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明清移民与鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会变迁研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-3455-9

出版日期:2013-12

页数:292

字数:312.0千字

丛书名:《文化多样性与地方治理丛书》

点击量:3486次

引用量:5次

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本书运用历史学、民族学、社会学等学科的理论和方法,以鄂西南少数民族地区的明清移民和乡村社会为研究对象,在文献梳理以及田野调查的基础上,对明清移民和乡村社会变迁的过程及其相互关系进行了比较深入的探讨,并就移民在中华民族多元一体格局形成过程中的作用进行了深入研究。鄂西南少数民族地区地处中国中西结合部,是土家族、苗族、侗族等多民族聚居区,从考古发掘来看,该区域很早以前就有古人类活动。早在先秦时期,该区域就有楚人、蜀人、三苗等族群迁徙活动,在羁縻时期,该区域有两次较大规模的移民,分别是魏晋南北朝时期的移民和宋代的移民。羁縻时期的移民多起源于军事活动和农业开发。这是鄂西南少数民族地区明清以前的移民历史背景。明清时期,鄂西南少数民族地区主要有三次移民潮,一是从元末明初持续至乾隆时期的“江西填湖广,湖广填四川”移民;二是明洪武十四年(1381年)设置施州卫以及明洪武二十三年(1390年)设置大田军民千户所时迁入的卫所官兵,即卫所移民;三是改土归流之后的招垦移民。“江西填湖广,湖广填四川”移民主要来自江西南昌府、吉安府和湖北荆州府,卫所移民主要是从长江中下游地区迁来的官兵和从重庆酉阳迁来的土官、土兵,总人数大约有3万人,招垦移民主要来自湖南的常德府、澧州、沅州府、辰州府、长沙府和贵州的铜仁府、思南府、思州府等地,迁来的人口总数大约为18.8万人。这些移民迁徙的原因既有迁出地的推力,也有迁入地的拉力。移民主要沿着与长江平行的三横和与长江垂直的四纵七条陆路和沿澧水、溇水,沅水、酉水,乌江、阿蓬江三条水系形成的陆路和水路,以及以鹤峰、来凤为起点直通湘西的陆路盐道迁徙。明清移民中,卫所移民属于强制性移民,其他移民绝大多数是自发性移民。强制性移民和自发性移民具有不同的社会融入方式,强制性移民经历了强行植入和自发融入两个阶段,自发性移民主要借助自身以及同乡移民的力量,首先生活在同乡村落中,家族势力发展起来之后分化为家族村落而融入乡村社会。国家权力在强制性移民的强行植入阶段,对乡村社会干预太多,给土著社会带来较大冲击,引起土著与移民之间的强烈对抗,到了明代后期,国家权力在鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会式微之后,移民与土著的关系得以缓和,进入自发融入阶段。这样的社会融入方式,使得卫所移民借助国家权力获得了很多优势资源,生活在乡村社会权力结构的中心,即使在卫所体制解体之后,他们仍然保持这种中心地位。明清移民引起了鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会的巨大变迁。乡村社会变迁首先体现在生态环境变迁上,移民迁入之后积极进行生存环境建设,一些新的物种传入鄂西南少数民族地区,并得到推广种植,取得了一定的建设成就,但是生态破坏也非常严重,天然动植物资源急剧减少,土地沙化和石漠化日趋严重,抗灾能力急速下降;其次体现在乡村经济变迁上,移民推动了乡村经济走向繁荣,乡村市场逐渐兴起,商品贸易更加活跃,生漆、桐油、苎麻、茶叶等大宗农产品成为农民增收的主要途径;再次则体现在文化变迁上,受移民文化影响,土著的居处文化、服饰文化、民间信仰文化、人生礼仪文化、饮食文化等文化都发生了变迁,吸收了较多汉文化因子以及部分苗族、侗族等少数民族的文化因子,移民的传统文化同时也受土著文化影响,发生了变迁;再其次体现在乡村社会秩序的冲突与整合上,清代中后期,鄂西南少数民族地区先后爆发了白莲教起义和反洋教斗争等社会冲突,在冲突过程中实现了移民与土著社会的深度整合;最后体现在土著家族的认同变迁上,在移民的影响下,土著家族重新建构了家族的历史记忆,形成移民认同。移民对于中华民族多元一体格局的形成具有重要意义,通过他们实现了多元文化的互动与整合,促进了中华民族认同意识形成。笔者通过移民与乡村社会变迁的历史考察,认为现阶段在促进“多元”文化发展、保护文化多样性的同时,要通过丰富中华民族“一体”文化的内涵和加强核心文化建设来增强中华民族文化的凝聚力,强化中华民族认同。

This paper,by adopting theories and methods from history,ethnology and sociology and taking the migration and rural society changes that occurred among the minority people in Southwest Hubei during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty as researching objects,researches thoroughly into the migration and rural society changes and relationship that occurred among minority people in the Southwest Hubei during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty,as well as migrations effect in forming Chinese people diversity pattern,on the basis of documentation,classification and field investigation.The living regions for minority people,mostly,Tujia,Miao and Dong minority people,in Southwest Hubei locate in the transition zone between Western China and Eastern China.Judged from archaeological discoveries,this region is one of the cradles for mankind.In the PreQin period,there has been migration behavior for people of Chu,Shu and Sanmiao.During the feudal society period,there were two large scales migrations within this period,namely the migration in the Northern and Southern Dynasties as well as the migration in Song Dynasty.The migrations during feudal society period were mostly caused by military activities or agricultural development.This is the historical background for the migration that occurred among the minority people in Southwest Hubei during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty.During Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty,there were three major migrations. Firstly,it was the JiangxiHunan and Guangdong,Hunan and GuangdongSichuan migration.Secondly,it was the immigrated soldier due to the establishment of Shizhou Wei in 1381,Hongwu 14th Year in Ming Dynasty,and the establishment of Datian in 1390,Hongwu 23rd Year in Ming Dynasty. Thirdly,its the farming immigration after bureaucratization of native officers.In JiangxiHunan and Guangdong,Hunan and GuangdongSichuan period,most immigrants came from Nanchang Jiangxi,Jian Nanchang,and Jinzhou Hubei,while the Weisuo immigrants,totally 30,000 people,were officers and soldiers from middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River as well as Youyang,Sichuan.The farming immigrants were mainly people,totally 188,000,from Changde,Lizhou,Yuanzhou,Chengzhou and Changsha in Hunan province as well as Tongren,Sinan and Sizhou in Hubei province.The main reasons for these immigrants were the push from emigrating areas and the attraction from immigrating areas.They mainly travelled through seven land and water passages formed by Li River,Luo River,Yuan River,You River,Wujiang River and a Pengjiang River,all of which were vertical and horizontal to Yangtze River,and the salt delivery passage on land started from Hefeng and Laifeng and headed to Western Hunan province.Among the migrations during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty,except for Weisuo migration which was a forced migration,all were volunteer migrations.The forced migration and volunteer migration had different social integrations.The forced migration would have to experience forced integration and volunteer integration stages,while volunteer migration first tried to live in the new places with the support of their own strength and support from migrants of same origins.After their family power grew bigger,they would be divided into different families and villages to integrate into local rural society.In forced migration required by national government,the government would cause much interruption to rural society and impacts to local society,which would always result in fierce conflicts between local people and immigrants.In the late Ming Dynasty when the government power became less influential in the rural society of minority people in Southwest Guighzou,the relationship between immigrants and local people was eased and they entered into the stage of volunteer integration.Such kind of social integration has enabled the Weisuo immigrants to enjoy a large sum of advantage resources and live in the center of rural social power.Even after the collapse of Weisuo system,they still managed to keep the central position.The immigrants during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty have brought significant changes to the rural society of minority people regions in Southwest Hubei.Firstly,the social changes were proved by the biological changes.The immigrants actively promoted the biological building and some new kinds of crops began to be planted in the minority people regions in Southwest Hubei.Though they made some achievements of biological building,the biological environment was also significantly damaged,causing rapid drop of natural resources,serious desertification,stony desertification and significant drop of disaster resistance.Secondly,its also indicated by the rural economic development.The immigrants pushed the local economic prosperity,enhanced rural market and motivated commodity trading.The trading of raw lacquer,tung oil,China grass and tea had become the main ways to improve peasants income.Thirdly,it also resulted in cultural changes.Due to the influence from immigrated culture,the local living culture,costume culture,belief culture,etiquette culture and diet culture changed after absorbing most Han culture and some culture from minority people,such as Miao and Dong.Meanwhile,the culture of immigrants was also influenced by local culture.Fourthly,during the conflicts and integrations for rural social consequence in the middle and late Qing Dynasty,there were White Lotus Uprising and missionaryresisting social conflicts,which deepened the integration between immigrants and local people.Finally,its supported by local peoples recognition changes.Influenced by immigrants,local people reconstructed the family history and formed migration recognition.Migration plays a significant role in forming Chinese peoples diversity pattern.Through the interaction and integration between different cultures,it has enhanced the sense of whole Chinese people.The author,through historical investigation on migration and rural society changes,suggests that we shall improve Chinese cultures integrity by enriching Chinese Peoples integrity cultures connotation,strengthening Chinese people cultures integrity and improving Chinese peoples recognition while improving diversified cultural developments and protecting cultural diversity.

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015格式引文
杨洪林.明清移民与鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会变迁研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2013 复制
MLA格式引文
杨洪林.明清移民与鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会变迁研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2013E-book. 复制
APA格式引文
杨洪林(2013).明清移民与鄂西南少数民族地区乡村社会变迁研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社 复制
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