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现代汉语祈使句人际功能研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-3173-2

出版日期:2014-03

页数:243

字数:220.0千字

点击量:4999次

引用量:4次

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祈使句是表示命令或请求的句子,它的构成和使用离不开一定的人际关系。人际关系或者说互动制约着祈使句的句法形式,因此有必要对这种制约性,也就是形式背后语法意义的构成因素——人际关系和互动开展研究;此外,祈使句的表达形式在语用环境中总是可以体现出各种人际关系信息,研究二者之间的对应关系可以更好地解释祈使句的构成和使用规则。本书借鉴系统功能语言学、语用学、修辞学及社会语言学等理论,在大规模自然语料考察的基础上,从人际关系的角度出发,深入细致地描写祈使句的各种构成成分,分析它们在人际表达中的作用,探索祈使句的句法形式与人际功能之间的对应规律。祈使句是一个表功能的类别,有广义与狭义之分。广义祈使句是指在具体语境中言语主体直接或间接要求言语对象去做某事的句子,而狭义祈使句是指在具体语境中言语主体直接要求言语对象去执行某行为动作的句子。本书研究的祈使句特指对话语境中的狭义祈使句。祈使句具有时间的未然性、鲜明的主观性、对象的明晰性和功能的多重性,这四个独特的交际特征使之区别于其他句类,成为一种具有特殊交际价值的句子。功能与结构之间有一种制衡关系,狭义祈使句具有特定的表达形式,本书将其构成成分分为三个部分:句法结构单位、附加语和语调,它们都是人际功能的语义载体。祈使句完整的句法结构包括四要素:言语主体S、使令动词V1、行为主体O和动作行为V2,即祈使句的句法结构是S + V1+ O + V2,本书着重在词汇句法层面上对这四要素的不同表现形式进行描写和分析。S和O是祈使句中的人际角色,S在祈使句中出现时主要有虚拟与非虚拟之分,O主要表现为人称的不同,它们各自又都有不同的小类,通过对S和O不同表现形式的描写来揭示它们所传达的人际意义。V1和V2是祈使句中的交际行为,V1是一组使令强度不同的使令动词,说话人对它的选择,主要是向听话人亮明自己的主观态度; V2是祈使句的核心部分,说话人对它的选择与双方之间的人际关系有着密切的关系,本书从词汇层面、词法层面、句法层面分别对V2的使用进行了考察和分析,揭示V2在人际功能表达方面发挥的重要作用。祈使句基本的句法结构可以表达人际功能,但主要用来传达概念功能。在祈使句中,专职或主要用来表达人际功能的语言成分有语气词、情态词、语调及其他成分,它们都是体现“互动”和“态度”的重要语言成分,考察它们在祈使句中的使用情况,分析它们在说话人与听话人之间的互动作用,最终揭示这些语言成分在人际功能表达方面所发挥的积极作用。从语用角度对祈使句进行研究,祈使句的言语功能丰富多彩。本书分别对强势祈使句、中性祈使句和弱势祈使句的言语功能进行描写,尽可能穷尽性地罗列祈使句的言语功能,分析这些言语功能所体现的言语角色关系,通过言语角色关系揭示交际双方之间的社会角色关系;从宏观与微观的角度对自然语料中的祈使句所发挥的人际功能进行探讨和分析,揭示祈使句与人、人际关系之间的密切关系,并从权势、情感、亲疏、礼貌、事情的急缓等人际关系分析了祈使句的使用情况;最后对1965个祈使句所发生的人际关系进行了分析统计,归纳总结了语气不同的祈使句在人际关系中的基本分布。总之,本书对涉及祈使句人际功能表达的各种语言成分进行了较为全面的、立体的、动态的考察和描写,做出尽量合理的分析和解释。这些分析和考察,必将深化我们对祈使句的认识,而且有助于指导人们得体运用祈使句。 关键词:祈使句 人际关系 权势

Imperative sentences convey the meaning of“giving an order”or“issuing a request”.The usage of these sentences is highly dependent upon the relationships that exist between people.As these relationships or“interactions”put certain constraints on the syntactic structure of these sentences,it is therefore crucial to conduct a thorough investigation of interpersonal relations and interactions that are semantic elements upon which the form of the sentence is decided.In addition,the use of a certain type of imperative sentence will also give us information about different types of interpersonal relationships.To analyze the correspondence between them may help us give a better explanation of the rules related to formation and usage of imperative sentences.From the point of view of interpersonal relationships,based on the large corpus of language data,and applying the current theories of systemic functional linguistics,pragmatics,stylistics and sociolinguistics,this thesis gives a detailed analysis of each constituent part of the imperative sentences,their function in expressing these relationships,and explores the correspondences between the syntactic structure of imperative sentence and the type of interpersonal relationship it expresses.Chinese imperative sentences are a functional category that can be divided into two types-general and special.Imperative sentences of the general type are those in which the speaker,under a certain context,directly or indirectly asks the hearer to do something.The special type of imperative sentences is that in which the speaker,under a certain context,directly demands that the hearer performs a certain action.The object of our investigation is a special type of imperative sentences used in conversation.Four unique communicative characteristics of imperative sentences,i.e.unspecified time frame,obvious subjectivity,explicitness of the performer the order is issued to and the diversity of function,make this type a type of sentence with exceptional communicative values that differs greatly from all other sentential types.There is a counterbalance between the function and the structure of these sentences.Imperative sentences of the special type have distinct forms.Their structural components can be divided into three categories: syntactic units,adjuncts and sentence intonation.All of these components are semantic vessels for expressing different interpersonal relationships.Complete syntactic structure of imperative sentences in Chinese language comprises of four elements: the speaker (S),verb conveying an order (V1),performer of an action (O) and the action verb (V2) .In other words,the syntactic structure of imperative sentence is S + V1+ O + V2.In this thesis we will give a detailed analysis of different manifestations of these four elements from the syntactic and the lexical point of view.S and O are the interpersonal roles of imperative sentences.When S appears in imperative sentence it may be either virtual or real,while O mainly differs in person the order refers to.Both S and O can be subdivided into different categories.By analyzing different manifestations of S and O in the sentence we will try to disclose the interpersonal meanings they convey.V1and V2are two actions communicated by the imperative sentences.Verbs of different obligatory force can be in the place of V1.The purpose of the speaker making a specific choice of a verb in place of V1is to state clearly an attitude he or she has towards the hearer.V2is the central part of imperative sentence.The speaker's choice of V2is closely related to the interpersonal relationship that exists between the speaker and the hearer.The investigation of the use of V2from the lexical,morphological and syntactic perspectives disclosed the importance V2has in the expression of interpersonal relationship between the speaker and the hearer.Although the basic syntactic structure of imperative sentence can also function as a marker of a certain interpersonal relationship,it is mainly used for conveying a conceptual meaning.The elements of imperative sentences that specifically or mainly have a function of expressing an interpersonal relationship include: discourse markers,modals and intonation.These elements are very important linguistic means for expressing“interactions”or “attitudes”conveyed by language.Investigation of their usage in imperative sentences and analysis of their role in the interactions between the speaker and the hearer will ultimately result in the disclosure of the positive roles these linguistic elements play in the expression of interpersonal relations.Studying the Chinese imperative sentences from the pragmatic perspective can lead us to finding out the diversity of their speech function.We gave a detailed description of the speech function of strong,normal and weak imperative sentences respectively.We have also attempted to enumerate as many speech functions of imperative sentences as we can,to analyze the relationships of speech roles conveyed by these functions,and to disclose,by analyzing these speech roles,the relationship between the social roles the speaker and the listener have.By analyzing examples from the language in use,we have investigated the interpersonal relations expressed by imperative sentences from both the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives,and disclosed the close connection that exists between the imperative sentences on one side and the speaker-hearer and their relationships on the other.We have also analyzed the usage of imperative sentences from the point of view of the interpersonal relationships between the speaker and the hearer in regard to their authority,emotion,relatedness,politeness,and urgency of the situation.Finally,we have also analyzed and summarized the interpersonal relationships as presented in one thousand and ninety-five imperative sentences,and summarized the basic distribution imperative sentences of different manner of speaking have in expressing different interpersonal relationships.To sum up,in this thesis we gave a relatively thorough,vivid and dynamic analysis and description of all the different linguistic elements related to the expression of interpersonal relationships conveyed by the imperative sentences.We are certain that this analysis and investigation will deepen our understanding of imperative sentences in Chinese language and contribute to their further proper use. KEY WORDS: imperative sentences; interpersonal relationship; power and position

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
张恒君.现代汉语祈使句人际功能研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2014
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MLA 格式引文
张恒君.现代汉语祈使句人际功能研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2014E-book.
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APA 格式引文
张恒君(2014).现代汉语祈使句人际功能研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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