Act. The National Scenic Trails Advisory Committee was also established under the National Highway Secretariat. The National Scenic Byways Program (1995) was approved and formally approved by Congress in 1995, proposing: "With federal investment, the National Scenic Byways Program helps to identify and preserve the scenery, history, culture, recreation, and natural resources of American highways and promote the distinctiveness of these roads." Ibid., 1995.Correspondingly, the Federal Highway Administration (FHwA) also introduced the "FlexibiIity in Highway Design" rule, which states that "each highway construction project has special characteristics, including factors such as the geographical location of the project area, topographic and geological conditions, social and environmental characteristics along the route, the needs of highway users, and the challenges and opportunities it faces." The task faced by the designer is to seek a design that is safe and harmonious with the surrounding nature and the human environment", based on this concept, designers can flexibly design according to the needs of highway construction. Federal Highway Administration, Flexibility in Highway Design, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/publications/flexibility. The specifications and guiding texts from design to project implementation have better promoted the organic unity of natural landscape and cultural landscape in road landscape construction. So far, more than 40 states in the United States have implemented State Scenic Byways Programs, and most states have developed more specific and detailed scenic selection criteria with their own characteristics under the framework of the National Scenic Byways Program. Taking California as an example, the State of California Scenic Highway Guidelines cover a full range of scenic highways, including background introductions, standards for scenic highways, nomination procedures, project approval procedures, landscape highway signs, conformity review, revocation procedures, dispute disposal procedures, miscellaneous items (including route adjustments, changes, cable burials, etc.), and even include relevant legislative materials, such as The Streets and Highways Act, the Public Facilities Act, the California Environmental Quality Act of the Public Resources Act, and so on, form a complete system. Therefore, in the construction and protection of road landscapes, whether it is planning management or legal construction, whether it is technical specifications or engineering practice, the United States has established a complete system from the national level to the state and county governments, which have truly promoted the construction and development of road landscapes in the United States. According to the procedures and standards of the National Scenic Trail Plan, the United States has formed a three-level scenic route system of Pan American Scenic Route, National Scenic Route and State Scenic Route, and in "1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2005, a total of 32 Pan-American Scenic Routes and 133 National Scenic Routes were selected in five batches, covering all states, counties and villages in the United States" Yu Qing, Hu Xiaoran, Song Yue: "The National Scenic Route System and Plan", Chinese Garden, No. 11, 2007, No. 73- 75 pages. By 2009, the number of Panamerica Scenic Trails had grown to 37, the number of National Scenic Trails had increased to 170, and with the addition of state-level scenic trails in all 50 states, the total length of the entire National Scenic Trail System (NSB) reached 24,548 miles. Research on Foreign Scenic Route System, http://www.chinahighway.com/news/2011/481977.php. In terms of urban street construction, although modernist architecture spread from Europe to the United States and was widely used in the world by the United States, Western developed countries generally paid great attention to protecting their own historical and cultural characteristics and spiritual features. It is a very common practice to examine the urban construction of European and American countries, express urban characteristics, highlight urban charm, and promote spiritual culture through urban roads. From Rome's Empire Avenue to London's Fleet Street, from the Champs-Elysées in Paris to the Washington Boulevard in the United States, from Arbat Avenue in Moscow to Shibuya Street in Tokyo, from Nakrnst Street in Vienna to Linden Street in Berlin, it is not difficult for landscape analysts and historical and cultural scholars to find the cultural characteristics, urban personalities, aesthetic preferences, historical contexts and value orientations displayed by different countries in these urban roads. Therefore, the classic urban road, like the architectural marker, not only plays the role of the city logo (Logo), but also serves as a window of spiritual civilization, a carrier of historical context, and an exhibition stand of urban personality. In the 60s of the 20th century, with the rise of ecological civilization, ecological architecture also began to appear. Although landscape ecology was proposed by German geographer C. Troller as early as the 30s of the 20th century, it developed rapidly after the rise of ecological civilization in Western developed countries in the 60s. When European and American countries build ecological buildings, they also begin to protect road ecology. At the beginning of the 21st century, road ecology based on ecology and engineering practices began to take shape in developed countries. The research team, led by landscape ecologist and Harvard professor Richard T.T. Forman, gathered a total of 14 ecologists, biologists and traffic engineers, summarized the practice of road ecological construction in the past many years, took 27 months, and launched the book "Road Ecology: Science and Solutions" in 2003. The book consists of 4 chapters and 14 chapters, more than 500,000 words, respectively, from roads, vehicles and ecology, plants and wildlife, water, chemicals and atmosphere, road systems and future prospects, etc., to carry out a comprehensive study of road ecology Richard T. T. Forman, Road Ecology: Science and Solutions, Isand Press, pp.vii-x., which has had a very important impact. At present, a new type of road ecological landscape aesthetics has emerged, which is gradually expanding its influence and becoming a new direction for the development of road landscape aesthetics in the future. From the perspective of historical and cultural background, road landscape construction in developed countries, whether it is planning, protection, evaluation, management or construction, has emerged a modern transformation from industrial civilization to post-industrial civilization. Therefore, this is not only the creation and protection of the road landscape as a material culture, but also the manifestation of an ideological culture or value pursuit on the road landscape, the significance of which is not only to make the road landscape more beautiful, but also to achieve the promotion of culture, the enlightenment of civilization, ecological protection, etc. Of course, the prerequisite for this transformation lies first of all in the builder's ideological concept and understanding of the function of the road, which is the embodiment of ideological and cultural content in road construction. China's transformation from tradition to modernity began with the stimulus of external forces. If this modern transformation is viewed from a cultural point of view, its sequence is material culture (represented by the Western Affairs Movement, learning from Western strong ships and sharp guns), → institutional culture (represented by the Reform Law, the New Deal at the end of the Qing Dynasty, and the Xinhai Revolution, learning the Western constitutional monarchy and republican system) → spiritual culture (represented by the New Culture Movement, learning Western spiritual culture such as "democracy" and "science"). Of course, the transformation of ideology and culture will be reflected in the material culture, "Architectural Language Expresses Social Culture and Conceptual Form" Shen Fuxu: History of Chinese Architectural Culture, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2001 edition, p. 7. As an integral part of architecture, roads should, of course, also "express socio-cultural and conceptual forms". China's ideological and cultural transformation has a negation of "old culture", so there is also a negation process of architectural design and road landscape construction under the influence of this ideology. Today, the ancient road landscape of "outside the long pavilion, on the side of the ancient road, the grass is blue, the evening breeze blows the willow flute, and the sunset mountain is outside the mountain" (Li Shutong's "Farewell") that still exists in the Republic of China period, the landscape of the ancient post road has long been difficult to find. Under the influence of foreign culture, in the construction of new culture, the urban roads of the Republic of China, more or less, consciously or unconsciously, always have some taste of European wind and rain, such as the protective renovation of Shanghai Xintiandi in the late 90s of the 20th century, which is actually the restoration of the urban street landscape of colonial and semi-colonial countries from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China. The eight historical districts in Nanjing, Wuhan, Chongqing and Qingdao, which also implement this kind of urban road protection in Shanghai, can see the shadow of Western city streets, and the influence of the era characteristics of "Huayang mixed" on the urban road landscape. At the beginning of the founding of New China, there was a period of "total Sovietization" in education and culture. Therefore, the Soviet Union's urban construction ideas also influenced the urban construction of our country at that time. Most of the top ten buildings in Beijing are Soviet-style buildings. From the Great Hall of the People to the Military Museum, from the History Museum to the Beijing Exhibition Hall, these building facades have left an indelible historical memory for Beijing's urban ribbon space (Main Street). During the "Cultural Revolution", many urban street construction reflected the unique historical and cultural memory of that period - the "quotations of Chairman Mao" in yellow characters on a red background on the façade of urban street buildings. The dry fortress buildings on both sides of the urban streets of Tangshan City, if not encountered by the major earthquake and subsequent urban reconstruction, may leave us with the classics of urban construction and urban roads of that era. Similarly, the dry fortified houses and streets that Daqing City deliberately left behind are not because such buildings are needed in today's urban streets, but to maintain and carry forward the "dry fortification spirit". After the reform and opening up, China began the construction of large-scale urban roads, highways and ordinary highways, the purpose of the construction is to solve the traffic problem, as for the beauty of the road, ecology, culture are not the main consideration. Even if you notice the beauty of the road, it is mainly from the aspect of road traffic safety, taking technical standards as the starting point, and looking at the "point, line, and surface" angle of the road. Since the 80s of the 20th century, the Ministry of Communications has successively promulgated a number of "Highway Line Design Codes" ([JL 3011-84], [JTJ 011-1994], [JTGD 20-2006]), the Ministry of Construction also issued the "Urban Road Greening Planning and Design Code" in 1997 [CJJ 75-97], these documents technically regulate the standards of road landscape construction and greening, as the technical standards of the industry are beyond reproach, but if from the height of national legislation, From the perspective of landscape culture and ecological construction to solve landscape culture problems, ecological problems, art problems, etc. in road construction, it is obviously unable to keep up with the situation of national cultural construction and ecological construction in road landscape construction. In addition, China's urbanization process and urban construction scale and rapid speed, there are some problems in planning, design, construction and many other aspects, such as the intervention of leadership will, the lack of humanistic knowledge of planners, and the formalization of citizen participation. This makes our urban construction often have the dilemma of "one side of a thousand cities" and "one side of a thousand streets" - urban roads as urban belt spaces lack characteristics. It is gratifying that in large-scale urban construction and transportation construction, some gratifying highlights have emerged in China. For example, Shenzhen built Shennan Avenue in the 80s of the 20th century, objectively highlighting the achievements of reform and opening up, carrying forward the spirit of the city's reform and opening up, and highlighting its urban character of innovation; In the 90s, Shanghai introduced the world's leading landscape design company - Charts-Defonse in France with an open attitude, and designed a landscape avenue that highlights Shanghai's city and Chinese culture - Century Avenue, which not only strengthens the landscape significance of the road, but also expresses the cultural connotation and ecological significance that the builder pays attention to behind these landscapes. The construction of these urban roads, despite the existence of such and such problems, caused controversy Sun Liang: "Transportation, Landscape People: Comparing the Avenue de Century and the Champs-Élysées in Paris", Central China Architecture, No. 12, 2006, pp. 122-124; Lu Xiaojun: "The Gains and Losses of Urban Design of Pudong Century Avenue", Planner, No. 10, 2005, pp. 106-107. But its direction is undoubtedly worthy of affirmation. In 2014, the Ministry of Transport launched the new "Highway Engineering Technical Standard" ([JTGB 01-2014]), which provides technical guidance for the transformation of highways from transportation functions to tourism functions and cultural functions, and adapts to the new situation. In terms of road ecological construction, China closely follows the international frontier, not only researching new achievements in road ecology, but also applying them to engineering practice. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Transportation Research Institute of the Ministry of Transport and other related construction units have carried out a lot of research and exploration to build ecological roads. In terms of road engineering practice, the Sichuan secondary highway Chuan (main temple) Jiugou Road and Yunnan Expressway Si (Mao) Xiao (Mengyang) Road led by Dr. Li Haifeng have all exerted important influences in the transportation industry. The reconstruction of Sichuanjiu Road, with the help of the "flexibility of highway design" in the United States, is designed and constructed under the principle of "dew, penetration, sealing and lure", which better protects the ecological environment of the road area, and the original landscape of the road is strengthened, becoming the first ecological road in the plateau area in China; Sixiao Road ecologically protects the tropical rainforest along the road area, and realizes "cars walking in the forest, people swimming in paintings" in the landscape. Although these roads also have many problems in reality, they have given rise to new thinking. For example, the Asian elephant passage reserved by Sixiao Road did not play a good role in guiding the passage of Asian elephants, and often appeared in groups on the highway, causing many traffic accidents, but after all, it opened up a new direction for the ecological construction of domestic expressways. There are also some achievements in the theoretical research of road ecology. Dr. Wang Yun from the Academy of Science of the Ministry of Communications and Dr. Li Tai'an from Lanzhou University have written and published a series of papers on road ecology on the basis of studying foreign road ecology. In terms of monograph research, Associate Professor Liu Shiliang of Beijing Normal University published "Research on Road Ecology". Liu Shiliang: Research on Road Ecology, Beijing Normal University Press, 2012. At present, the period of large-scale development and construction of domestic road traffic has basically passed, and the post-transportation era is coming. History and international practice prove that when road development has basically solved the needs of traffic, after entering the post-traffic era, people will pay more attention to the landscape quality of roads. The quality of road landscape is not only related to driving safety, but also related to art, culture, ecology and many other aspects. Therefore, in the post-transportation era, the road landscape should become the object of great attention. At present, the enthusiasm for domestic road landscape construction is very high, whether it is a highway or an urban road, whether it is a county or a town, whether it is a construction department or a design unit, whether it is an online search or a field survey, as long as you are willing, you will find that people's enthusiasm for creating road landscapes is everywhere. Almost every city, county, and even town has a "landscape avenue". In some cities, the most beautiful street beauty pageants have hundreds of thousands or even millions of online voters, and dozens of streets have been selected. This scale is unprecedented, even from a world perspective. This undoubtedly lays a corresponding public foundation for the future road landscape construction. In addition, the beauty of this road landscape has not escaped the dilemma of "the same appearance of a thousand streets", which has been criticized by experts and ordinary people: "Cities Need a "Revolution with Big Feet", Designers, No. 1, 2010, pp. 13-15. , but for more than a decade, the problem is far from being fundamentally solved. For this reason, the author believes that from the root point of view, it is because people attach importance to the formal beauty of points, lines, surfaces and other aspects of the road landscape, and ignore the cultural connotation and ecological value hidden behind the form. In other words, the problem of road landscape not only involves the landscape itself, but also involves many academic theories and practical issues such as regional culture, urban personality, ecological civilization, etc. Only by standing at the height of cultural construction and cultural consciousness to create a road landscape, our road landscape will have Chinese characteristics, urban personality and regional characteristics. From this perspective, the research content of this book may have a positive impact on the large-scale urban and rural road landscape construction that is currently underway. If this is the case, the book will achieve the purpose that the author intended.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
谢怀建.中国道路景观文化研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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谢怀建.中国道路景观文化研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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谢怀建(2016).中国道路景观文化研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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