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综合国力与文化力系统研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-5661-2

出版日期:2015-04

页数:330

字数:322.0千字

丛书名:《暨南大学马克思主义与中国社会研究系列丛书》

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蒋述卓马克思主义是当代中国的主流意识形态,但是要“使马克思主义在中国具体化,使之在其每一表现中带着必须有的中国的特性”。《毛泽东选集》第2卷,人民出版社1991年版,第533页。马克思主义中国化进程中始终不能回避的是“认同”问题。“认同(identity)是人们意义与经验的来源”,[美]曼纽尔·卡斯特:《认同的力量》,夏铸九、黄丽玲等译,社会科学文献出版社2003年版,第2页。是公民实现从思想到行为转变的关键因素。只有公民从理性和情感上对理论产生了认同感,才能自觉地践行和发展。认同构建可以在不同领域开展,每个领域的认同都会对人的发展产生潜移默化的促进作用。一在认同领域中,文化认同是深植在历史与文明之中的基础性认同。文化变迁是认同变化的重要缘由,文化认同也会深刻影响经济认同、政治认同、社会认同等认同格局。“必须经年累月,借助集体记忆,借助共享的传统,借助对共同历史和遗产的认识,才能保持集体认同的凝聚性”。[英]戴维·莫利、凯文·罗宾斯:《认同的空间——全球媒介、电子世界景观和文化边界》,司艳译,南京大学出版社2001年版,第98页。文化认同的产生既与文化的凝聚力和说服力相关,也与文化的传播力和渗透力相连,这是文化认同延续的内在和外在力量的结合。从文化的凝聚力和说服力来看,狭义文化特指社会在不同历史阶段的精神文明,其中包括价值观文明。文化的内核是价值观,不同的价值观通过多种文化形式来传递或表达。价值观是人类观照自我和社会的精神产物,其对自我和社会发展有着内在的驱动力量。价值观的影响力来自其对人和社会的作用力,即是价值观内在的指引能力。文化认同以价值观的凝聚力和说服力为基础,呈现其内在的吸引力和感染力。另外,文化的传播和渗透是在社会交流过程中完成的。“交流是借助于社会经验过程中的姿态的会话而进行的”。[美]乔治·H.米德:《心灵、自我与社会》,赵月瑟译,上海译文出版社1992年版,第44页。社会交流越频繁,文化传播越活跃;社会互动越多元,文化渗透越广泛。文化的传播力和渗透力既与社会形态相关,也与技术发展相连。社会形态越高级,文化传播越迅速;技术发展越快捷,文化渗透越普及。文化认同以文化的传播力和渗透力为拓展,传播渗透力越旺盛,文化认同持久性越明显。那么,如何才能不断增强文化的凝聚力、说服力、传播力、渗透力呢?第一,文化的主导性。任何民族文化都会在自身长期发展中逐渐形成主流文化和非主流文化。主流文化对社会的影响高于非主流文化,主导着社会的价值观念、思维方式、交往特征等。主流文化需要有意识培育,既要有文化根基和积淀,也要有意识形态的引导和塑造。在文化的主导性上,核心价值观问题尤为重要。“传统的中国人之自我被看作是某种和有意义的他人发生关系的角色构形,在由主导性的文化价值观所限定的方式之中,自我的取向主要是倾向于有意义的他人”。[美]A.马塞勒等:《文化与自我》,任鹰等译,浙江人民出版社1988年版,第269页。社会群体具备了内化的核心价值观,才能把持社会尺度和底线。个体具备了核心价值观,才能发挥自身优势和特长。社会精神底蕴的呈现,需要核心价值观的支撑和发展。文化的主导性实质在于核心价值观的主导性,来自其对社会精神需求的准确把握和反映。核心价值观的主导性建立在一定社会的经济形态、政治制度、文化模式、社会发展之上,是对社会发展阶段精神需求的高度概括凝练,能够深层反映社会需要解决的思想矛盾和问题。第二,文化的多元性。文化认同不仅需要文化主导性,还需要文化多元性。其实质是指社会文化的包容性。只有主流文化具有包容特质,才能呈现文化的繁荣景象和局面。文化多元性是经济全球化和政治多极化的必然结果,要想融入全球化浪潮之中,主流文化对现实社会思潮的包容度须不断加大,多元才能多样,多样才能繁荣。文化多元性需要文化对话,只有在对话中,文化才能兼容并蓄,协同发展。文化对话是文化认同的必要路径。通过文化对话,文化主体不仅从情感上接纳文化多样性,而且通过理性来辨析文化异质性,进一步在比较中彰显优势,弥补不足,不断强化自己的能动适应性。文化对话通过一定的中介来完成,包括政府机构、社会组织、专家学者、公民自身等。不同主体在文化对话中发挥的功能各不相同。政府的作用在于开放文化对话和交流的大门,容纳文化的“百花齐放、百家争鸣”,构建多样化的文化交流平台和机制。社会组织的作用在于通过文化产品来传递文化内涵,沟通有无,搭建起文化对话的多样化渠道。专家学者的作用在于贡献思想创新的力量,诠释文化传统,挖掘文化特色,创造文化未来。公民自身的作用在于用个体的言行举止来鲜活生动地展开文化对话。只有通过不同形式的文化对话,文化的多元性才能始终保持生机,增添文化认同的吸引力。第三,文化的时代性。文化认同在不同时代皆有存在价值,只有充分体现出时代特色的文化,才具有感召力。文化的时代性离不开民族国家和社会发展的具体阶段。不同的民族国家基本国情不同,其文化依托于历史、宗教、伦理、制度等多重因素,体现出文化的延续性。社会发展经历不同阶段,在每个阶段中文化会鲜明地反映出时代特质。民族文化既要保持自身文化传统,也要与时代特质接轨。文化全球化是伴随着经济全球化而来的时代潮流,带来两种文化后果。一种是文化的相生相长,共存共荣,另一种是文化的冲突和对抗。无论是文化共生,还是对抗,都取决于两种文化价值理念的兼容度。具备高度兼容性的文化能够与更多的文化种类和平共处,共同发展。反之,文化冲突和对抗不可避免,诱发的经济后果、政治后果、社会后果等将出现连锁反应。文化信息化是信息时代带来的时代要求,信息化的文化交流更加便捷,形式更加多样,影响更加广泛。“新的信息科技将会松动权力网络并使权力分散化,事实上打破了单向结构、垂直监控的集权逻辑”。[美]曼纽尔·卡斯特:《认同的力量》,夏铸九、黄丽玲等译,社会科学文献出版社2003年版,第346页。信息时代的文化认同视域是信息化生产,异质文化在相同的技术平台上交融交锋。文化在世俗化时代逐渐成为经济的俘虏或附庸,文化仅仅通过经济力量来展现自身存在,就会失去文化内在价值的光芒和观照。文化认同既要适应世俗化的文化存在,更要凸显文化主体的价值取向和追求。第四,文化的超越性。“文化是思想活动,是对美和高尚情感的接受”。[英]怀特海:《教育的目的》,徐汝舟译,生活·读书·新知三联书店2002年版,第1页。文化的超越性指文化不仅是社会生活的现实反映,而且在一定程度上能够超越现实,引领现实发展。因为文化是人自主能动的创造物,人能够在自己的思想世界中对未来进行现实建构。现实社会在不断发展,文化认同不能仅依赖于传统与现实,必须要有对未来的展望和设想,为人们提供愿景和期待。文化的超越性如何得以实现?关键在于文化批判性。“怀疑,即现代批判理性的普遍性的特征,充斥在日常生活和哲学意识当中,并形成当代社会世界的一种一般的存在性维度”。[英]安东尼·吉登斯:《现代性与自我认同》,赵旭东、方文译,生活·读书·新知三联书店1998年版,第3页。文化生于传统,但要批判传统,才能超越传统。文化批判既有对传统的批判,也有对现实的批判。这种批判主要来自理性精神。只有理性才能克服情感对现实和传统的依赖,才能从现实出发,构想未来。文化理性精神的培育需要长期过程,既需要国家开明、开放的文化战略,也需要公民意识的启蒙和养成。从文化战略来说,需要把文化软实力的地位提升到与经济发展同等重要的位置,也就是文化自觉、自省、自建思想的确立和形成。同时,还需要明确文化的价值理性方向,即文化价值来自哪里,追求什么的问题。文化理性不仅是国家战略设计,也是公民意识应有之义。文化的微观主体是公民,公民意识的进步和落后直接关系到文化理性的土壤和根基。二文化认同实践在一定的民族国家之中进行,国家认同是文化认同的深层演进和升华。所谓国家认同是指公民对作为政治共同体的国家从情感和理性上的认知、评价和行动。国家认同更多的强调政治意义上的认同感和归属感,而文化认同则强调对社会文化的心理态度评价。文化认同是国家认同的前提和基础,文化认同强化国家认同,为国家认同提供心理支撑。国家认同在经济全球化、政治多极化、文化多元化、社会信息化的时代凸显重要意义。首先,国家认同是意识形态纷争的基本要求。当代世界东西方价值观的冲突没有消失,意识形态的纷争和对抗仍然存在,意识形态安全问题越来越重要。无视意识形态的差异和渗透,将可能导致政权垮台、国家解体的严重后果。国家认同的塑造对于巩固意识形态主导权,加强意识形态安全有现实价值。其次,国家认同是民族国家自主发展的信心保证。历史经验表明,任何国家的持久发展都必须建立在独立自主的基础之上。这种独立自主不仅是政权的独立,还特别强调发展道路的独立性。世界上没有一个国家的国情完全相同,决定着没有一个国家的发展道路适合所有国家。要想民族崛起、国家富强、人民幸福,需要从心理上找到对自己国家发展道路的坚定信心。再次,国家认同是公民人格成熟的重要标志。“只有在共同体中,个人才能获得全面发展其才能的手段,也就是说,只有在共同体中才可能有个人自由。”《马克思恩格斯文集》第1卷,人民出版社2009年版,第570页。人类的群体性生存特征显著,没有人能够脱离群体成就自身完整的人格特质。自近代以来,民族国家作为新型社会共同体出现,成为公民赖以生存和发展的基本场域。公民与国家之间的相互依存关系日益增长,公民只有在国家中才能获得生存资料、知识信息、社会支持、发展机会等。反过来,失去公民认同的国家将会失去其政治合法性基础。那么,如何才能在当代世界建构起国家认同,塑造良性的公民与国家沟通模式,实现国家治理现代化呢?第一,国家道路的可持续性。国家认同是长期动态的形成过程,既有文化传统的历史因素,也有国家道路的现实缘由。选择什么样的国家道路直接决定国家认同的可持续性存在。“与外界完全隔绝曾是保存旧中国的首要条件,而当这种隔绝状态通过英国而为暴力所打破的时候,接踵而来的必然是解体的过程”。《马克思恩格斯全集》第12卷,人民出版社1998年版,第115页。国家道路的可持续性有内外因素的综合作用,根本性的是国家自身因素。国家道路要有从上至下、从前至后的系统性顶层设计,着眼大局,着眼长远,全面部署,重点推进,从理论上不断完善指导思想,从现实上不断修正实践方案,保证国家道路有条不紊,有序前进。国家道路设计要有充分、扎实的国情基础,着眼自身,着眼实际,广开言路,汇集民智,从思想上摆正国家权力与公民权利的关系,从行动上把民众利益放在首要位置,奠定国家道路的底层支柱。同时,不能偏执狭隘执着于自身利益,要有开放豁达、放眼世界的人类情怀,着眼人类,着眼自然,互利共赢,互帮互助,从认识上提升大国责任意识,从交往上体现大国形象。国家道路与国家认同之间相互促进、相互制约。国家认同是国家道路的精神支撑,国家道路是国家认同的实践体现。第二,国家实力的增长性。国家道路要保证国家实力不断增长,国家地位不断上升,才能提升国家认同概率。国家实力增长含义丰富,既要有物质基础的不断夯实,也要有精神力量的持续引领;既要重视技术生产的创新变革,也要关注社会生活的量质提升;既要对内凝聚人心,也要对外辐射影响。国家实力成为全球化时代国家地位的决定性因素,国际竞争从整体上带动社会进步和发展,促使国家迎接挑战,成为时代的参与者和推动者,但也可能引发国家认同的分散效应,多元、多样、多变的社会思潮给国家凝聚力带来巨大冲击和威胁。“新的权力在于信息的符码与再现的意象,社会据此组织其制度,人们据此营造其生活并决定其行为。这个权力的基地是人们的心灵。”[美]曼纽尔·卡斯特:《认同的力量》,夏铸九、黄丽玲等译,社会科学文献出版社2003年版,第415页。要在全球化竞争中保持国家认同的集中性,需要从经济实力、制度实力、文化实力、技术实力等多方面、多层次、多维度建构认同空间。经济实力是基础,当代中国经济实力水平的结构调整与深层优化是发展方向。制度实力是关键,国家道路的优越性如何显现,国家发展成果如何分享,主要通过开创完善实效性制度。文化实力是提升,大国风范不仅是物质富足,更要通过文化素养来怀柔天下,体现国家价值。技术实力是创新,在信息时代的国家竞争中,技术已经成为领先时代的核心要素,要有技术开发的理念和实力,保证国家竞争的技术优势。第三,国家意识形态的凝聚力。意识形态与文化之间有交叉性,但两者之间不完全等同。文化更多意义上着眼于社会层面,意识形态更多的出发点是国家政权。文化影响力不等于意识形态的感召力,要想实现国家认同,还需要对意识形态的凝聚力有更多的探讨和研究。意识形态凝聚力表现在意识形态自身的先进性、意识形态功能的现代性、意识形态发展的变迁性等方面。首先,意识形态自身的先进性。意识形态虽然为不同政权服务,但是其自身的理论特质存在诸多差别。意识形态的先进性呈现出历史和国家的不同,资本主义意识形态比封建主义意识形态先进,因为其与历史发展趋势一致。社会主义意识形态比资本主义意识形态先进,因为其与人类未来相符,与中国国情相适应。不顾历史趋势和国情类型,盲目照搬照抄他国意识形态,不可能体现意识形态先进性,更不可能谈得上凝聚力。其次,意识形态功能的现代性。意识形态的先进性不是一劳永逸的,其凝聚力不仅体现在其性质上,而且在于其功能的现代性上。意识形态功能不能局限于为国家政权辩护的领域之中,必须拓展其社会功能性,也就是要发挥意识形态在社会领域之中的作用和价值。再次,意识形态发展的变迁性。意识形态不是一成不变,其必须随着社会变迁改变其相应的话语体系,体现出意识形态对现实社会发展的强大解释力和说服力。第四,国家制度的适应性。公民与国家之间良性沟通渠道建立的关键是制度的适应性。良好的制度能够为公民与国家搭建畅通的交流平台,缓解社会情绪,释放社会压力,维持社会的正常运行秩序。制度的适应性主要表现在制度的理性化、控制力、公正性、发展性等方面。制度的理性化是指国家制度的构建需要遵循理性原则,从历史传统、经济状况、社会性质、政治体制等多种因素综合考量,体现制度的内在契合能力,通过制度来安排社会关系,从而达到制度的最大化效益。制度的控制力是指国家制度对社会的协调能力,这种协调能力不仅需要刚性规制,而且需要柔性影响力。也就是指制度的人文理念,以人为本,从人的需求和发展出发进行制度设计,从而得到民众情感上的认同和支持。制度的公正性是制度公信力的关键所在。当代社会对于公平正义的企盼在某种程度上甚至超过利益需要。国家要想长治久安,就需要平衡社会各阶层群体诉求,从制度上尽可能照顾多方切实期待。制度的发展性是指国家制度既要在一定历史时期保持稳定,以达到凝聚力量,聚集资源,整合社会的目的,也要随着时代发展及时进行调适,实现制度现代化,提高国家制度的治理水平。三“一个民族的根本性自我认同,必须和该民族为维护自己的社会理想和政治理想所作的努力结合起来”。张旭东:《全球化时代的文化认同:西方普遍主义话语的历史批判》,北京大学出版社2006年版,第66页。无论是文化认同,还是国家认同,都要明确其根本性指向在哪里。认同的目标有两方面,一方面是国家整体上的进步和发展,另一方面是人自身的提升与发展。两方面相辅相成,国家发展为人的发展提供现实的良好环境和条件,人的发展从长远上增强国家发展的后劲和机会。认同是人的认同,其最终的回归仍然是人的发展。人的发展命题贯穿古今中外思想家的思虑始终,而且将会伴随人的存在成为永恒命题。人的发展在不同时代有不同显现,除了其基本问题包括人的智力、体力、素质等方面发展之外,还有广泛的拓展内涵。当代世界人的发展是在民族国家之中实现的发展,其无法脱离一定的文化传统,也离不开民族国家的时代变化。文化认同、国家认同为人的发展提供内在精神动力,从历史与现实上为人的发展指出方向。第一,人的思想意识发展。“人一旦有了意识,人就具有了一种解释自己记忆中的过去、解释将要参与的未来和解释自己所遭遇的世界的结构”。[美]A.马塞勒等:《文化与自我》,任鹰等译,浙江人民出版社1988年版,第82页。认同是个体在多种因素刺激下,构建内在精神世界的心理活动过程。认同活动可以促进人的公民意识、国家意识、全球意识的共同发展。一是人的公民意识发展。人以个体存在于世界之中,脱离个体发展的世界是空洞的世界。当代人不是以单子的现实形式存在,其自身的公民身份与国家同在。当代人的发展首先是公民意识的觉醒,从公民身份出发,对自身权利与义务有清醒的认识,身体力行,在与国家的互动中发展自己,成就他人。公民意识的传统性与时代性复杂交错,当代中国人的公民意识与中国的思想传统不可分割,尤其是儒学的民间文化血脉根深蒂固,不了解儒学的历史与现实状况,就无法在中国培育公民意识。公民意识的时代性与中国的发展密不可分,体现在经济意识、政治意识、文化意识、社会意识等方面。经济意识是指随着市场经济的体制性转变,个体的利益需求不断增长,物质要求不断提高。政治意识是指随着民主政治体制改革的推进,公民权利意识不断觉醒,对政府和社会的政治期待不断上升。文化意识是指随着精神文明建设事业的开展,个体对丰富精神文化产品的渴望与日俱增,对文化主体的创造性表现有更多期许。社会意识是指随着社会组织的不断壮大,公民参与不同社会活动的需要和机会大大增加。二是人的国家意识发展。公民是国家的公民,国家是公民的国家。公民意识是针对个体而言,将其上升到国家层面,就需要发展其国家意识。国家意识既包括公民在心理上对国家的认同感和归属感,更体现在公民自身行为的国家利益性上。在思想与行为转化的过程中,认同是必经阶段。只有构建了有效的认同心理,才能继续进行认同行为。国家意识的发展也可以分为认知、情感、意志、行为等不同阶段。认知层面是指公民对国家基本情况的了解和认识,从知识接受角度完成基本的思想准备。情感层面是指公民在认知基础上内心态度的转变和倾向,从价值选择上开始自觉判断。意志层面是指公民对国家行为的信心和坚持,从目标指向上明确了努力方向。行为层面是公民建立在前三个阶段基础上的外在表现,从实际行动上进行认同实现的过程。三是人的全球意识发展。人的发展愿景不仅在于自身和国家,当代意义上的发展已经将人类作为整体性存在开展研究。也就是说,人的思想意识需要从狭隘的个体发展与国家发展,上升到全球发展。全球发展既是人类自身发展的内在要求,也是人类生存环境的外在压力。认同构建要从文化认同与国家认同跨越到全球认同,出发点不在孤立的个体和国家层面展开讨论,而是立足人类,放眼未来,构建人与自然的和谐空间。第二,人的社会关系发展。“家庭和市民社会是国家的现实的构成部分,是意志的现实的精神存在,它们是国家的存在方式,家庭和市民社会使自身成为国家,它们是动力”。《马克思恩格斯全集》第3卷,人民出版社2002年版,第11页。也就是说,社会的存在是自己的生存过程,而不是观念的产物。认同对社会的塑造主要体现在主体性、交往性、体验性、传承性等多方面。首先,人的主体性。每个个体从出生到死亡,都需要不断改造自己的主体性。人的主体性是区别于其他个体,形成正常社会关系的根本。人的自我认同是主体性成长的支柱,自我认同是通过与世界和他人的信息交换而逐渐得出的自我评价。不同文化和国家为主体评价提供标准和准则,其随着文化和国家的变化而变化。所以,主体性实质上是一定文化和国家的主体性,文化认同和国家认同也就是将文化以及国家认知通过不同途径转换为主体的组成部分。其次,人的交往性。交往是人社会性的集中体现。无论哪种类型的社会关系都以交往为前提,交往奠定社会关系深化和发展的基础。人的交往需要一定的文化条件,包括语言、符号、思维、规则等,也就是说人的交往是文化的交往。文化认同为人的交往创造了良性的沟通环境,减少了交往的沟通成本,进一步丰富了人的社会关系。国家是现代人生活的空间,也是其交往的社会背景。国家认同对人交往的影响有两面性,既强化了交往主体的群体意识,在其交往过程中拓展了交往空间,但是也会在不同国家主体交往中增加交往障碍,为社会关系发展平添诸多复杂因素。再次,人的体验性。人的社会性存在从主体出发,以交往为中介,回归到人的体验。不同个体对社会关系的体验程度不同,其受个体的禀赋性格、知识教育、环境背景、心理状态等综合要素的功能作用。文化认同在人的体验中占据中心位置,因为任何的个体体验都是文化体验,没有文化基础的社会体验纯粹是生物性的条件反射和本能需要。进一步来说,国家认同对人的体验性价值在于其提升了人的体验境界,超越关注自我的层次,将其思想意识中的群体性特征逐步放大,为其在国家社会中的所作所为铺垫认同基础。最后,人的传承性。没有人能够永恒存在于世界之中,个体的有限生命终将被时间所吞噬。但是,作为文化存在的个体却能持续地传承下去,成为社会不变的组成部分。人的存在就是将肉体生命的存在转化为文化存在的过程,这个过程完成得越突出,其传承性表现就越明显。文化认同是人的传承性实现的必要条件,其为人的文化存在准备文化意识,贮备文化资源,改变文化偏见,最终成就人独特的文化个性。国家认同为人的传承性提供群体意识条件,其为人的文化存在准备文化视野,开辟文化路径,消除文化阻力,最终成就人的文化境界。第三,人的实践活动发展。人是社会实践的人,人在实践中改变自我,改变社会,改变世界。人的实践活动离不开文化和国家,不同文化和国家中人的实践活动也会呈现不同特征,主要有实践指向性、实践条件性、实践关联性、实践多样性等。实践指向性是指随着人的思维水平、生产工具、社会阶段等发展变革,社会实践的目标指向将会越来越符合人与社会的需要,为人类更好地生产生活创造环境。不同文化和国家之中的社会实践指向还会表现其社会特征,为其社会发展提供动力支持。实践条件性是指人的社会实践水平与具体的社会条件相适应,不同的社会条件决定实践水平的差距。不同文化和国家之中的社会实践水平各不相同。实践关联性是指随着全球化进程的加快,社会实践交流与融合度越来越高,相互之间的影响和带动作用越来越强,最终推动社会实践水平的整体进步。实践多样性是指社会实践在文化和国家之中的价值表现具有较大差异,这种差异性存在正是人类丰富实践能力的证明,差异多样化可以促进社会实践发展。认同在社会实践活动发展中起到的推动力主要是精神作用。首先,认同凝聚实践力量。“在晚期现代性的背景下,个人的无意义感,即那种觉得生活没有提供任何有价值的东西的感受,成为根本性的心理问题”。[英]安东尼·吉登斯:《现代性与自我认同》,赵旭东、方文译,生活·读书·新知三联书店1998年版,第9页。无论是文化认同还是国家认同,其对于主体的内在影响是凝聚人心。任何社会发展目标的实现都需要凝心聚力,认同能够为社会实践中的智力资源汇集提供心理基础。其次,认同创造实践条件。实践条件需要实践主体创造,实践主体的创造前提是对社会的认同。通过认同,主体才可能充分了解社会文化和基本国情,并加以创造。再次,认同促进实践交流。全球化进程中,文化交流与国家交流越来越频繁,在交流过程中认同将会强化文化与国家形象,加速实践水平提升。最后,认同加剧实践多样。认同是对不同文化和国家的认同,内部认同程度越高,社会实践的差异性越明显。差异性的存在可以向正反两方面发展,一方面是实践的差异化导致文明的冲突性,世界分裂性倾向越来越严重,另一方面是实践的差异化展现世界的多元性,文明的丰富性越来越突出。未来的社会“将是这样一个联合体,在那里,每个人的自由发展是一切人的自由发展的条件”《马克思恩格斯选集》第1卷,人民出版社1995年版,第294页。。人的发展问题贯穿马克思主义理论与实践始终,也是中国特色社会主义建设事业的核心问题。在全球化、信息化、多元化的时代,对认同问题的研究是实现国家治理和人的发展的新课题,在暨南大学马克思主义与中国社会研究系列丛书出版之际,对文化认同、国家认同与人的发展问题进行初步探讨,希望能够引发专家、学者对相关问题的关注和研究,共同推动马克思主义中国化的理论建构。(作者为暨南大学党委书记)

Jiang Shuzhuo Marxism is the mainstream ideology in contemporary China, but it is necessary to "make Marxism concrete in China so that it has the necessary Chinese characteristics in each of its expressions." Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 2, People's Publishing House, 1991 edition, p. 533. What cannot be avoided in the process of Sinicization of Marxism is the issue of "identity." "Identity is the Source of People's Meaning and Experience", Manuel Custer: The Power of Identity, translated by Xia Zhujiu and Huang Liling, Social Science Academic Press, 2003, p. 2. It is a key factor for citizens to achieve a change from thought to behavior. Only when citizens have a sense of identification with the theory rationally and emotionally can they consciously practice and develop it. Identity construction can be carried out in different fields, and the identity of each field will have a subtle promotion effect on human development. First, in the field of identity, cultural identity is the basic identity deeply rooted in history and civilization. Cultural change is an important reason for identity change, and cultural identity will also profoundly affect the pattern of economic identity, political identity, social identity and so on. "The cohesion of collective identity can only be maintained over the years, through collective memory, through shared traditions, and through awareness of common history and heritage". David Morley and Kevin Robbins, The Space of Identity: Global Media, Electronic World Landscapes, and Cultural Boundaries, translated by Si Yan, Nanjing University Press, 2001, p. 98. The production of cultural identity is not only related to the cohesion and persuasion of culture, but also to the transmission and penetration of culture, which is the combination of internal and external forces of cultural identity continuity. From the perspective of cultural cohesion and persuasion, culture in a narrow sense refers to the spiritual civilization of society in different historical stages, including the civilization of values. The core of culture is values, and different values are transmitted or expressed through multiple cultural forms. Values are the spiritual product of human beings looking at themselves and society, and they have an intrinsic driving force for self and social development. The influence of values comes from their impact on people and society, that is, the inherent guiding ability of values. Cultural identity is based on the cohesion and persuasiveness of values, presenting its intrinsic appeal and appeal. In addition, the spread and penetration of culture is done in the process of social exchange. "Communication takes place with the help of gestures in the process of social experience". George S. H. Mead: Mind, Self and Society, translated by Zhao Yueser, Shanghai Translation Press, 1992, p. 44. The more frequent the social exchange, the more active the cultural communication; The more diverse the social interaction, the more widely the culture penetrates. The transmission and penetration of culture is related to both social formation and technological development. The more advanced the social form, the faster the cultural spread; The faster the technological development, the more widespread the cultural penetration. Cultural identity is expanded by the transmission and penetration of culture, and the stronger the communication penetration, the more obvious the durability of cultural identity. So, how can we continuously enhance the cohesion, persuasiveness, dissemination and penetration of culture? First, the dominance of culture. Any national culture will gradually form mainstream culture and non-mainstream culture in its long-term development. The influence of mainstream culture on society is higher than that of non-mainstream culture, and it dominates social values, ways of thinking, and communication characteristics. Mainstream culture needs to be consciously cultivated, not only with cultural foundation and accumulation, but also with ideological guidance and shaping. In the dominance of culture, the issue of core values is particularly important. "The traditional Chinese self is seen as a role configuration in relation to meaningful others, and in a way defined by dominant cultural values, the orientation of the self is primarily inclined towards meaningful others." A. Marcelle et al.: Culture and Self, translated by Ren Ying et al., Zhejiang People's Publishing House, 1988, p. 269. Only when social groups have internalized core values can they control the social scale and bottom line. Only when individuals possess core values can they develop their strengths and strengths. The presentation of social spiritual heritage requires the support and development of core values. The dominant essence of culture lies in the dominance of core values, which comes from its accurate grasp and reflection of the spiritual needs of society. The dominance of core values is based on the economic form, political system, cultural model and social development of a certain society, which is a high-level summary and condensation of the spiritual needs of the social development stage, and can deeply reflect the ideological contradictions and problems that society needs to solve. Second, cultural diversity. Cultural identity requires not only cultural dominance, but also cultural diversity. Its essence refers to socio-cultural inclusion. Only when the mainstream culture has the characteristics of tolerance can it present a prosperous picture and situation of culture. Cultural pluralism is the inevitable result of economic globalization and political multipolarization, and in order to integrate into the wave of globalization, the tolerance of mainstream culture to the real social trend must continue to increase, and diversity can be diverse, and diversity can prosper. Cultural diversity requires cultural dialogue, and only in dialogue can cultures be inclusive and develop in synergy. Cultural dialogue is a necessary path to cultural identity. Through cultural dialogue, cultural subjects not only accept cultural diversity emotionally, but also distinguish cultural heterogeneity through rationality, further highlight their advantages in comparison, make up for shortcomings, and constantly strengthen their own dynamic adaptability. Cultural dialogue is accomplished through certain intermediaries, including government agencies, social organizations, experts and scholars, citizens themselves, etc. Different subjects play different functions in cultural dialogue. The role of the government is to open the door to cultural dialogue and exchange, accommodate the "blooming of a hundred flowers and a hundred schools of thought" of culture, and build a diversified cultural exchange platform and mechanism. The role of social organizations is to convey cultural connotations through cultural products, communicate whether they are available, and build diversified channels for cultural dialogue. The role of experts and scholars is to contribute the power of ideological innovation, interpret cultural traditions, explore cultural characteristics, and create cultural future. The role of citizens themselves is to bring cultural dialogue to life through the words and deeds of individuals. Only through different forms of cultural dialogue can cultural diversity remain alive and increase the attractiveness of cultural identity. Third, the epochality of culture. Cultural identity has value in different eras, and only culture that fully reflects the characteristics of the times has appeal. The epochality of culture is inseparable from the specific stages of the nation-state and social development. Different nation-states have different basic national conditions, and their cultures rely on multiple factors such as history, religion, ethics, and institutions, reflecting the continuity of culture. Social development goes through different stages, and the Chinese at each stage will clearly reflect the characteristics of the times. National culture should not only maintain its own cultural traditions, but also be in line with the characteristics of the times. Cultural globalization is the trend of the times that accompanies economic globalization, bringing two cultural consequences. One is the mutual growth and coexistence and co-prosperity of cultures, and the other is the clash and confrontation of cultures. Whether it is cultural symbiosis or confrontation, it depends on the compatibility of the two cultural values. A highly compatible culture can coexist peacefully with a wider range of cultures and develop together. On the contrary, cultural clashes and confrontations are inevitable, and there will be chain effects of economic, political and social consequences. Cultural informatization is the requirement of the times brought about by the information age, and the cultural exchange of informationization is more convenient, more diverse in form and more extensive. "New information technologies will loosen power networks and decentralize power, effectively breaking the centralized logic of one-way structure and vertical surveillance." Manuel Custer: The Power of Identity, translated by Xia Zhujiu and Huang Liling, Social Science Academic Press, 2003, p. 346. The cultural identity perspective of the information age is information-based production, and heterogeneous cultures blend and clash on the same technological platform. In the era of secularization, culture gradually becomes a captive or vassal of the economy, and culture will lose the light and observation of the intrinsic value of culture by showing its existence only through economic forces. Cultural identity should not only adapt to the secular cultural existence, but also highlight the value orientation and pursuit of cultural subjects. Fourth, cultural transcendence. "Culture is the activity of thought, the acceptance of beauty and noble emotions". Whitehead: The Purpose of Education, translated by Xu Ruzhou, Life, Reading, and New Knowledge, 2002, p. 1. The transcendence of culture means that culture is not only a realistic reflection of social life, but also able to transcend reality and lead the development of reality to a certain extent. Because culture is a self-motivated creation, man is able to realistically construct the future in his own world of thought. The real society is constantly evolving, and cultural identity cannot rely solely on tradition and reality, but must have a vision and vision of the future to provide people with vision and expectations. How can cultural transcendence be achieved? The key is cultural criticism. "Doubt, the universal character of modern critical reason, pervades everyday life and philosophical consciousness and forms a general existential dimension of the contemporary social world". Anthony Giddens: Modernity and Self-Identity, translated by Zhao Xudong and Fang Wen, Life, Reading, and New Knowledge, 1998, p. 3. Culture is born of tradition, but it is necessary to criticize tradition in order to transcend tradition. Cultural criticism is both a critique of tradition and a critique of reality. This critique comes mainly from the spirit of reason. Only rationality can overcome the dependence of emotions on reality and tradition, and can we start from reality and conceive the future. The cultivation of the spirit of cultural rationality requires a long-term process, which requires not only the country's enlightened and open cultural strategy, but also the enlightenment and cultivation of civic consciousness. From the perspective of cultural strategy, it is necessary to elevate the status of cultural soft power to the same important position as economic development, that is, the establishment and formation of cultural consciousness, self-examination and self-construction ideas. At the same time, it is also necessary to clarify the rational direction of cultural values, that is, where cultural values come from and what to pursue. Cultural rationality is not only a national strategic design, but also a civic consciousness. The micro-subject of culture is citizens, and the progress and backwardness of civic consciousness are directly related to the soil and foundation of cultural rationality. Second, the practice of cultural identity is carried out in a certain nation-state, and national identity is the deep evolution and sublimation of cultural identity. The so-called national identity refers to the emotional and intellectual cognition, evaluation and action of citizens towards the state as a political community. National identity emphasizes more on identity and belonging in the political sense, while cultural identity emphasizes the evaluation of psychological attitudes towards social culture. Cultural identity is the premise and foundation of national identity, and cultural identity strengthens national identity and provides psychological support for national identity. National identity is of great significance in the era of economic globalization, political multipolarization, cultural pluralism and social informatization. First, national identity is a basic requirement for ideological strife. The conflict between Eastern and Western values in the contemporary world has not disappeared, ideological disputes and confrontations still exist, and ideological security issues are becoming more and more important. Ignoring ideological differences and infiltration can lead to the fall of regimes and the disintegration of states. The shaping of national identity has practical value for consolidating ideological dominance and strengthening ideological security. Second, national identity is a guarantee of confidence in the independent development of nation-states. Historical experience shows that the lasting development of any country must be based on independence. This independence is not only the independence of the regime, but also the independence of the development path. No country in the world has the same national conditions, which determines that no country's development path is suitable for all countries. If we want the nation to rise, the country to be prosperous and strong, and the people to be happy, we need to find a firm confidence in our own country's development path psychologically. Third, national identity is an important sign of the maturity of a citizen's personality. "Only in the community can individuals acquire the means to fully develop their talents, that is, only in the community can there be individual freedom." The Collected Works of Marx and Engels, vol. 1, People's Publishing House, 2009, p. 570. The characteristics of human group survival are remarkable, and no one can achieve their own complete personality traits without the group. Since modern times, the nation-state has emerged as a new type of social community and has become the basic field for citizens to survive and develop. There is a growing interdependence between citizens and the State, and only in the State can citizens have access to means of subsistence, knowledge and information, social support, development opportunities, etc. In turn, a state that loses its civic identity loses the basis of its political legitimacy. Then, how can we build a national identity in the contemporary world, shape a benign model of communication between citizens and the state, and realize the modernization of national governance? First, the sustainability of national roads. National identity is a long-term dynamic formation process, which has both historical elements of cultural traditions and practical reasons for national paths. The choice of national path directly determines the sustainable existence of national identity. "Complete isolation from the outside world was the primary condition for preserving old China, and when this isolation was broken by violence through Britain, a process of disintegration must follow." The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, vol. 12, People's Publishing House, 1998, p. 115. The sustainability of national roads has a combination of internal and external factors, and the fundamental factor is the country's own factors. National roads should have a systematic top-level design from top to bottom and from front to back, focus on the overall situation, focus on the long term, make comprehensive arrangements, focus on promotion, constantly improve the guiding ideology in theory, and constantly revise the practical plan from the perspective of reality to ensure that the national road advances in an orderly and orderly manner. The design of national roads should have a full and solid foundation of national conditions, focus on itself, focus on reality, open up the way, pool the wisdom of the people, correct the relationship between state power and citizens' rights from the ideological point of view, put the interests of the people in the first place in action, and lay the bottom pillar of the national road. At the same time, we must not be paranoid and narrow-minded and cling to our own interests, but must have human feelings that are open and open-minded, look at the world, focus on mankind, focus on nature, achieve mutual benefit and win-win results, help each other, enhance the sense of responsibility of a major country from the point of understanding, and reflect the image of a major country from the point of exchange. The national road and the national identity promote and check each other. National identity is the spiritual support of the national road, and the national road is the practical embodiment of national identity. Second, the growth of national strength. The national road must ensure the continuous growth of national strength and the continuous rise of national status, in order to enhance the probability of national identity. The growth of national strength has rich meanings, not only the continuous consolidation of material foundation, but also the continuous guidance of spiritual strength; We should not only pay attention to the innovation and change of technological production, but also pay attention to the quantitative and qualitative improvement of social life; It is necessary not only to unite people's hearts internally, but also to influence externally. National strength has become the decisive factor of national status in the era of globalization, international competition as a whole drives social progress and development, prompts countries to meet challenges, and becomes participants and promoters of the times, but it may also trigger the scattered effect of national identity, and pluralistic, diverse and changeable social trends bring great impact and threat to national cohesion. "The new power consists in the symbols of information and the imagery of representation, according to which society organizes its institutions, according to which people shape their lives and determine their behavior. The base of this power is the hearts of people. Manuel Custer: The Power of Identity, translated by Xia Zhujiu and Huang Liling, Social Science Academic Press, 2003, p. 415. In order to maintain the concentration of national identity in global competition, it is necessary to construct identity space from multiple aspects, levels and dimensions such as economic strength, institutional strength, cultural strength and technological strength. Economic strength is the foundation, and the structural adjustment and in-depth optimization of the level of contemporary China's economic strength is the direction of development. Institutional strength is the key, how to show the superiority of the national road, how to share the fruits of national development, mainly through the creation and improvement of the effective system. Cultural strength is to improve, and the style of a great country is not only material wealth, but also through cultural literacy to soften the world and reflect national values. Technical strength is innovation, in the national competition in the information age, technology has become the core element of the leading era, to have the concept and strength of technology development, to ensure the technological advantage of national competition. Third, the cohesion of state ideology. There is intersection between ideology and culture, but the two are not completely equivalent. Culture focuses more on the social dimension, and ideology is more about state power. Cultural influence is not equal to ideological appeal, and in order to achieve national identity, more discussion and research on ideological cohesion is needed. Ideological cohesion is manifested in the advanced nature of ideology itself, the modernity of ideological functions, and the changeability of ideological development. First of all, the advanced nature of ideology itself. Although ideologies serve different regimes, there are many differences in their own theoretical characteristics. The advanced nature of ideology presents the difference between history and the country, and the capitalist ideology is more advanced than the feudal ideology because it is consistent with the historical development trend. Socialist ideology is more advanced than capitalist ideology because it is consistent with the future of mankind and compatible with China's national conditions. Blindly copying the ideology of other countries regardless of historical trends and types of national conditions cannot reflect the advanced nature of ideology, let alone talk about cohesion. Secondly, the modernity of the ideological function. The advanced nature of ideology is not once and for all, its cohesion is reflected not only in its nature, but also in the modernity of its function. The function of ideology cannot be limited to the field of defending state power, but must expand its social function, that is, to give play to the role and value of ideology in the social field. Third, the changeability of ideological development. Ideology is not static, it must change its corresponding discourse system with social changes, reflecting the strong explanatory and persuasive power of ideology for the development of real society. Fourth, the adaptability of the national system. The key to the establishment of a benign communication channel between citizens and the state is the adaptability of the system. A good system can build a smooth communication platform between citizens and the state, alleviate social emotions, release social pressure, and maintain the normal operation and order of society. The adaptability of the system is mainly manifested in the rationalization, control, fairness and development of the system. The rationalization of the system means that the construction of the national system needs to follow the principle of rationality, comprehensively consider various factors such as historical tradition, economic situation, social nature, political system, etc., reflect the intrinsic fit ability of the system, and arrange social relations through the system, so as to maximize the benefits of the system. The control power of the system refers to the coordination ability of the national system to society, which requires not only rigid regulation, but also flexible influence. That is to say, the humanistic concept of the system, people-oriented, starting from people's needs and development for system design, so as to obtain people's emotional recognition and support. The fairness of the system is the key to the credibility of the system. The expectations of contemporary society for fairness and justice even exceed the needs of interests to some extent. If the country wants to achieve long-term peace and stability, it needs to balance the demands of all social strata and groups, and take care of the practical expectations of many parties as much as possible in terms of system. The development of the system means that the national system should not only maintain stability in a certain historical period to achieve the purpose of cohesion, gathering resources and integrating society, but also adjust in time with the development of the times, realize the modernization of the system, and improve the governance level of the national system. "The fundamental self-identity of a nation must be combined with its efforts to safeguard its social and political ideals". Zhang Xudong, Cultural Identity in the Age of Globalization: A Historical Critique of Western Universalist Discourse, Peking University Press, 2006, p. 66. Whether it is cultural identity or national identity, it is necessary to clarify where its fundamental direction is. The goal of identity has two aspects, on the one hand, the progress and development of the country as a whole, and on the other hand, the promotion and development of the person himself. The two aspects complement each other, national development provides a realistic and favorable environment and conditions for human development, and human development enhances the stamina and opportunities for national development in the long run. Identity is human identity, and its ultimate return is still human development. The proposition of human development runs through the thinking of Chinese and foreign thinkers in ancient and modern times, and will become an eternal proposition with the existence of man. Human development has different manifestations in different eras, and in addition to its basic problems, including the development of human intelligence, physical strength, and quality, there is also a wide range of expanded connotations. The development of people in the contemporary world is the development realized in the nation-state, which cannot be separated from certain cultural traditions and cannot be separated from the changes of the times of the nation-state. Cultural identity and national identity provide internal spiritual impetus for human development and point out the direction of human development from the perspective of history and reality. First, the development of people's ideology. "Once a person has consciousness, he has a structure to interpret the past in his memory, to explain the future in which he will participate, and to explain the world in which he encounters." A. Marcelle et al.: Culture and Self, translated by Ren Ying et al., Zhejiang People's Publishing House, 1988, p. 82. Identity is the mental activity process of an individual constructing an inner spiritual world under the stimulation of various factors. Identity activities can promote the common development of people's sense of citizenship, national consciousness and global awareness. The first is the development of people's sense of citizenship. Man exists in the world as an individual, and the world that is separated from individual development is an empty world. Contemporary man does not exist in the form of a monad, but his own citizenship is with the state. The development of contemporary people is first of all the awakening of civic consciousness, starting from citizenship, having a clear understanding of their own rights and obligations, practicing them, developing themselves and achieving others in interaction with the state. The tradition of civic consciousness and the nature of the times are complex and intertwined, and the contemporary civic consciousness of Chinese is inseparable from China's ideological tradition, especially the folk culture of Confucianism is deeply rooted, and it is impossible to cultivate civic consciousness in China without understanding the history and reality of Confucianism. The epochality of civic consciousness is inseparable from China's development, which is reflected in economic awareness, political awareness, cultural awareness, and social awareness. Economic consciousness means that with the institutional transformation of the market economy, the interest needs of individuals continue to grow, and the material requirements continue to increase. Political consciousness refers to the continuous awakening of citizens' awareness of civil rights and the rising political expectations of the government and society with the advancement of the reform of the democratic political system. Cultural awareness means that with the development of spiritual civilization construction, individuals' desire for rich spiritual and cultural products is increasing day by day, and there are more expectations for the creative expression of cultural subjects. Social awareness means that with the continuous growth of social organizations, the needs and opportunities for citizens to participate in different social activities have greatly increased. The second is the development of people's national consciousness. A citizen is a citizen of a state, and a state is a state of citizens. Citizenship is aimed at individuals, and to raise it to the national level, it is necessary to develop their national consciousness. National consciousness not only includes citizens' psychological sense of identity and belonging to the country, but also reflects the national interests of citizens' own behavior. In the process of transformation of thought and behavior, identity is a necessary stage. Only when an effective identity psychology is constructed can identity behavior continue. The development of national consciousness can also be divided into different stages such as cognition, emotion, will, and behavior. The cognitive level refers to citizens' understanding and understanding of the basic situation of the country, and completing the basic ideological preparation from the perspective of knowledge acceptance. The emotional level refers to the change and tendency of citizens' inner attitudes on the basis of cognition, and they start to consciously judge from the value choice. The level of will refers to citizens' confidence and persistence in the behavior of the state, and the direction of efforts is clear from the goal orientation. The behavioral level is the process of realizing identity based on the external manifestations of citizens based on the first three stages. The third is the development of human global consciousness. The vision of human development lies not only in oneself and the country, but development in the contemporary sense has studied human beings as a whole. In other words, people's ideology needs to rise from narrow individual development and national development to global development. Global development is not only an intrinsic requirement of human development itself, but also an external pressure on the human living environment. The construction of identity should cross from cultural identity and national identity to global identity, and the starting point is not to discuss at the level of isolated individuals and countries, but to build a harmonious space between man and nature based on human beings, looking to the future. Second, the development of people's social relations. "The family and civil society are an integral part of the reality of the state, the spiritual existence of the reality of the will, they are the way the state exists, the family and civil society make themselves the state, they are the driving force". The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, vol. 3, People's Publishing House, 2002, p. 11. That is to say, the existence of society is its own survival process, not the product of ideas. The shaping of society by identity is mainly reflected in many aspects, such as subjectivity, communication, experience, and inheritance. First of all, human subjectivity. From birth to death, each individual needs to constantly transform his or her subjectivity. Human subjectivity is the fundamental difference from other individuals and the formation of normal social relations. People's self-identity is the pillar of the growth of subjectivity, and self-identity is a gradual self-evaluation obtained through the exchange of information with the world and others. Different cultures and countries provide standards and guidelines for subject evaluation, which change with culture and country. Therefore, subjectivity is essentially the subjectivity of a certain culture and country, and cultural identity and national identity are components that transform culture and national cognition into subjects through different ways. Secondly, the interconnectedness of people. Communication is a concentrated embodiment of people's sociality. No matter what type of social relationship, it is premised on communication, which lays the foundation for the deepening and development of social relations. Human communication requires certain cultural conditions, including language, symbols, thinking, rules, etc., that is to say, human communication is cultural communication. Cultural identity creates a benign communication environment for people's interactions, reduces the communication costs of communication, and further enriches people's social relations. The state is the space in which modern people live, and it is also the social background of their interactions. The influence of national identity on people's communication has two sides, which not only strengthens the group consciousness of the communication subjects and expands the communication space in the process of their interactions, but also increases the obstacles to communication in the exchanges of different national subjects, adding many complex factors to the development of social relations. Again, human experience. Human social existence starts from the subject, mediated by communication, and returns to human experience. Different individuals have different degrees of experience of social relations, and they are affected by the functional role of comprehensive elements such as individual endowment, personality, knowledge education, environmental background, and psychological state. Cultural identity occupies a central position in the human experience, because any individual experience is a cultural experience, and social experience without a cultural basis is purely biological conditioning and instinctive need. Furthermore, the experiential value of national identity to people lies in its ability to enhance people's experiential realm, transcend the level of self-concern, gradually amplify the group characteristics in their ideological consciousness, and lay the foundation for their behavior in the national society. Finally, the inheritance of people. No one can exist in the world forever, and the finite life of an individual will eventually be consumed by time. However, individuals who exist as cultures can continue to be passed on and become an unchanging part of society. Human existence is the process of transforming the existence of physical life into cultural existence, and the more prominent this process is completed, the more obvious its inheritance will be. Cultural identity is a necessary condition for the realization of human inheritance, which prepares cultural consciousness for people's cultural existence, stores cultural resources, changes cultural prejudices, and ultimately achieves people's unique cultural personality. National identity provides group consciousness conditions for people's inheritance, which prepares cultural vision for people's cultural existence, opens up cultural paths, eliminates cultural resistance, and ultimately achieves people's cultural realm. Third, the development of human practical activities. People are people who practice society, and people change themselves, society, and the world in practice. People's practical activities are inseparable from culture and countries, and people's practical activities in different cultures and countries will also show different characteristics, mainly including practice orientation, practice conditions, practice relevance, practice diversity, etc. Practice orientation means that with the development and change of people's thinking level, production tools, social stages, etc., the goal orientation of social practice will be more and more in line with the needs of people and society, and create an environment for human beings to better produce and live. Social practices in different cultures and countries also express their social characteristics and provide dynamic support for their social development. Practice conditionality refers to the fact that people's social practice level is compatible with specific social conditions, and different social conditions determine the gap in practice level. The level of social practice varies from culture to culture and country. Practice correlation means that with the acceleration of globalization, the degree of social practice exchange and integration is getting higher and higher, and the mutual influence and driving role are getting stronger and stronger, and finally promote the overall progress of social practice level. Diversity of practice refers to the great difference in the value performance of social practice in culture and country, and the existence of this difference is the proof of human rich practical ability, and the diversity of differences can promote the development of social practice. The driving force of identity in the development of social practice activities is mainly spiritual. First of all, identity gathers the power of practice. "In the context of late modernity, the sense of personal meaninglessness, that is, the feeling that life does not offer anything of value, becomes a fundamental psychological problem". Anthony Giddens: Modernity and Self-Identity, translated by Zhao Xudong and Fang Wen, Life, Reading, and New Knowledge, 1998, p. 9. Whether it is cultural identity or national identity, its intrinsic influence on the subject is to unite people's hearts. The realization of any social development goal requires cohesion, and recognition can provide a psychological basis for the pooling of intellectual resources in social practice. Second, identify and create the conditions for practice. The conditions of practice require the creation of the subject of practice, and the prerequisite for the creation of the subject of practice is the identification with society. Through identification, the subject can fully understand the social culture and basic national conditions and create them. Third, recognition promotes practical exchanges. In the process of globalization, cultural exchanges and national exchanges are becoming more and more frequent, and recognition in the process of exchange will strengthen the image of culture and the country and accelerate the improvement of the level of practice. Finally, identity exacerbates diversity in practice. Identity is the identification of different cultures and countries, and the higher the degree of internal identity, the more obvious the differences in social practices. On the one hand, the difference in practice leads to the conflict of civilizations, and the divisive tendency of the world is becoming more and more serious; on the other hand, the difference in practice shows the plurality of the world, and the richness of civilization is becoming more and more prominent. The society of the future "will be such a union where the free development of everyone is the condition for the free development of all", Selected Works of Marx and Engels, vol. 1, People's Publishing House, 1995, p. 294. The issue of human development runs through Marxist theory and practice, and is also the core issue of the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the era of globalization, informatization and pluralism, the study of identity is a new topic to achieve national governance and human development, and on the occasion of the publication of the series of books on Marxism and Chinese Society Studies of Jinan University, the issues of cultural identity, national identity and human development are initially discussed, hoping to arouse the attention and research of experts and scholars on related issues, and jointly promote the theoretical construction of Marxism in China. (The author is the Secretary of the Party Committee of Jinan University)(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
贾海涛.综合国力与文化力系统研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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贾海涛.综合国力与文化力系统研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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贾海涛(2015).综合国力与文化力系统研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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