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认知激活框架下的汉语篇章回指研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-4037-6

出版日期:2014-01

页数:191

字数:234.0千字

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本书借鉴Jeanette K.Gundel(1993)、Andrej A.Kibrik(1999)和Russell Tomlin(2007)等学者的研究成果,从语篇生成的角度,运用认知功能语言学的理论,研究现代汉语篇章回指现象。本书共有6章。第一章介绍本书的研究对象、研究目标、理论假设、研究方法和语料来源,并对本书中使用的一些常用术语进行界定。第二章先介绍国外学者篇章回指研究的话题连续模式、语篇层级模式和认知激活模式三种模式,接下来概述国内学者对现代汉语篇章回指所进行的研究。第三章论述该模式的理论基础和理论假设。记忆激活模式包括:语篇实体的认知状态分类、实体的认知状态同指称语编码形式的关联、制约实体认知状态的语篇因素和实体特征三个模块。本书把认知状态分为“注意中心”、“激活的”、“熟悉的”、“可识别的”和“未识别的”五类,它们具有蕴涵关系,激活程度高的认知状态蕴含着激活程度低的认知状态。本书假定实体的认知状态同指称语的编码形式有如下关联:如果语篇实体在交际者的记忆系统中被高度激活,就用简省的名词形式(零形式和代词)对它进行编码;如果语篇实体在交际者的记忆系统中被激活的程度很低,就用全称名词对它进行编码。语篇间隔距离和语篇实体特征是制约说话者关于实体认知状态的两大因素。语篇间隔距离包括修辞结构距离、线性距离和名词词语间隔距离;语篇实体的特征包括重要人物和语法角色(主语、宾语或领属语)。这五个要素整合后通过制约实体的认知状态,间接地影响回指语的编码形式。第四章分析说话者首次和再次引入语篇实体时,使用的名词的编码形式以及它们指称的实体的认知状态。说话者通常使用专有名词和普通名词指称首次提及的实体,专有名词引入可识别的实体,普通名词引入可识别的和未识别的实体。当再次提及已知实体时,说话者有时候由于叙述视角的转移,把熟悉的实体编码为新实体。第五章首先统计先行词在三种句法位置时回指形式的分布情况,统计数据表明语篇间隔距离影响回指语的选择。接下来,本章从修辞结构的语义特点、间隔名词的句法特征和实体的语用特性等角度对零形回指、代词回指和名词回指进行了详细的分析。综合本章的研究,我们把篇章回指的规律总结如下:零形回指语指称“注意中心”状态的实体。此时先行词和回指语之间的修辞结构距离和线性距离都很小,名词间隔距离一般小于1,如果有潜在的干扰名词,该名词一般不出现在小句的主语位置上打断先行词和回指语的线性话题链。零形回指语指称的是语篇中的重要人物实体。代词回指语指称“注意中心”和“激活的”状态的实体。此时先行词和回指语之间的修辞结构距离和线性距离都较小。(1)当先行词在小句的主语和领属语位置上时,名词词语间隔距离一般不大于1;如果先行词和回指语之间有潜在的干扰名词,该名词一般不出现在小句的主语位置上打断先行词和回指语的线性话题链;代词回指语指称语篇中的重要人物实体。(2)当先行词在小句的宾语位置上时,名词词语间隔距离一般为0。当代词回指语保持宾语指称时,它指称语篇中的次要人物实体;当代词回指语转换宾语指称时,它指称语篇中的重要人物实体。名词回指语指称“熟悉的”实体。此时先行词和回指语之间的修辞结构距离和线性距离较大,名词间隔距离一般大于1,潜在的干扰名词一般出现在小句的主语位置上,打断先行词和回指语的线性话题链,名词回指语指称语篇中的一个参与人物实体。第六章总结本书的主要观点,指出研究的局限和今后进一步研究的方向。 关键词:汉语篇章 认知激活模式 回指形式

Based on the achievements in anaphoric researches gained by a number of scholars such as Jeanette K.Gundel et al.(1993),Andrej A.Kibrik(1999),Russell Tom lin(2007),the book adopts the cognitive-functional linguistic theory to study the discourse anaphora in Chinese from the perspective of discourse production.The book consists of six chapters.Chapter 1(introduction)describes the object,objective,theoretic assumption,methods of the research,the corpus used by the researcher,and defines some technical terms often used in the book.Chapter 2 surveys the researches on discourse anaphora in China and abroad.The first three sections introduce three main approaches to the discourse anaphora adopted by foreign scholars.They are topic continuity model,discourse hierarchy model and cognitive activation model.Section 4 outlines the state of the art of the researches on discourse anaphora in China.Chapter 3 constructs the memorial-activation model,discusses the theoretic premises and assumption of the model.The model includes three components,i.e.the classification of cognitive statuses of discourse entity,the correlation between cognitive statuses of entity and linguistic forms,discourse factors and entity features restricting cognitive statuses.The book classifies cognitive statuses into five categories,that is,attention focus,activated,familiar,identifiable and unidentifiable.The statuses are implicationally related.Each status on the hierarchy entails all lower statuses,but not vice versa.The book proposes the assumption:If the discourse entity is highly activated in the speaker’smemory,it is coded by attenuated forms(zero or pronominal anaphora);if the discourse entity is lowly activated,it is coded by full nouns(nominal anaphora).Discourse interval distances and discourse entity features are two factors that restrict cognitive statuses of entity.Discourse interval distances include rhetorical structure,linear,noun interval distance;Discourse entity features include protagonist and grammatical role(subject,object,genitive).These five elements indirectly influence the anaphoric selection through restricting cognitive statuses of entity.Chapter 4 analyses the nominal forms and cognitive statuses of entity referring with these forms when speaker introduces,or reintroduces entity into discourse.Speaker conventionally uses proper nouns and general nouns to refer the firstly mentioned referents.Proper nouns introduce identifiable entities to discourse.General nouns introduce identifiable or unidentifiable entities to discourse.Speaker sometimes encodes the familiar referents to be new entity due to the fact that speaker switches the perspectives.Chapter 5 is the analysis of discourse anaphora.First,the chapter measures the distribution of anaphora when the antecedent is in three syntactic plots.The statistics indicates that discourse interval distances influence the anaphoric selection.Second,the chapter elaborately analyses zero,pronominal and nominal anaphora on the basis of the semantic trait of rhetorical structure,the syntactic feature of interval noun and the pragmatic property of the entities.Data analysis leads to the following conclusion of discourse anaphora:Zero anaphor refers to the entity that is in attention focus.The rhetorical structure and linear distances are very small.The noun interval distance usually is smaller than one.If there are potential interfering referents between the anaphor and its antecedent,the referents are not in the subject position,and do not break the linear topic chain between the anaphor and its antecedent.Zero anaphor refers to the important participants in the discourse.Pronominal anaphor refers to the entity that is in attention focus or activated.The rhetorical structure and linear distances are small.(1)When the antecedent is in the subjectand genitive positions,the noun interval distance usually is not bigger than one.If there are potential interfering referents between the anaphor and its antecedent,the referents usually are not in the subject position,and do not break the linear topic chain between the anaphor and its antecedent.Pronominal anaphor refers to the important participants in the discourse.(2)When the antecedent is in the object position,the noun interval distance usually is zero.Pronominal anaphor refers to the less important participants when itmaintains reference object,pronominal anaphor refers to the important participants when it switches reference object.Nominal anaphor refers to the entity that is familiar.The rhetorical structure and linear distances are bigger.The noun interval distance usually is bigger than one.The potential interfering referents usually are in the subject position,and break the linear topic chain between the anaphor and its antecedent.Nominal anaphor refers to one of participants in the discourse.Chapter 6 summarizes the argument of the book,points out the limitations of the research and the direction of research in the future. KEY WORDS:chinese discourse;cognitive-activation model;anaphora

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
石艳华.认知激活框架下的汉语篇章回指研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2014
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MLA 格式引文
石艳华.认知激活框架下的汉语篇章回指研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2014E-book.
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APA 格式引文
石艳华(2014).认知激活框架下的汉语篇章回指研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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