收藏 纠错 引文

中小企业创业研究:基于产业集群视角

ISBN:978-7-5161-3860-1

出版日期:2013-12

页数:611

字数:642.0千字

点击量:6047次

中图法分类:
出版单位:
关键词:
专题:
折扣价:¥58.8 [6折] 原价:¥98.0 立即购买电子书

图书简介

本书是国家社会科学基金项目“产业集群内中小企业创业研究”(项目批准号:08BJL027)的主要研究成果。笔者率领团队成员长期致力于中小企业发展的系列研究,从20世纪90年代初就开始研究中小企业发展问题,是我国最早研究中小企业发展的学者之一,先后主持完成和在研6项主题为中小企业发展相关问题的联合国开发计划署资助项目、国家社会科学基金项目、国家自然科学基金项目、国家软科学项目,以及教育部人文社会科学研究项目、工业与信息化部研究项目、江苏省软科学项目、江苏省社会科学基金项目等20余项省部级项目,尤其深刻认识到中小企业创业对国民经济发展和社会的重要作用,持续研究中小企业创业的前沿问题,提出了一系列促进中小企业创业的创新性主张。产业集群是一个有机的组织,各种各样的创业活动是构成产业集群生命的组成细胞。产业集群形成和演化的主要驱动力量就是创业活动,而产业集群由于其与生俱来的独特竞争力,从而能降低创业成本,激发更多的创业机会,聚集更高质量的创业资源,并推动后来创业者的创业活动深化。针对产业集群内创业的理论和实证研究都在试图了解产业集群内创业为何会更加成功,以及创业活动在产业集群中发生的概率为何要高于非产业集群。究其原因,尽管在非产业集群,创业环境、创业网络对创业过程进而对创业绩效也会产生影响,但影响的显著性和持久性相比于产业集群要弱一些,这是因为,在产业集群内,动态性、复杂性和宽松性特征更加明显,系统的创业机制、高关联性的创业网络、完善的产业化体系等要素更加有利于新创企业生存和成长,这些特征和要素有助于创业者的能力提升、创业机会的合理利用和创业资源的有效整合,进而有助于提升创业绩效产出水平。另外,集群内创业研究通常是把对象锁定在政府扶持建设的经济集聚区和高新技术产业集群内,而对民间自发形成的“草根型”非高新技术产业集群内的创业活动几乎很少涉及,这类产业集群恰恰又是我国产业集群的主体,面广量大的这类产业集群形成了我国经济的基本面。鉴于此,对代表着产业集群构成主体的“草根型”非高新技术产业集群内的创业绩效及其影响因素加以研究就显得更有必要。本书在相关理论和实证研究成果的基础上,结合结构方程模型等实证研究方法,以“环境→过程→绩效”为基本范式,将创业环境特征和阶段性、创业网络、创业过程和创业绩效有机地纳入产业集群背景下的整体架构内,从而研究产业集群内中小企业创业机理。在理论上,这有助于创业理论与产业集群理论的交叉融合,从彼此错位的角度观察创业理论与产业集群理论的发展,推动两者的交互研究,为创业理论研究框架的发展提供情境参考;在实践上,这有助于了解创业活动在产业集群中发生的概率远高于孤立区位的原因,剖析产业集群内中小企业创业活动机理。本书共计四篇二十章,第一章为绪论,第二十章为结论与展望,其间共分四篇,涉及产业集群内中小企业创业的文献综述、理论研究、实证研究和政策设计。第一篇(共3章)关于文献综述,主要从产业集群、创业和产业集群内创业三个方面对国内外相关文献进行综述,在此基础上进行文献的总体评述和探讨有待进一步研究的问题,主要是在把握国内外理论和实践研究前沿的基础上,说明研究的理论基础。第二篇(共6章)关于产业集群内中小企业创业的理论研究,主要对产业集群发展不同阶段内的中小企业创建差异性、产业集群内创业者社会资本对创业机会价值的影响、产业集群内创业网络、产业集群内创业环境、产业集群内创业过程、产业集群内创业绩效六个方面进行理论探讨,为进一步开展产业集群内中小企业创业的实证研究提供重要的理论依据,重点内容包括:以产业集群发展阶段特征和环境演进为主线,探讨产业集群发展不同阶段内的创业资源、创业机会和创业者的差异性,进而判别产业集群各个发展阶段的创业活动状况及其原因;分析产业集群内创业者社会资本对创业机会市场价值、利用价值和经济价值的影响效应,并运用演化博弈的方法分别探讨水平聚集型和纵向聚集型产业集群内创业者社会资本投资演化趋势及影响因素;构建产业集群内创业核心网络、支持网络和隐性网络,分析产业集群基于网络节点关系变化、网络模式转变和网络规模锁定的创业网络动态性;对产业集群内创业环境的构建要素和主要特性进行剖析。第三篇(共5章)关于产业集群内中小企业创业的实证研究,主要对产业集群内创业要素供给、产业集群内中小企业创业环境、过程与绩效关系、产业集群不同发展阶段内中小企业创业差异性、产业集群内创业网络对中小企业创业过程影响、产业集群内创业者社会资本对创业机会价值影响六个方面进行实证研究,进而为开展产业集群内中小企业创业的政策设计指明方向,重点内容包括:首先,提出了研究要素的相关假设,在遵循规范程序基础上,对产业集群内创业环境、创业网络、创业过程和创业绩效等要素的量表进行了设计;其次,基于江苏省不锈钢产业集群、汽摩配件产业集群、扬中工程电器产业集群、邳州板材产业集群,安徽童车集群、羽绒服装集群等多个产业集群内的2000多家新创中小企业为问卷调查对象所获得的样本数据,通过因子分析,提炼了量表的具体题项,确认了量表中的各个潜变量维度,进一步地进行了量表的信度与效度检验。最后,基于结构方程模型、回归模型等实证研究方法,利用AMOS、SPSS等统计分析软件,针对所提出的所有假设进行了显著性检验,从而得到了模型假设检验的结果,在此基础上,对假设检验结果进行了详细讨论。第四篇(共4章)关于产业集群内中小企业创业的政策设计,主要包括产业集群内中小企业创业辅导体系、产业集群内基于中小企业创业过程的科技服务业发展、产业集群内中小企业创业基地和基于社会资本与信息能力的创业机会价值提升策略四个方面的政策研究,政策研究的主要目的是改善产业集群内中小企业创业环境,提升中小企业创业绩效,其主要内容包括:对创业辅导体系基本框架和业务内容进行研究;分析科技服务业在丰富创业资源、帮助中小企业提升吸收能力方面的作用,构建基于中小企业创业过程的服务体系,在此基础上,对产业集群内促进科技服务业发展的对策进行设计;对创业基地的运营机制,包括培育、筛选、收益、激励、竞争以及毕业机制进行研究;对创业者横向社会资本、纵向社会资本与集群社会资本以及创业者信息获取能力和信息处理能力的提升措施分别进行研究。本书的创新之处主要表现在:实现了创业理论与产业集群理论的交叉融合,使两个理论的研究找到契合点,为创业理论研究框架的发展提供情境参考,揭开产业集群内易于中小企业创业的“黑箱”,为政府部门搭建中小企业创业扶持系统,出台相关政策提供理论指导。具体创新点表现在:构建了产业集群内创业环境、创业过程与创业绩效之间的传导关系及其结构方程模型和研究假设,并设置了各个要素的测量变量,依据实证研究所收集的大样本数据、模型验证和假设检验的结果表明,产业集群内创业环境对中小企业创业过程中的创业机会利用、创业资源整合和创业者会产生影响,进而影响创业绩效;剖析了以信息能力为中介的产业集群内创业者社会资本对创业机会价值影响的效应和机理,并建立了相应的理论模型,将创业者社会资本分为横向、纵向和集群三类,设计了各个要素的测量量表,根据所收集的调查数据,分析结果表明,信息能力对产业集群内横向、纵向和集群三类社会资本分别与创业机会价值之间关系能产生中介效应;设计了产业集群内创业网络对中小企业创业过程影响的理论模型和研究假设,把产业集群内创业网络划分为核心、支持和隐性三类,依据收集的样本数据,结果表明,产业集群内三类创业网络对中小企业创业过程中的创业机会、创业资源和创业者会产生影响;剖析了产业集群不同发展阶段内中小企业创业差异性产生的机理,并构建了理论模型和假设,将产业集群发展分为形成、成长和成熟三个阶段,基于样本数据、模型验证和假设检验结果表明,在集群形成阶段,政策是促进创业的主要推手,在集群成长阶段,机会、资源和创业者三个要素是创业活动中的主要力量,而集群成熟阶段不利于创业活动的产生;基于实证研究结论,针对性提出了构建产业集群内中小企业创业辅导体系,强化产业集群内基于中小企业创业过程的科技服务业发展,建设产业集群内中小企业创业基地,以及促进基于社会资本与信息能力的创业机会价值提升四个方面的政策,相关成果得到了江苏省领导的充分肯定,并在江苏省中小企业局等政府部门进行了推广应用,对促进中小企业创业与成长、指导产业集群规范建设,进而对激发全民创业热情、优化创业环境等具有指导意义和实践价值。本书主要作者为项目主持人、江苏省中小企业发展研究基地首席专家、江苏大学管理学院博士生导师梅强教授和赵观兵副教授,参加本书撰写的还有项目课题组成员:赵艳萍、王朝云、崔祥民、李文元、谢振宇、贡文伟、万武、孙玉青、陈鹏。全书由梅强教授负责设计、组织、统撰与定稿,赵观兵副教授协助修改全书。在本书的撰写和出版过程中,花文超、付鲜凤等研究生参与了相关资料的收集整理、校对等工作。在研究过程中,尤其得到了江苏省中小企业局、东台市溱东镇和时堰镇、兴化市戴南镇和张郭镇、常州市孟河镇、镇江市工商管理局等许多政府部门,江苏省、安徽省众多中小企业工作人员的帮助和支持,在此深表感谢!本书参考的成果和引用的大多数文献资料在引文和叙述中有所交代,并附有参考文献,但因数目众多,不免会有遗漏。同时书稿的形成仰仗广大同行富有启发性的观点,作者在此深表谢意!目前,从产业集群角度来研究中小企业创业问题的成果为数甚少,希望本书能为相关专家学者提供研究的借鉴与参考;能为政府管理部门制定正确的创业扶持政策提供理论和实践依据;能为众多的中小企业创业者提供必要的启示。尽管作者力求写出高水平的作品,但由于产业集群中的中小企业创业问题涉及面庞杂,加之作者的研究水平有限,本书必然存在某些有待商榷的观点和思想,恳请广大同行批评指正!最后衷心祝愿所有读者都能从本书中领悟到中小企业创业研究的真谛。梅强2013年9月于江苏大学

This book is the main research result of the National Social Science Foundation project "Research on Entrepreneurship of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Industrial Clusters" (project approval number: 08BJL027). The author leads the team members to devote himself to a series of research on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises for a long time, and has been studying the development of small and medium-sized enterprises since the early 90s of the 20th century, and is one of the earliest scholars studying the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in China. More than 20 provincial and ministerial projects, such as Jiangsu Soft Science Project and Jiangsu Social Science Foundation Project, especially deeply recognize the important role of SME entrepreneurship in national economic development and society, continue to study the frontier issues of SME entrepreneurship, and put forward a series of innovative propositions to promote SME entrepreneurship. An industrial cluster is an organic organization, and various entrepreneurial activities are the constituent cells that make up the life of an industrial cluster. The main driving force for the formation and evolution of industrial clusters is entrepreneurial activities, and industrial clusters can reduce entrepreneurial costs, stimulate more entrepreneurial opportunities, gather higher-quality entrepreneurial resources, and promote the deepening of entrepreneurial activities of later entrepreneurs due to their inherent unique competitiveness. Both theoretical and empirical studies on entrepreneurship within industrial clusters are trying to understand why entrepreneurship within industrial clusters is more successful, and why entrepreneurial activities are more likely to occur in industrial clusters than in non-industrial clusters. The reason is that although in non-industrial clusters, entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial network will also have an impact on the entrepreneurial process and thus on entrepreneurial performance, the significance and durability of the impact are weaker than that of industrial clusters, because in industrial clusters, the dynamic, complex and loose characteristics are more obvious, and the systematic entrepreneurial mechanism, highly relevant entrepreneurial network, perfect industrialization system and other elements are more conducive to the survival and growth of new enterprises, and these characteristics and elements help entrepreneurs improve their capabilities. The rational use of entrepreneurial opportunities and the effective integration of entrepreneurial resources will help to improve the level of entrepreneurial performance output. In addition, the research of entrepreneurship in the cluster usually locks the objects in the economic agglomeration areas and high-tech industrial clusters supported by the government, and the entrepreneurial activities in the "grassroots" non-high-tech industrial clusters spontaneously formed by the private sector are rarely involved, and such industrial clusters are precisely the main body of China's industrial clusters, and such industrial clusters with a large area form the fundamentals of China's economy. In view of this, it is more necessary to study the entrepreneurial performance and its influencing factors in "grassroots" non-high-tech industrial clusters, which represent the main body of industrial clusters. On the basis of relevant theories and empirical research results, combined with empirical research methods such as structural equation models, this book takes "environmental → process → performance" as the basic paradigm, organically incorporates the characteristics and stages of entrepreneurial environment, entrepreneurial network, entrepreneurial process and entrepreneurial performance into the overall framework of industrial clusters, so as to study the entrepreneurial mechanism of small and medium-sized enterprises in industrial clusters. In theory, this is conducive to the cross-integration of entrepreneurship theory and industrial cluster theory, observes the development of entrepreneurship theory and industrial cluster theory from the perspective of mutual dislocation, promotes the interaction between the two, and provides contextual reference for the development of entrepreneurial theory research framework. In practice, this is helpful to understand the reasons why the probability of entrepreneurial activities in industrial clusters is much higher than that in isolated locations, and to analyze the mechanism of entrepreneurial activities of small and medium-sized enterprises in industrial clusters. The book consists of four articles and twenty chapters, the first of which is an introduction, and the twentieth chapter is a conclusion and outlook, which is divided into four parts, covering literature review, theoretical research, empirical research and policy design of SME entrepreneurship in industrial clusters. The first part (a total of 3 chapters) is about literature review, mainly from the three aspects of industrial cluster, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship within industrial cluster to review the relevant literature at home and abroad, on this basis, the overall review of the literature and discuss the issues to be further studied, mainly on the basis of grasping the frontier of theoretical and practical research at home and abroad, explaining the theoretical basis of research. The second part (a total of 6 chapters) on the theoretical research on the entrepreneurship of SMEs in industrial clusters mainly discusses the differences in the creation of SMEs in different stages of industrial cluster development, the impact of social capital of entrepreneurs in industrial clusters on the value of entrepreneurial opportunities, the entrepreneurial network within industrial clusters, the entrepreneurial environment in industrial clusters, the entrepreneurial process within industrial clusters, and the entrepreneurial performance in industrial clusters, so as to provide an important theoretical basis for further empirical research on SME entrepreneurship in industrial clusters. The key contents include: taking the characteristics of industrial cluster development stages and environmental evolution as the main line, discussing the differences in entrepreneurial resources, entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurs at different stages of industrial cluster development, and then identifying the status of entrepreneurial activities and their reasons at each stage of industrial cluster development; The influence effect of entrepreneurs' social capital on the market, utilization and economic value of entrepreneurial opportunities in industrial clusters was analyzed, and the evolutionary game method was used to explore the evolution trend and influencing factors of entrepreneurs' social capital investment in horizontal and vertical clusters. Build the core network, support network and implicit network of entrepreneurship in the industrial cluster, and analyze the dynamics of the entrepreneurial network of the industrial cluster based on the change of network node relationship, the transformation of network mode and the network scale locking. The construction elements and main characteristics of the entrepreneurial environment in the industrial cluster are analyzed. The third part (a total of 5 chapters) is an empirical study on the entrepreneurship of SMEs in industrial clusters, which mainly conducts empirical research on the supply of entrepreneurial factors in industrial clusters, the entrepreneurial environment, process and performance relationship between SMEs in industrial clusters, the differences in SME entrepreneurship in different stages of development of industrial clusters, the impact of entrepreneurial networks in industrial clusters on the entrepreneurial process of SMEs, and the impact of entrepreneurs' social capital on the value of entrepreneurial opportunities in industrial clusters, so as to point out the direction for the policy design of SME entrepreneurship in industrial clusters. The key contents include: first, the relevant hypotheses of the research elements are put forward, and the scales of the entrepreneurial environment, entrepreneurial network, entrepreneurial process and entrepreneurial performance in the industrial cluster are designed on the basis of following the normative procedures; Secondly, based on the sample data obtained by more than 2,000 newly created small and medium-sized enterprises in Jiangsu Province stainless steel industry cluster, automobile and motorcycle parts industry cluster, Yangzhong engineering electrical appliance industry cluster, Pizhou plate industry cluster, Anhui stroller cluster, down clothing cluster and other industrial clusters as the questionnaire survey subjects, through factor analysis, the specific questions of the scale were extracted, the latent variable dimensions of the scale were confirmed, and the reliability and validity of the scale were further tested. Finally, based on empirical research methods such as structural equation model and regression model, and using statistical analysis software such as AMOS and SPSS, the significance test is carried out for all the hypotheses proposed, so as to obtain the results of the model hypothesis test, and on this basis, the hypothesis test results are discussed in detail. The fourth part (a total of 4 chapters) on the policy design of SME entrepreneurship in industrial clusters, mainly including policy research in four aspects: SME entrepreneurship guidance system in industrial clusters, development of science and technology service industry based on SME entrepreneurship process in industrial clusters, SME entrepreneurship bases in industrial clusters and entrepreneurial opportunity value enhancement strategies based on social capital and information capabilities, the main purpose of policy research is to improve the entrepreneurial environment of SMEs in industrial clusters and enhance the entrepreneurial performance of SMEs. Its main contents include: research on the basic framework and business content of the entrepreneurial counseling system; Analyze the role of science and technology service industry in enriching entrepreneurial resources and helping small and medium-sized enterprises improve their absorption capacity, build a service system based on the entrepreneurial process of small and medium-sized enterprises, and on this basis, design countermeasures to promote the development of science and technology service industry in industrial clusters; Research on the operation mechanism of the entrepreneurial base, including cultivation, screening, income, incentives, competition and graduation mechanism; The horizontal social capital, vertical social capital and cluster social capital of entrepreneurs, as well as the measures to improve the information acquisition and information processing capabilities of entrepreneurs, were studied. The innovation of this book is mainly reflected in: it realizes the cross-integration of entrepreneurship theory and industrial cluster theory, finds a convergence point in the research of the two theories, provides a situational reference for the development of the research framework of entrepreneurship theory, uncovers the "black box" in the industrial cluster that is easy for SMEs to start a business, and provides theoretical guidance for government departments to build a support system for SME entrepreneurship and introduce relevant policies. The specific innovation points are as follows: the conduction relationship between the entrepreneurial environment, entrepreneurial process and entrepreneurial performance in the industrial cluster and its structural equation model and research hypothesis are constructed, and the measurement variables of each element are set, and the results of large sample data, model verification and hypothesis testing collected by empirical research show that the entrepreneurial environment in the industrial cluster will have an impact on the utilization of entrepreneurial opportunities, the integration of entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurial process of small and medium-sized enterprises, and then affect the entrepreneurial performance; The effect and mechanism of the influence of entrepreneurs' social capital on the value of entrepreneurial opportunities in industrial clusters mediated by information capability were analyzed, and the corresponding theoretical model was established, the social capital of entrepreneurs was divided into three categories: horizontal, vertical and cluster, and a measurement scale of each element was designed. The theoretical model and research hypothesis of the impact of entrepreneurial networks in industrial clusters on the entrepreneurial process of SMEs are designed, and the entrepreneurial networks in industrial clusters are divided into three categories: core, support and implicit, and the results show that the three types of entrepreneurial networks in industrial clusters will have an impact on entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurial process of SMEs. Based on sample data, model verification and hypothesis testing, the results show that in the cluster formation stage, policy is the main driver to promote entrepreneurship, in the cluster growth stage, the three elements of opportunity, resources and entrepreneurs are the main force in entrepreneurial activities, and the mature stage of the cluster is not conducive to the generation of entrepreneurial activities. Based on the empirical research conclusions, the four policies of building a small and medium-sized enterprise entrepreneurship guidance system in the industrial cluster, strengthening the development of the science and technology service industry based on the entrepreneurial process of small and medium-sized enterprises in the industrial cluster, building a small and medium-sized enterprise entrepreneurship base in the industrial cluster, and promoting the enhancement of the value of entrepreneurial opportunities based on social capital and information capabilities were proposed. Guiding the standardized construction of industrial clusters has guiding significance and practical value for stimulating the enthusiasm of the whole people for entrepreneurship and optimizing the entrepreneurial environment. The main authors of this book are the project host, the chief expert of Jiangsu Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Development Research Base, Professor Mei Qiang and Associate Professor Zhao Guanbing, doctoral supervisor of the School of Management of Jiangsu University, and the project team members: Zhao Yanping, Wang Chaoyun, Cui Xiangmin, Li Wenyuan, Xie Zhenyu, Gong Wenwei, Wan Wu, Sun Yuqing, Chen Peng. Professor Mei Qiang was responsible for the design, organization, co-writing and finalization of the book, and Associate Professor Zhao Guanbing assisted in revising the book. In the process of writing and publishing this book, Hua Wenchao, Fu Xianfeng and other graduate students participated in the collection, collation and proofreading of relevant materials. In the process of research, we have especially received the help and support of many government departments such as Jiangsu Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Bureau, Qindong Town and Shiyan Town of Dongtai City, Dainan Town and Zhangguo Town of Xinghua City, Menghe Town of Changzhou City, Zhenjiang Business Administration Bureau and many other government departments, as well as many small and medium-sized enterprises staff in Jiangsu Province and Anhui Province. Most of the references and references in this book are explained in the citations and narratives, with references, but due to the large number of them, it is inevitable that there will be omissions. At the same time, the formation of the manuscript depends on the enlightening views of the vast number of peers, and the author is deeply grateful! At present, there are few achievements in studying the entrepreneurship of small and medium-sized enterprises from the perspective of industrial clusters, and it is hoped that this book can provide reference and reference for relevant experts and scholars. It can provide theoretical and practical basis for government management departments to formulate correct entrepreneurial support policies; It can provide necessary inspiration for many small and medium-sized enterprise entrepreneurs. Although the author strives to write high-level works, due to the complexity of the problem of SME entrepreneurship in industrial clusters, and the limited research level of the author, there must be some debatable views and ideas in this book, and I urge the majority of peers to criticize and correct! Finally, I sincerely hope that all readers can understand the true meaning of SME entrepreneurship research from this book. Mei Qiang at Jiangsu University in September 2013(AI翻译)

展开

作者简介

展开

图书目录

本书视频 参考文献 本书图表

相关词

阅读
请支付
×
提示:您即将购买的内容资源仅支持在线阅读,不支持下载!

当前账户可用余额

余额不足,请先充值或选择其他支付方式

请选择感兴趣的分类
选好了,开始浏览
×
推荐购买
×
手机注册 邮箱注册

已有账号,返回登录

×
账号登录 一键登录

没有账号,快速注册

×
手机找回 邮箱找回

返回登录

引文

×
GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
梅强,赵观兵.中小企业创业研究:基于产业集群视角[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2013
复制
MLA 格式引文
梅强,赵观兵.中小企业创业研究:基于产业集群视角.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2013E-book.
复制
APA 格式引文
梅强和赵观兵(2013).中小企业创业研究:基于产业集群视角.北京:中国社会科学出版社
复制
×
错误反馈