收藏 纠错 引文

西方马克思主义热点问题研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-0709-3

出版日期:2016-12

页数:268

字数:215.0千字

丛书名:《马克思主义中国化丛书》

点击量:6561次

中图法分类:
出版单位:
关键词:
专题:
折扣价:¥41.4 [6折] 原价:¥69.0 立即购买电子书

图书简介

马克思主义自诞生以来,在指导工人运动和社会主义革命、建设、改革的过程中,取得了举世瞩目的光辉成就,深刻地改变了世界格局和人类社会的发展走向,为人类社会昭示了新的发展前景。尽管马克思主义的反对者们一再声称马克思主义已经过时,但当人类社会发展出现困境时,人们却不约而同地回到马克思的思想资源中寻求破解困境的灵感,以马克思主义为指导的社会主义制度也在遭遇挫折后焕发出新的生机和活力。从一定意义上来说,当代资本主义社会之所以能摆脱过去周期性经济危机的魔咒,也得益于马克思主义对资本主义制度的深刻批判。无论是19世纪中后期欧洲资本主义克服经济危机的努力,还是2008年世界金融危机后马克思主义著作在西方世界的热销,无论是马克思被西方思想界评为“千年第一思想家”的现象,还是马克思主义不断地被他的敌人所诋毁,无不显示出马克思主义巨大的思想影响力和持久的生命力。

马克思主义的巨大思想影响力和持久的生命力来自其科学性和真理性。正如习近平总书记在《在哲学社会科学工作座谈会上的讲话》中所指出的,“马克思主义尽管诞生在一个半多世纪之前,但历史和现实都证明它是科学的理论,迄今依然有着强大生命力。马克思主义深刻揭示了自然界、人类社会、人类思维发展的普遍规律,为人类社会发展进步指明了方向;马克思主义坚持实现人民解放、维护人民利益的立场,以实现人的自由而全面的发展和全人类解放为己任,反映了人类对理想社会的美好憧憬;马克思主义揭示了事物的本质、内在联系及发展规律,是‘伟大的认识工具’,是人们观察世界、分析问题的有力思想武器;马克思主义具有鲜明的实践品格,不仅致力于科学‘解释世界’,而且致力于积极‘改变世界’。在人类思想史上,还没有一种理论像马克思主义那样对人类文明进步产生了如此广泛而巨大的影响”。

马克思主义并没有穷尽真理,它是随着时代的发展和人类实践活动的发展而不断发展的。作为一种科学的世界观和方法论,作为一种“伟大的认识工具”,马克思主义必须不断地直面时代发展变化的挑战,回答不同历史发展阶段提出的重大课题。在马克思和恩格斯生活的时代,虽然资产阶级统治已经在主要资本主义国家得以确立,资本主义制度正处在上升时期,但资本主义社会的固有矛盾已经开始暴露,无产阶级和资产阶级的矛盾已经日趋显现,在这样的历史背景之下,马克思和恩格斯面临的时代课题,就是站在无产阶级的立场上,揭示资本主义社会的内在矛盾,探讨资本主义社会的运动规律,为社会主义制度取代资本主义制度提供理论论证。马克思正是通过唯物史观和剩余价值学说这两大发现,实现了社会主义由空想到科学的发展,为当时工人运动的发展提供了科学的指南和正确的方向。19世纪末到20世纪20年代,资本主义社会发展到了一个新的阶段,即帝国主义阶段,资本主义社会的固有矛盾呈现出了新的特征,由于资本主义经济政治发展不平衡规律的作用,帝国主义之间的矛盾尖锐化,人类社会进入了一个以战争和革命为时代主题的新时代。面对时代主题的变化和工人运动面临的新形势新任务,列宁深刻地分析了帝国主义阶段资本主义社会基本矛盾的变化,探讨了帝国主义时期的主要矛盾和发展规律,深刻揭示了社会主义可以在一个国家率先取得胜利的历史必然性,领导俄国无产阶级和人民群众推翻了沙皇专制统治,建立了人类历史上第一个社会主义国家,实现了社会主义由理论到现实的伟大转变,开辟了人类历史的新纪元,也为后世提供了坚持和发展马克思主义的光辉范例。

“十月革命一声炮响,给我们送来了马克思主义。”马克思主义传入中国之时,正值中华民族处在亡国灭种的民族危亡关头,中国社会正处在半殖民地半封建社会的深渊。自1840年鸦片战争以来,古老的中国遭遇“三千年未有之大变局”,一批批先进的中国人不断探寻着救国救民的道路,封建社会的开明人士推行的洋务运动失败了,资产阶级维新派发动的维新变法运动也没有取得成功,洪秀全等人发动的旧式农民起义失败了,孙中山等人领导的资产阶级民主革命运动也夭折了。马克思主义传入中国以后,使正在苦苦寻求救国救民之道的中华民族的优秀分子找到了新的希望。以李大钊、陈独秀等人为代表的中国人开始研究马克思主义、宣传马克思主义,马克思主义与中国工人运动相结合,产生了中国共产党,从此,中国革命的道路才展现出了光明的前景,中华民族的命运才出现了历史性的转机。

但是,如何在一个半殖民地半封建的落后的东方大国实现民族独立、人民解放进而建立社会主义制度,是马克思、恩格斯乃至列宁从未遇到过更不可能回答的问题。这是历史和时代给中国共产党人提出的新的严峻课题。对此,中国共产党人进行了艰苦的探索。以毛泽东同志为代表的中国共产党人,顺应时代要求,把马克思主义的普遍原理与中国的实际相结合,创造性地推进了马克思主义中国化,实现了马克思主义中国化的第一次历史性飞跃,形成了马克思主义中国化的第一大理论成果——毛泽东思想。正是在毛泽东思想的指导下,中国人民经过艰苦卓绝的努力,推翻了帝国主义的殖民统治,建立了新中国,实现了民族独立和人民解放,建立了社会主义制度,为中国社会的进步和中华民族的发展奠定了坚实的基础。

社会主义制度的建立,深刻地改变了中国社会的基本结构和基本面貌,为中国社会的进步奠定了坚实的基础。但是在一个生产力水平十分低下、农村人口占绝大多数、封建传统根深蒂固的东方大国,建设什么样的社会主义、如何建设社会主义,是历史和时代给中国共产党人提出的又一崭新的课题。对此,中国共产党人进行了不懈的理论探索与实践探索,其间有挫折、有教训,也有成功的喜悦。改革开放以来,以邓小平同志为代表的中国共产党人,坚持实事求是的思想路线,把马克思主义的普遍原理与中国的实际相结合,实现了马克思主义中国化的第二次理论飞跃,形成了包括邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观等在内的中国特色社会主义理论体系。正是在中国特色社会主义理论体系的指导下,中国社会主义建设和改革事业才取得了举世瞩目的伟大成就。

历史和实践已经证明,坚持和发展马克思主义,是我国革命、改革和建设事业取得成就的根本保障。但是,我们也要清醒地看到,当今时代,随着经济全球化、政治多极化、社会信息化、文化多元化向纵深发展,人类社会面临的各种矛盾和问题空前复杂,意识形态领域的斗争愈演愈烈,马克思主义也面临许多新的挑战。坚持和发展马克思主义,必须要深入研究马克思主义的基本原理,特别是要深入研究和学习马克思主义的经典著作,拨开各种强加于马克思主义身上的迷雾,还马克思主义以本来面目;坚持和发展马克思主义,还必须坚决反对对待马克思主义的教条主义和实用主义态度。马克思主义不是僵死的教条,也不是随意剪裁的“百宝箱”,如果不顾历史条件的变化,把马克思主义经典作家针对特定历史条件、特定情境讲过的每一句话,都当成普遍真理,照抄照搬,显然不是对待马克思主义的正确态度,而如果凡事都要从马克思主义经典作家的著作中去寻找答案,按照主观需要裁剪马克思主义这个整体,随意从马克思主义的经典著作中寻章摘句,同样也不是对待马克思主义的正确态度;坚持和发展马克思主义,还必须不断地推进马克思主义的中国化、时代化和大众化,必须坚持运用马克思主义的立场、观点和方法,研究和回答我国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设中的重大理论问题与实际问题;坚持和发展马克思主义还必须在真学、真信、真懂、真用上下功夫,要认真研究马克思主义经典著作,掌握马克思主义的立场、观点与方法,把握马克思主义的思想精髓,自觉地用马克思主义的世界观和方法论,分析问题,指导实践。

坚持和发展马克思主义必须不断深化对马克思主义的理论研究。改革开放以来,中央高度重视马克思主义理论研究,深入推进马克思主义理论研究与建设工程、马克思主义理论学科建设、马克思主义学院建设,马克思主义理论研究正在向纵深发展。但正如习近平总书记所说,我们“也有一些同志对马克思主义理解不深、理解不透,在运用马克思主义立场、观点、方法上功力不足、高水平成果不多,在建设以马克思主义为指导的学科体系、学术体系、话语体系上功力不足、高水平成果不多。社会上也存在一些模糊甚至错误的认识。有的认为马克思主义已经过时,中国现在搞的不是马克思主义;有的说马克思主义只是一种意识形态说教,没有学术上的学理性和系统性。实际工作中,在有的领域中马克思主义被边缘化、空泛化、标签化,在一些学科中‘失语’、教材中‘失踪’、论坛上‘失声’”。因此,加强马克思主义理论研究是高校马克思主义理论学科和哲学社会科学工作者义不容辞的光荣使命。

西北师范大学马克思主义学院有着悠久的办学历史和较为深厚的学术积淀,其前身是1953年成立的马列主义教研室,1959年成立了政治教育系,开始招收思想政治教育专业本科生。经过历代学人的辛勤耕耘,现已成为甘肃省重要的马克思主义理论学科人才培养和学术研究基地,学院设有马克思主义基本原理和思想政治教育两个二级学科博士点,马克思主义理论一级学科硕士学位点,拥有马克思主义理论博士后科研流动站,马克思主义理论学科为甘肃省省级重点学科。学院拥有一支政治立场坚定、结构合理、业务水平较高的师资队伍,近几年来编辑出版有《马克思主义理论研究》连续出版物。为了进一步加强马克思主义理论学科建设,提升中青年教师的教学科研能力,学院组织中青年教师进行科研攻关,编写了这套“马克思主义中国化”书系。希望本丛书的出版能够为马克思主义理论学科教学科研人员和其他读者提供学习和研究马克思主义参考材料,也希望得到专家学者的批评指正。

王宗礼

西北师范大学马克思主义学院

2016年12月10日

Since its birth, in guiding the workers' movement and socialist revolution, construction and reform, Marxism has made glorious achievements that have attracted worldwide attention, profoundly changed the world pattern and the development trend of human society, and revealed new development prospects for human society. Although opponents of Marxism have repeatedly claimed that Marxism is outdated, when the development of human society has a dilemma, people invariably return to Marx's ideological resources to seek inspiration to solve the dilemma, and the socialist system guided by Marxism has also gained new vitality and vitality after suffering setbacks. In a certain sense, the reason why contemporary capitalist society can get rid of the curse of the past periodic economic crisis is also due to the profound critique of the capitalist system by Marxism. Whether it is the efforts of European capitalism to overcome the economic crisis in the mid-to-late 19th century, or the hot sales of Marxist works in the Western world after the world financial crisis in 2008, whether it is the phenomenon of Marx being rated as the "first thinker of the millennium" by Western intellectual circles, or whether Marxism is constantly denigrated by his enemies, all of them show the great ideological influence and lasting vitality of Marxism. The tremendous ideological influence and lasting vitality of Marxism come from its scientific nature and truth. As General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out in his speech at the Symposium on Philosophy and Social Science Work, "Although Marxism was born more than a century and a half ago, history and reality have proved that it is a scientific theory and still has strong vitality. Marxism profoundly reveals the universal laws of nature, human society and the development of human thinking, and points out the direction for the development and progress of human society. Marxism adheres to the position of realizing the liberation of the people and safeguarding the interests of the people, and takes the realization of free and comprehensive development of human beings and the liberation of all mankind as its own responsibility, reflecting mankind's beautiful vision of an ideal society; Marxism reveals the essence, internal connections and laws of development of things, and is a 'great tool for understanding' and a powerful ideological weapon for people to observe the world and analyze problems; Marxism has a distinct practical character and is committed not only to scientifically 'explaining the world', but also to actively 'changing the world'. In the history of human thought, no theory has had such a broad and tremendous impact on the progress of human civilization as Marxism." Marxism does not exhaust the truth; it continues to develop with the development of the times and the development of human practical activities. As a scientific world outlook and methodology, and as a "great tool for understanding," Marxism must constantly face the challenges of the development and changes of the times and answer major issues raised by different stages of historical development. In the era in which Marx and Engels lived, although bourgeois rule has been established in the major capitalist countries and the capitalist system is on the rise, the inherent contradictions of capitalist society have begun to be exposed, and the contradictions between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie have become increasingly apparent. Provide theoretical arguments for the replacement of the capitalist system by the socialist system. It was through the two great discoveries of the materialist view of history and the theory of surplus value that Marx realized the development of socialism from utopia to science, and provided a scientific guide and correct direction for the development of the workers' movement at that time. From the end of the 19th century to the 20s of the 20th century, the development of capitalist society reached a new stage, that is, the imperialist stage, the inherent contradictions of capitalist society showed new characteristics, due to the role of the law of unbalanced economic and political development of capitalism, the contradictions between imperialism sharpened, and human society entered a new era with war and revolution as the theme of the times. Faced with the changes in the theme of the times and the new situation and new tasks facing the workers' movement, Lenin profoundly analyzed the changes in the basic contradictions of capitalist society in the imperialist stage, explored the main contradictions and laws of development in the imperialist period, profoundly revealed the historical inevitability that socialism can be the first to win victory in one country, led the Russian proletariat and the masses of the people to overthrow the tsarist autocracy, established the first socialist state in human history, and realized the great transformation of socialism from theory to reality. It has opened up a new era in human history and provided a brilliant example for future generations to uphold and develop Marxism. "The October Revolution sent us Marxism with the sound of a cannon." When Marxism was introduced into China, the Chinese nation was at a critical juncture of national extinction, and Chinese society was in the abyss of a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. Since the Opium War in 1840, ancient China has suffered "great changes unprecedented in 3,000 years"; groups of advanced Chinese have constantly explored the road to saving the country and the people; the foreign affairs movement promoted by enlightened people in feudal society has failed; the movement to restore and change the law launched by the bourgeois restorationists has not succeeded; the old-style peasant uprising launched by Hong Xiuquan and others has failed; and the bourgeois democratic revolutionary movement led by Sun Yat-sen and others has also died. After the introduction of Marxism into China, the outstanding elements of the Chinese nation who are struggling to find a way to save the country and the people have found new hope. The Chinese, represented by Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu and others, began to study and propagate Marxism, and Marxism combined with the Chinese workers' movement to give rise to the Communist Party of China. However, how to achieve national independence, people's liberation, and then establish a socialist system in a semi-colonial and semi-feudal backward eastern country is a question that Marx, Engels and even Lenin have never encountered, let alone answered. This is a new and severe topic that history and the times have put forward for the Chinese Communists. In this regard, the Chinese Communists made painstaking explorations. The Chinese Communists represented by Comrade Mao Zedong conformed to the requirements of the times, integrated the universal principles of Marxism with China's reality, creatively promoted the Sinicization of Marxism, realized the first historical leap in the Sinicization of Marxism, and formed Mao Zedong Thought, the first major theoretical achievement of the Sinicization of Marxism. It was precisely under the guidance of Mao Zedong Thought that the Chinese people, through arduous efforts, overthrew imperialist colonial rule, established New China, realized national independence and people's liberation, and established the socialist system, laying a solid foundation for the progress of Chinese society and the development of the Chinese nation. The establishment of the socialist system has profoundly changed the basic structure and basic outlook of Chinese society and laid a solid foundation for the progress of Chinese society. However, in a large eastern country where the level of productive forces is very low, the rural population accounts for the overwhelming majority, and feudal traditions are deeply rooted, what kind of socialism to build and how to build socialism is another brand-new topic put forward by history and the times for the Chinese Communists. In this regard, the Chinese Communists have made unremitting theoretical and practical explorations, during which there have been setbacks, lessons, and joy of success. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, the Chinese Communists represented by Comrade Deng Xiaoping have adhered to the ideological line of seeking truth from facts, integrated the general principles of Marxism with China's reality, achieved the second theoretical leap in the Sinicization of Marxism, and formed a theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, including Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the "three represents," and the scientific outlook on development. It is precisely under the guidance of the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics that China's socialist construction and reform has made great achievements that have attracted worldwide attention. History and practice have proven that upholding and developing Marxism is the fundamental guarantee for China's achievements in revolution, reform and construction. However, we must also be soberly aware that in the current era, with the in-depth development of economic globalization, political multipolarization, social informationization, and cultural pluralism, various contradictions and problems facing human society are unprecedentedly complex, the struggle in the ideological field is intensifying, and Marxism is also facing many new challenges. To uphold and develop Marxism, it is necessary to deeply study the basic tenets of Marxism, especially to thoroughly study and study the classic works of Marxism, to remove the fog imposed on Marxism, and to restore Marxism to its true form; To uphold and develop Marxism, we must also resolutely oppose the dogmatic and pragmatic attitude toward Marxism. Marxism is not a rigid dogma, nor is it a "treasure chest" cut at will; if we ignore the changes in historical conditions, every sentence that a Marxist classic writer has said in response to specific historical conditions and a specific situation is regarded as a universal truth, and copied and copied is obviously not the correct attitude towards Marxism, but if everything must be found in the works of Marxist classic writers, Marxism as a whole is tailored to subjective needs, and chapters and sentences are arbitrarily extracted from Marxist classic works. Nor is it the correct attitude towards Marxism; To uphold and develop Marxism, we must also continuously promote the Sinicization, modernization and popularization of Marxism, and persistently apply Marxist stands, viewpoints and methods to study and answer major theoretical and practical issues in China's reform, opening up, and socialist modernization; To uphold and develop Marxism, we must also make efforts to truly study, believe, understand, and apply Marxism; we must conscientiously study the classic works of Marxism, master the Marxist stand, viewpoint, and method, grasp the essence of Marxist thought, and consciously use the Marxist world outlook and methodology to analyze problems and guide practice. To uphold and develop Marxism, we must constantly deepen the theoretical study of Marxism. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, the central authorities have attached great importance to the study of Marxist theory, and have deeply promoted the research and construction project of Marxist theory, the construction of Marxist theoretical disciplines, and the construction of Marxist colleges. But as General Secretary Xi Jinping said, we "also have some comrades who do not have a deep understanding and understanding of Marxism, lack sufficient skills and high-level achievements in applying Marxist positions, viewpoints, and methods, and lack of skill and high-level achievements in building a discipline system, academic system, and discourse system guided by Marxism." There are also some vague and even erroneous perceptions in society. Some believe that Marxism is outdated, and China is not engaged in Marxism now; Some people say that Marxism is only an ideological preaching, and there is no academic rationality and systematization. In practice, in some fields, Marxism has been marginalized, generalized, and labeled, and in some disciplines it has been 'lost', in teaching materials it has been 'missing', and in forums it has lost its voice." Therefore, strengthening the study of Marxist theory is the unshirkable glorious mission of Marxist theoretical disciplines and philosophy and social science workers in colleges and universities. The School of Marxism of Northwest Normal University has a long history of running schools and a relatively deep academic accumulation, its predecessor is the Marxism-Leninism Teaching and Research Department established in 1953, and the Department of Political Education was established in 1959, and began to recruit undergraduate students majoring in ideological and political education. After the hard work of successive generations of scholars, it has now become an important Marxist theoretical discipline talent training and academic research base in Gansu Province, the college has two second-level discipline doctoral programs in Marxist basic principles and ideological and political education, a master's degree program in Marxist theory first-level discipline, has a postdoctoral research mobile station for Marxist theory, and Marxist theory discipline is a provincial key discipline in Gansu Province. The college has a faculty with a firm political stance, reasonable structure and high professional level, and has edited and published continuous publications of "Marxist Theoretical Research" in recent years. In order to further strengthen the construction of Marxist theoretical disciplines and improve the teaching and research ability of young and middle-aged teachers, the college organized young teachers to carry out scientific research and compiled this set of "Sinicization of Marxism" book series. It is hoped that the publication of this series of books will provide reference materials for teaching and research personnel and other readers of Marxist theory to study and study Marxism, and also hope to be criticized and corrected by experts and scholars. Wang Zongli, School of Marxism, Northwest Normal University, December 10, 2016(AI翻译)

展开

作者简介

展开

图书目录

本书视频 参考文献 本书图表

相关词

阅读
请支付
×
提示:您即将购买的内容资源仅支持在线阅读,不支持下载!

当前账户可用余额

余额不足,请先充值或选择其他支付方式

请选择感兴趣的分类
选好了,开始浏览
×
推荐购买
×
手机注册 邮箱注册

已有账号,返回登录

×
账号登录 一键登录

没有账号,快速注册

×
手机找回 邮箱找回

返回登录

引文

×
GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
马俊峰,董伟伟.西方马克思主义热点问题研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
复制
MLA 格式引文
马俊峰,董伟伟.西方马克思主义热点问题研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
复制
APA 格式引文
马俊峰和董伟伟(2016).西方马克思主义热点问题研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
复制
×
错误反馈