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社会之霾——当代中国社会风险的逻辑与现实

Haze of the society-The logic and reality of social risk in contemporary China

ISBN:978-7-5161-5542-4

出版日期:2015-02

页数:426

字数:421.0千字

点击量:5367次

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钟君同志从“天人合一”哲学理念出发,以“自然之霾”与“社会之霾”的共通性为引,把问题做原点、从实践入手,以历史的视野、求真的精神和谨慎乐观的态度,对当代中国社会风险的逻辑与现实进行了积极有益的学术探索,充分展现了一个青年学者的为民情怀和学术担当。社会风险研究是一个老话题,同时也是一个新话题。说它是老话题,是因为自人类社会产生之日起就始终存在风险问题,这也是国内外学术界始终关注的一个旧话题。说它是新话题,是因为在迎接具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争中,随着全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面推进依法治国、全面从严治党的深入推进,我们正面临着前所罕有的机遇与前所罕有的挑战,在经济发展进入新常态的新背景下,如何沉着应对、着力化解新形势新阶段的社会风险,成为摆在人们面前、亟待解决的热点问题。社会风险研究是一个理论课题,同时也是一个现实课题。说它是理论课题,是因为这项研究涉及社会风险的内涵、特征和生成演化规律,以及马克思主义社会风险学说和西方风险社会理论等基本问题,是一个理论性较强的课题。说它是现实课题,是因为这项研究以揭示当代中国社会形形色色的风险外壳为着力点,研究的主旨也是为化解社会风险提供政策支撑和决策依据,是一个现实性较强的课题。社会风险研究是一个“单一”领域的课题,同时也是一个“复合”领域的课题。说它“单一”,是因为这一课题的研究对象明确具体。说它“复杂”,是因为社会风险的表现形态多样、涵盖领域众多,涉及社会的方方面面,要收放自如地驾驭,的确是一个难度不小的事情。在我看来,这本书贯穿着强烈的问题意识、鲜明的问题导向。毛泽东曾指出,问题就是事物的矛盾,哪里有没有解决的矛盾,哪里就有问题。作者之所以能够提出社会之“霾”并进行深入系统的思考,正是源自对社会矛盾与现实问题的正视与反思。社会有“霾”,则无人能逃、无处可逃、无法去逃,“如果贫富差距越来越大,你到哪里寻找公平?如果诚信普遍缺失,你该相信谁?如果腐败成为一种规则,你是否只能跪拜强权;如果GDP成为唯一追求,你到哪里找寻美好的生态环境?如果民主法治成为形式,你向谁喊冤?如果民生困局积重难返,你该如何生存?如果每个人都有自己的价值标准,你该如何与人交往?如果每个城市都过度膨胀,你该到哪里寻找世外桃源?”这一个个发人深省的诘问,无时不在敲响警惕社会之“霾”的鸣钟。这本书也体现出一个学者的为民情怀和正确的政治导向。治学就要有强烈的社会责任感,关注社会矛盾和社会风险这样的重大现实问题更是为国分忧、为民解难。把坚持正确的政治方向和学术导向放在第一位,也是本书的重要特征。全书始终自觉运用马克思主义的立场观点方法剖析问题,对各领域社会风险的分析评价较为客观准确,特别是在剖析文化领域的社会风险时,对信仰真空、道德滑坡、意识形态淡化和“普世价值”蔓延的价值共识缺失问题,进行了旗帜鲜明、理直气壮、敢于亮剑的学术表达。这本书还有着较为缜密的逻辑框架和科学的思维方法。全书在构建社会主义和谐社会的视域下,以当代中国社会风险和社会矛盾为研究对象,以不断推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化、化解社会风险为目的,在科学界定社会风险概念和特征、系统梳理马克思主义社会矛盾和社会风险学说、辩证分析西方风险社会理论的基础上,立足当前中国社会风险的实际状况、表现形式和原因症结,着力探索防范和化解社会风险的实现路径。科学方法是取得成功的关键。基于目前理论界对社会风险的判断和研究多为定性分析的状况,以及对中国社会矛盾的具体表现及其程度、社会风险的外壳及其可能的后果等事实性内容缺少定量实证研究的不足,全书通过问卷调查和深度访谈的方式,进行了较为客观系统的实证研究。此外,用历史唯物主义考察风险社会,用利益分析法即阶级分析法透视风险产生的原因,用辩证思维方法剖析社会矛盾与社会风险的内在关系,可以说,辩证唯物主义的方法论随处可见。我认为,在该书中,作者语言犀利睿智、文风朴实活泼。像“自然之'霾'可怕,社会之'霾'更可怕”、“社会之‘霾’中的那些烟尘和沙土,隐约看得见,但又抓不着。明知很有毒,但又躲不开”等语言较为形象深刻。各章节题目都比较醒目、切中要害。作者也很注重把马克思主义的基本原理与中国当今实际相结合,得出新的理论观点。坦率地讲,在不同的学科领域和话语条件下,社会风险的内涵不尽相同。因此,学术界对“什么是社会风险”这个问题的争议比较大,始终没有哪个定义能够获得普遍的认同。作者尝试从抽象内涵和具体外延两个方面对社会风险进行界定,前者突出可能性、后者强调系统性,认为社会风险应该由社会风险源、社会风险外壳、社会风险熵、社会风险后果四部分构成。这四部分组合在一起,就勾勒出比较完整的社会风险概念。这或许为学术界更加准确理解和定义社会风险,提供了一个动态系统化思维的考察视角。化解社会风险需要“形而上”的哲学思考,需要马克思主义哲学认识论、方法论和价值论的指导;同时也需要“形而下”的实践策略,需要宏观上中国特色社会主义、创新社会治理、温暖型改革(即把人民群众的眼前利益与长远利益、局部利益与全局利益相结合的改革)这三根战略支柱有机、有效相融合,需要操作层面完善利益整合机制、社会流动机制、社会安全阀机制、风险评估和预警机制四大机制相衔接,这些都有创新性、前瞻性和可操作性的味道。研究社会风险问题难度大、涉及面广,本书作了初步探索和尝试,很多方面还有进一步提升的空间。钟君博士是中国社科院的科研骨干,年龄虽不大,却见识广、思维活跃、对不少问题有独到的见解,也有较强的组织能力。我很愿意与年轻人往来,从他们包括从钟君同志身上,经常能学到很多可贵的东西。马克思主义是忧患学说,它忧天、忧地、忧人民,但它更是乐观主义的学说,乐观的根本依据,按照中国的传统说法,就是“长江后浪推前浪”,就是“青出于蓝而胜于蓝”。钟君同志的这本书即将付梓,希望我为书作个序。我借此谈了上述想法,衷心希望该书能对读者有所帮助。李慎明2015年1月30日

Proceeding from the philosophical concept of "the unity of heaven and man", Comrade Zhong Jun took the commonality of "natural haze" and "social haze" as the guide, took the problem as the starting point, started from practice, and carried out a positive and beneficial academic exploration on the logic and reality of social risks in contemporary China with a historical perspective, truth-seeking spirit and cautious and optimistic attitude, fully demonstrating the feelings and academic responsibility of a young scholar. Social risk research is an old topic and at the same time a new one. It is said to be an old topic because there has always been a risk problem since the birth of human society, which is also an old topic that the academic circles at home and abroad have always paid attention to. It is a new topic because in the great struggle with many new historical characteristics, with the in-depth advancement of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, comprehensively deepening reform, comprehensively promoting the rule of law and comprehensively administering the party strictly, we are facing unprecedented rare opportunities and unprecedented challenges, and in the new context of economic development entering the new normal, how to calmly deal with and focus on resolving social risks in the new situation and new stage has become a hot issue in front of people and needs to be solved urgently. Social risk research is a theoretical topic as well as a practical topic. It is a theoretical topic because this research involves the connotation, characteristics and generative evolution law of social risk, as well as basic issues such as Marxist social risk theory and Western risk society theory, and is a highly theoretical topic. It is said to be a realistic topic because this research focuses on revealing various risk shells in contemporary Chinese society, and the main purpose of the research is also to provide policy support and decision-making basis for resolving social risks, which is a realistic topic. Social risk research is a topic in a "single" field and a topic in a "compound" field. It is "single" because the object of study on this topic is clear and specific. It is "complex" because the manifestations of social risks are diverse, covering many fields, involving all aspects of society, and it is indeed a difficult thing to control freely. In my opinion, this book runs through a strong sense of problem and a clear problem orientation. Mao Zedong once pointed out that problems are contradictions in things, and where there are unresolved contradictions, there are problems. The reason why the author can put forward the "haze" of society and think deeply and systematically is precisely from facing and reflecting on social contradictions and practical problems. If there is a "smog" in society, no one can escape, nowhere to run, no way to escape, "If the gap between the rich and the poor is getting bigger and bigger, where do you look for fairness?" If integrity is generally lacking, who should you trust? If corruption becomes a rule, can you only bow down to power; If GDP becomes the only pursuit, where do you look for a beautiful ecological environment? If democratic rule of law becomes a formality, to whom do you cry out for injustice? If the people's livelihood difficulties accumulate, how can you survive? If everyone has their own values, how do you relate to people? If every city is overswollen, where do you look for hideaway? These thought-provoking interrogations are ringing the bell of vigilance against the "haze" of society all the time. This book also reflects a scholar's feelings for the people and correct political orientation. To govern education, we must have a strong sense of social responsibility, and paying attention to major practical issues such as social contradictions and social risks is even more for the country to share worries and solve difficulties for the people. Putting adherence to the correct political direction and academic orientation in the first place is also an important feature of this book. The book always consciously uses Marxist positions and viewpoints to analyze problems, and the analysis and evaluation of social risks in various fields are more objective and accurate, especially when analyzing social risks in the cultural field, and makes academic expressions with a clear-cut, straightforward and daring to show the sword on the problems of lack of value consensus in the vacuum of faith, moral decline, ideological dilution and the spread of "universal values". This book also has a more rigorous logical framework and scientific thinking methods. From the perspective of building a socialist harmonious society, taking contemporary Chinese social risks and social contradictions as the research object, and with the purpose of continuously promoting the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity and resolving social risks, the book focuses on scientifically defining the concept and characteristics of social risks, systematically sorting out Marxist social contradictions and social risk theory, and dialectically analyzing Western risk social theory, based on the actual situation, manifestations and causes of social risks in China, and strives to explore the realization path of preventing and resolving social risks. The scientific method is the key to success. Based on the current situation that the judgment and research of social risk in the theoretical circles are mostly qualitative analysis, and the lack of quantitative empirical research on the specific manifestations and degrees of social contradictions in China, the shell of social risks and their possible consequences, the book conducts more objective and systematic empirical research through questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews. In addition, using historical materialism to investigate the risk society, using the interest analysis method, that is, the class analysis method, to see the causes of risk, and using the dialectical thinking method to analyze the internal relationship between social contradictions and social risks, it can be said that the methodology of dialectical materialism can be seen everywhere. I think that in this book, the author's language is sharp and wise, and the style is simple and lively. For example, "the 'haze' of nature is terrible, and the 'haze' of society is even more terrible", "The smoke and sand in the "haze" of society can be faintly seen, but cannot be grasped." I know it's poisonous, but I can't avoid it" and other languages are more graphically profound. The titles of each chapter are more eye-catching and to the point. The author also attaches great importance to integrating the basic tenets of Marxism with China's current reality to draw new theoretical viewpoints. Frankly speaking, the connotation of social risk varies from subject area to discipline and discourse. Therefore, the question of "what is social risk" in academia is relatively controversial, and no definition has been universally recognized. The author attempts to define social risk from two aspects: abstract connotation and concrete extension, the former highlighting the possibility and the latter emphasizing systematic, and believes that social risk should be composed of four parts: social risk source, social risk shell, social risk entropy, and social risk consequences. These four parts are combined to outline a relatively complete concept of social risk. This may provide a dynamic and systematic thinking perspective for academia to understand and define social risks more accurately. Resolving social risks requires "metaphysical" philosophical thinking and the guidance of Marxist philosophical epistemology, methodology and axiology; At the same time, it also needs a "metaphysical" practical strategy, macroscopic socialism with Chinese characteristics, innovative social governance, and warm reform (that is, reform that combines the people's immediate interests with long-term interests, partial interests and overall interests) these three strategic pillars are organically and effectively integrated, and it is necessary to improve the four major mechanisms of interest integration mechanism, social mobility mechanism, social safety valve mechanism, risk assessment and early warning mechanism at the operational level, all of which have the taste of innovation, forward-looking and operability. The study of social risk issues is difficult and wide-ranging, and this book has made preliminary explorations and attempts, and there is still room for further improvement in many aspects. Dr. Zhong Jun is the backbone of the scientific research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, although he is not old, he is well-informed, active in thinking, has unique insights on many issues, and has strong organizational skills. I am very willing to interact with young people, and I can often learn a lot of valuable things from them, including Comrade Zhong Jun. Marxism is a doctrine of distress, which worries about the sky, the land, and the people, but it is also a doctrine of optimism, and the fundamental basis for optimism, according to the traditional Chinese saying, is that "the back waves of the Yangtze River push the front waves", that is, "the blue is better than the blue." Comrade Zhong Jun's book is about to be completed, and I hope that I will write a foreword to the book. I have taken this opportunity to talk about these ideas, and I sincerely hope that the book will be helpful to readers. Li Shenming, January 30, 2015(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
钟君.社会之霾——当代中国社会风险的逻辑与现实[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
钟君.社会之霾——当代中国社会风险的逻辑与现实.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
钟君(2015).社会之霾——当代中国社会风险的逻辑与现实.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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