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中国文化产业政府补助研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-6430-3

出版日期:2015-06

页数:246

字数:262.0千字

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文化产业近些年来获得了蓬勃发展,对国民经济增长的贡献率不断上升。根据中宣部和国家统计局《中国文化及相关产业统计年鉴》(2013)数据,2004年,全国文化产业增加值仅为3440亿元,占GDP比重为2.15%国家统计局的数据统计口径为“文化及相关产业”。考虑到学术界对于“文化及相关产业”与“文化产业”的涵盖范围在一般情况下并没有特别区分,为了行文一致性,本书统一称为“文化产业”。;2012年文化产业增加值则达到了18071亿元,占GDP比重达到3.48%。2015年1月发布的国家统计局依据第三次全国经济普查资料的测算数据显示,2013年全国文化产业增加值达到21351亿元,占GDP比重达到3.63%。张翼、李慧:《2013年我国文化产业增加值超2万亿》,《光明日报》2015年1月24日第4版。文化产业之所以能够取得如此迅猛的发展,一方面得益于国民经济的整体提升带来的市场需求推动,《2014年国民经济和社会发展统计公报》显示,2014年,全年国内生产总值(GDP)已经达到63.65万亿元人民币,折合美元已经实现人均GDP超过7000美元的水平。按照国际上的一般规律,人均GDP超过3000美元,人们在精神层面、娱乐休闲层面的消费需求会开始激增,进而带动文化产业的快速增长。另一方面则要归功于中央政府和各级地方政府对文化产业大力度且持续性补助扶持。作者根据中宣部和国家统计局发布的《中国文化及相关产业统计年鉴》(2013)中披露数据分析发现,2007—2012年全国文化体育与传媒公共财政支出规模呈现大幅增长态势,2007年接近900亿元,到2012年则突破了2000亿元规模,年均增速达到20%以上。有关媒体披露信息显示,中央财政2010年设立了10亿元的文化产业专项资金,截至2014年11月,该专项资金已累计达到192亿元规模,扶持文化类项目3300余个。从地方来看,北京市在2012—2015年每年安排100亿元专项资金扶持补助文化发展;上海市2012年设立文化创意产业发展财政扶持资金,2013年财政扶持力度达到3.9亿元;深圳市从2011年以来每年至少投入5亿元用于文化创意产业发展专项资金。巨额的财政资金是如何落地的?各个地方具体情况、结构比例怎样?各个行业的受惠程度如何?不同所有制企业的受扶持状况有没有显著差异?有没有实际绩效?存在哪些问题亟须解决?等等。一系列问题都亟待系统研究,从而为国家和各级地方政府制定和优化文化产业补助扶持政策提供研究支撑。通常情况下,学术界研究文化产业的政府扶持问题,往往采用的都是“财政政策”、“税收政策”等宏观维度,选用的数据一般来自国家文化部、财政部、统计局以及各地方政府有关部门发布的官方数据。这一研究维度有很多的优点,可以从国家宏观层面自上而下地分析把握文化产业政府扶持的有关状况,从各地区各行业的统计数据中分析存在的问题;不足之处在于缺乏对企业微观层面的深入了解和现实状况的把握。本书首先从宏观、中观和微观三大层面对2003年以来中国文化产业政府补助有关政策进行了系统梳理、考察,进而利用官方发布的统计数据从宏观层面对全国、各地区文化产业及细分行业政府补助概况进行了分析。在第一章和第二章基础上,从第三章开始采用了与现有研究不同的维度——利用微观企业层面(主要是文化产业上市公司)披露的政府补助数据进行研究。这一研究维度的好处在于从文化产业扶持政策落地执行层面的第一手数据资料出发,自下而上地归纳呈现政府补助在不同所有制企业层面、不同文化细分行业层面、不同地区层面的落地执行状况,从而更为深入、直接地反映国家和各个地方政府的扶持补助政策在基层企业微观层面的实施情况。第四章从企业微观维度对政府补助进行了归类整理,分析了中国文化产业政府补助内容结构特征和发展趋势。这一章还特别梳理了文化产业上市公司在技术扶持、产业扶持、项目扶持、对外扶持、人才扶持、无形资产扶持和金融扶持等方面获得的政府补助细项条目。2014年年底国务院出台了《关于清理规范税收等优惠政策的通知》(国发[2014]62号),指出目前国内关于财政、税收等各种扶持政策、优惠政策过繁过滥,亟须清理整顿。本章的梳理工作可以为国家和各级地方政府在文化产业扶持补助政策方面的清理整顿工作提供参考。第五章提出了中国文化产业价值链模型,并根据该模型对文化企业层面获得的政府补助力度和频度进行了系统梳理,从而以更加清晰的视角考察了当前国家和各级地方政府补助扶持在落地执行层面显现出的主要关注点和着力点。通过这一章的数据,可以从现实层面分析研究各级政府文化产业政策的执行偏差和存在问题。研究政府补助,一大关键问题就是如此巨额的政府补助究竟是否有效促进了文化企业和文化产业的发展,即政府补助的绩效评估问题。本书通过采用2011—2013年161家文化产业上市公司年度报告披露的有关数据,结合计量经济研究方法,对中国文化产业政府补助绩效进行了实证评估。第六章主要从政府补助对中国文化产业的经营绩效维度进行评估。第七章主要研究了政府补助对文化产业研发投入的促进效应。第八章重点探析了政府补助对于中国文化产业的就业促进效应。第九章研究了政府补助与中国文化产业无形资产的关系。在上述研究基础上,本书第十章提出了中国文化产业政府补助模式创新与优化路径,以供学术界和政府部门研究参考。综上所述,本书主要提出了关于中国文化产业政府补助的微观研究思路、框架,指出了中国文化产业政府补助的微观现实和绩效状况,希望本书的研究能够为学术界开展文化产业政府补助相关研究提供新的维度和视角,为政府有关决策部门制定文化产业政府补助政策提供有价值的研究依据。限于作者的时间和能力,本书的研究仍然存在诸多不足,敬请专家、学者批评、指正!臧志彭2015年3月·上海

The cultural industry has flourished in recent years and its contribution to national economic growth has been rising. According to the Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Culture and Related Industries (2013) by the Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee and the National Bureau of Statistics, in 2004, the added value of the national cultural industry was only 344 billion yuan, accounting for 2.15% of GDP, and the statistical caliber of the National Bureau of Statistics was "culture and related industries". Considering that the scope of coverage of "cultural and related industries" and "cultural industries" in the academic community is generally not particularly distinguished, for the sake of consistency, this book is collectively referred to as "cultural industries". In 2012, the added value of the cultural industry reached 1,807.1 billion yuan, accounting for 3.48% of GDP. According to the National Bureau of Statistics released in January 2015 based on the data of the third national economic census, the added value of the national cultural industry reached 2,135.1 billion yuan in 2013, accounting for 3.63% of GDP. Zhang Yi and Li Hui: "The added value of China's cultural industry exceeded 2 trillion yuan in 2013", Guangming Daily, January 24, 2015, 4th edition. The reason why the cultural industry has achieved such rapid development is on the one hand due to the overall improvement of the national economy brought about by market demand, the "2014 National Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin" shows that in 2014, the annual gross domestic product (GDP) has reached 63.65 trillion yuan, equivalent to the US dollar has achieved the per capita GDP level of more than 7,000 US dollars. According to the general international law, the per capita GDP exceeds 3,000 US dollars, and people's consumption demand at the spiritual level, entertainment and leisure level will begin to surge, which in turn will drive the rapid growth of the cultural industry. On the other hand, it is thanks to the strong and continuous subsidy support of the central government and local governments at all levels for the cultural industry. According to the data analysis disclosed in the "Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Culture and Related Industries" (2013) released by the Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee and the National Bureau of Statistics, the author found that from 2007 to 2012, the scale of public financial expenditure on culture, sports and media showed a substantial growth trend, approaching 90 billion yuan in 2007 and exceeding 200 billion yuan in 2012, with an average annual growth rate of more than 20%. According to relevant media disclosures, the central government set up a special fund of 1 billion yuan for cultural industries in 2010, and as of November 2014, the special fund had reached a cumulative scale of 19.2 billion yuan, supporting more than 3,300 cultural projects. From a local perspective, Beijing arranged 10 billion yuan of special funds to support and subsidize cultural development every year from 2012 to 2015; Shanghai set up a financial support fund for the development of cultural and creative industries in 2012, with financial support reaching 390 million yuan in 2013, and Shenzhen has invested at least 500 million yuan in special funds for the development of cultural and creative industries every year since 2011. How did the huge financial funds land? What is the specific situation and structure ratio of each place? How well have industries benefited? Are there significant differences in the status of support for enterprises of different ownership systems? Is there actual performance? What are the issues that need to be addressed urgently? Wait a minute. A series of issues urgently need to be systematically studied, so as to provide research support for the state and local governments at all levels to formulate and optimize cultural industry subsidy and support policies. Under normal circumstances, academic scholars often use macro dimensions such as "fiscal policy" and "tax policy" to study the issue of government support for the cultural industry, and the selected data generally comes from the official data released by the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Finance, the Bureau of Statistics and relevant departments of local governments. This research dimension has many advantages, which can analyze and grasp the relevant situation of government support for cultural industries from the top down at the national macro level, and analyze the existing problems from the statistical data of various regions and industries; The disadvantage lies in the lack of in-depth understanding of the micro-level of the enterprise and the grasp of the actual situation. This book first systematically sorts out and examines the relevant policies of government subsidies for China's cultural industry since 2003 from the macro, meso and micro levels, and then analyzes the government subsidies for cultural industries and sub-industries in China and regions from the macro level using the official statistical data. Building on Chapters 1 and 2, a different dimension from existing research is adopted from Chapter 3 onwards – using government grant data disclosed at the micro-enterprise level (mainly listed companies in cultural industries). The advantage of this research dimension lies in the bottom-up summary of the implementation of government subsidies at the level of different ownership enterprises, different cultural sub-industry levels, and different regional levels from the first-hand data of the implementation of cultural industry support policies, so as to more deeply and directly reflect the implementation of the support and subsidy policies of the state and local governments at the micro level of grassroots enterprises. Chapter 4 classifies government subsidies from the micro dimension of enterprises, and analyzes the structural characteristics and development trends of government subsidies in China's cultural industry. This chapter also specifically sorts out the detailed items of government subsidies received by listed companies in the cultural industry in terms of technical support, industrial support, project support, external support, talent support, intangible asset support and financial support. At the end of 2014, the State Council issued the Notice on Cleaning Up and Regulating Preferential Policies such as Taxation (Guo Fa [2014] No. 62), pointing out that at present, various domestic support policies and preferential policies such as finance and taxation are too numerous and excessive, and it is urgent to clean up and rectify. The sorting out of this chapter can provide reference for the state and local governments at all levels to clean up and rectify the cultural industry support and subsidy policies. Chapter 5 puts forward the model of China's cultural industry value chain, and systematically sorts out the intensity and frequency of government subsidies obtained at the level of cultural enterprises according to the model, so as to examine the main concerns and focuses of the current subsidy support of the state and local governments at all levels at the implementation level from a clearer perspective. Through the data in this chapter, we can analyze and study the deviations and existing problems in the implementation of cultural industry policies of governments at all levels from a realistic level. In the study of government subsidies, a key question is whether such a huge amount of government subsidies effectively promotes the development of cultural enterprises and cultural industries, that is, the performance evaluation of government subsidies. This book uses the relevant data disclosed in the annual reports of 161 listed cultural industry companies from 2011 to 2013, combined with econometric research methods, to empirically evaluate the performance of government subsidies for China's cultural industries. Chapter 6 mainly evaluates the business performance of China's cultural industry from the perspective of government subsidies. Chapter 7 mainly examines the effect of government subsidies on R&D investment in cultural industries. Chapter 8 focuses on the employment promotion effect of government subsidies on China's cultural industries. Chapter 9 examines the relationship between government subsidies and the intangible assets of China's cultural industries. Based on the above research, Chapter 10 of this book proposes the innovation and optimization path of government subsidy model of China's cultural industry for academic and government research reference. In summary, this book mainly puts forward the micro research ideas and framework on government subsidies for China's cultural industry, points out the micro reality and performance of government subsidies for China's cultural industries, and hopes that the research of this book can provide a new dimension and perspective for academia to carry out research related to government subsidies for cultural industries, and provide a valuable research basis for relevant government decision-making departments to formulate government subsidies policies for cultural industries. Limited by the author's time and ability, there are still many shortcomings in the research of this book, please criticize and correct experts and scholars! Zang Zhipeng, March 2015, Shanghai(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
臧志彭.中国文化产业政府补助研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
臧志彭.中国文化产业政府补助研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
臧志彭(2015).中国文化产业政府补助研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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