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中国农产品营销渠道联盟问题研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-5255-3

出版日期:2015-01

页数:186

字数:190.0千字

点击量:6053次

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基金信息: 本书得到教育部人文社会科学研究项目(10YJC790397)、湖北省社会科学基金(2012118)和中南民族大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(CSW 14021)的资助 展开
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随着农产品市场营销理论和实践的发展,农产品渠道联盟日益引起了理论界和实践界的关注,已成为农产品营销渠道发展的一个重要方向。本书主要是针对我国农产品渠道的现状、未来发展需要和理论研究不足,着力研究我国农产品渠道联盟问题。重点探讨联盟的思想、方法、策略等在我国农产品渠道领域的有效应用及应着力解决的问题,包括联盟构建的条件、模式选择、运行机制及稳定性问题,本书的理论与实证研究对丰富和完善我国农产品渠道理论,弱化“小农户”与“大市场”之间的矛盾具有重要理论和现实意义。本书认为,农产品渠道联盟是指在竞争、合作的市场环境下,由农产品渠道链条中和渠道间一些相互独立的渠道成员(农户、合作社、企业、经销商等)在致力于相互信任和共同长远目标基础上,通过横向或纵向联合、协议或股权联结而组建的一种具有“战略合作关系”的分销网络利益共同体。构建农产品渠道联盟,一方面,可以使处于联盟网络中的成员专注核心优势,增强渠道竞争力;分享市场信息,降低经营风险;实现协同效应,创新经营方式;培育渠道主体,增强组织化程度。另一方面,可以将以往以生产为导向的发展模式转化为以市场为导向或以消费导向的发展模式,这将大大提高农产品流通效率,增加农民收入。但是由于我国农产品渠道主体组织化程度低、渠道主体之间利益联结机制不完善、信息缺乏共享、信任机制缺失等原因,导致我国农产品流通中还没有形成集约化、联盟化的渠道链条,并由此造成渠道成员间合作化水平低,渠道关系不稳定,流通效率低。因此,推动和引导广大农户、农业龙头企业、农产品经销商之间树立共同的远景目标,形成“风险共担、利益共享”的利益联结机制,进而建立起在专业分工、信息共享、相互信任和长期合作基础上的渠道联盟,是解决我国当前“小农户”与“大市场”之间矛盾的重要内容。本书认为,当前情况下,我国已具备发展农产品渠道联盟的资源条件、政策保障和技术支持。但构建农产品渠道联盟需要以联盟有明确的目标和行动计划,联盟成员间有组织相容性、相互信任性,联盟成员间公平、科学、合理的利益分配,联盟成员间有一定程度的对称性依赖性为条件。农产品渠道联盟模式的选择包括联盟组织模式选择和联盟结构模式选择。农产品渠道联盟组织模式选择可考虑从资源优势角度发挥合作社、龙头企业、批发商、超市等联盟主体的核心作用,从纵横两方面进行,构建“农产品渠道纵横联盟网”。可选择的联盟组织模式包括合作社主导下的渠道联盟、批发商主导下的渠道联盟、加工企业主导下的渠道联盟、营销企业主导下的渠道联盟、商业超市主导下的渠道联盟。由于主导企业的类型及其在渠道中所处位置不同,联盟组织模式形成的条件和特点也不同。农产品渠道联盟结构模式的选择主要受双边依赖性和联盟主体对联盟控制要求的影响。理论分析表明,当联盟主体对联盟成员的依赖性强时,其对联盟的控制要求增强,股权式联盟成为较好的选择;反之,则选择契约式联盟。实证分析显示,交易特征因素、交易成本和风险感知都显著影响农产品渠道联盟结构模式选择,但资源依赖和风险感知对农产品渠道联盟结构模式选择的影响程度最大;资源依赖性越强,越倾向于选择股权式联盟,风险感知越强,越倾向于选择契约式联盟,且交易特征因素、交易成本和风险感知因素必须与联盟模式匹配才能够提升联盟绩效。研究还发现,交易成本和风险感知具有对联盟结构模式选择的中介效应,且风险感知具有完全中介效应。农产品渠道联盟的基本运行目标是“合作共赢”,合作机制是农产品渠道联盟有效运行的基本机制,为此,需要建立农产品渠道联盟的信息共享机制、利益分配机制、信任机制和监督约束机制。基于“农户+龙头企业”的联盟稳定性理论研究表明,农产品渠道联盟稳定性除了受合作产生的额外收益、双方为合作而付出的初始成本、收益与成本比较以及双方的贴现因子的影响,还受成员对客观自然状态认识的心理预期以及成员对声誉认知的影响。实证分析显示,农户规模、价格波动、谈判成本都对由农户和龙头企业组建的农产品渠道联盟稳定性有显著性影响,而信誉认知、心理预期和产品专用性的影响不显著。在影响渠道联盟稳定性因素重要程度上,价格波动居首位。其次是交易成本和农户规模,最后是心理预期,这说明外部市场价格因素成为影响农产品渠道联盟稳定的首要变量。因此,要提高农产品渠道联盟稳定性,必须综合考虑以上几方面因素,全面建立农产品渠道联盟稳定机制。本书的研究创新主要体现在:首先,以“渠道关系”理论为基础,从联盟组织模式、联盟结构模式两个方面研究了我国农产品渠道联盟模式选择问题。尤其是把资源投入、交易特征、风险、竞争等因素纳入一个体系,从实证角度研究相关因素对农产品渠道联盟结构模式选择和联盟绩效的影响,具有一定的创新性。其次,本书以农户和龙头企业构建的农产品渠道联盟为研究对象,从心理预期、信誉认知方面研究影响农产品渠道联盟稳定性的因素,并进行了实证分析,提出了保持农产品渠道联盟稳定性的机制。本书系教育部人文社会科学研究项目“我国农产品流通体系的变革与创新研究”(10YJC790397)、湖北省社会科学基金“湖北农产品现代流通体系建设研究”(2012118)和中南民族大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目“农产品流通渠道变革研究”(CSW14021)的阶段性研究成果,所提建议得到了湖北省政府主要领导批示,并被湖北省政府相关部门采纳。由于作者学术水平有限,本书难免存在一些缺陷和不足,敬请读者批评指正。赵晓飞2015年1月

With the development of agricultural product marketing theory and practice, agricultural product channel alliance has increasingly attracted the attention of theoretical and practical circles, and has become an important direction for the development of agricultural product marketing channels. This book mainly focuses on the current situation, future development needs and theoretical research of China's agricultural product channels, and focuses on the problem of China's agricultural product channel alliance. Focusing on the effective application of the ideas, methods and strategies of the alliance in the field of agricultural product channels in China and the problems that should be solved, including the conditions, mode selection, operation mechanism and stability of the alliance construction, the theoretical and empirical research of this book has important theoretical and practical significance for enriching and improving the theory of agricultural product channels in China and weakening the contradiction between "small farmers" and "large markets". This book argues that the agricultural product channel alliance refers to a distribution network interest community with "strategic partnership" formed by some independent channel members (farmers, cooperatives, enterprises, distributors, etc.) in the agricultural product channel chain and between channels in the competitive and cooperative market environment, on the basis of mutual trust and common long-term goals, through horizontal or vertical alliances, agreements or equity linkages. Building an agricultural product channel alliance, on the one hand, can enable members in the alliance network to focus on core advantages and enhance channel competitiveness; Share market information to reduce business risks; Achieve synergies and innovate business methods; Cultivate channel subjects and enhance the degree of organization. On the other hand, the previous production-oriented development model can be transformed into a market-oriented or consumption-oriented development model, which will greatly improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products and increase farmers' income. However, due to the low degree of organization of China's agricultural product channel subjects, the imperfect interest connection mechanism between channel subjects, the lack of information sharing, and the lack of trust mechanism, an intensive and alliance channel chain has not been formed in the circulation of agricultural products in China, and this has led to a low level of cooperation among channel members, unstable channel relations, and low circulation efficiency. Therefore, promoting and guiding the majority of farmers, agricultural leading enterprises and agricultural product dealers to establish common long-term goals, form a "risk sharing and benefit sharing" interest connection mechanism, and then establish a channel alliance on the basis of professional division of labor, information sharing, mutual trust and long-term cooperation is an important part of solving the contradiction between China's current "small farmers" and "big market". This book believes that under the current circumstances, China has the resource conditions, policy guarantee and technical support for the development of agricultural product channel alliances. However, the construction of the agricultural product channel alliance needs to be conditional on the alliance having clear goals and action plans, organizational compatibility and mutual trust among the alliance members, fair, scientific and reasonable benefit distribution among the alliance members, and a certain degree of symmetrical dependence among the alliance members. The selection of the alliance model of agricultural products channel includes the selection of alliance organization model and the choice of alliance structure model. The selection of the organizational mode of the agricultural product channel alliance can consider giving play to the core role of cooperatives, leading enterprises, wholesalers, supermarkets and other alliance subjects from the perspective of resource advantages, and build a "vertical and horizontal alliance network of agricultural product channels" from both vertical and horizontal aspects. The alternative alliance organization models include channel alliance led by cooperatives, channel alliances led by wholesalers, channel alliances led by processing enterprises, channel alliances led by marketing enterprises, and channel alliances led by commercial supermarkets. Due to the different types of leading enterprises and their positions in the channel, the conditions and characteristics of the formation of the alliance organization model are also different. The choice of the structure model of the agricultural product channel alliance is mainly affected by bilateral dependence and the alliance subjects' requirements for alliance control. Theoretical analysis shows that when the alliance entities are highly dependent on the alliance members, their control requirements over the alliance are enhanced, and the equity-based alliance becomes a better choice. Conversely, a contractual alliance is chosen. Empirical analysis shows that transaction characteristic factors, transaction costs and risk perception all significantly affect the choice of agricultural product channel alliance structure model, but resource dependence and risk perception have the greatest impact on the choice of agricultural product channel alliance structure model. The stronger the resource dependence, the more inclined to choose equity alliance, the stronger the risk perception, the more inclined to choose contractual alliance, and the transaction characteristic factors, transaction costs and risk perception factors must match the alliance model to improve the performance of the alliance. The study also finds that transaction costs and risk perception have an intermediary effect on the choice of alliance structure model, and risk perception has a complete mediation effect. The basic operation goal of the agricultural product channel alliance is "win-win cooperation", and the cooperation mechanism is the basic mechanism for the effective operation of the agricultural product channel alliance, so it is necessary to establish the information sharing mechanism, benefit distribution mechanism, trust mechanism and supervision and constraint mechanism of the agricultural product channel alliance. The research on the stability theory of alliance based on "farmers + leading enterprises" shows that the stability of the alliance of agricultural product channels is not only affected by the additional income generated by cooperation, the initial cost paid by both parties for cooperation, the comparison of benefits and costs, and the discount factor of both parties, but also by the psychological expectation of members' cognition of objective natural state and members' perception of reputation. Empirical analysis shows that the scale of farmers, price fluctuations and negotiation costs all have a significant impact on the stability of agricultural product channel alliances formed by farmers and leading enterprises, while the impact on credit cognition, psychological expectations and product specificity is not significant. In the importance of factors affecting the stability of channel alliances, price fluctuations are the first. This is followed by transaction costs and the size of farmers, and finally psychological expectations, which indicate that external market price factors have become the primary variable affecting the stability of agricultural product channel alliances. Therefore, in order to improve the stability of the agricultural product channel alliance, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the above factors and comprehensively establish a stability mechanism for the agricultural product channel alliance. The research and innovation of this book are mainly reflected in: First, based on the theory of "channel relationship", the selection of channel alliance mode of agricultural products in China is studied from two aspects: alliance organization model and alliance structure model. In particular, it is innovative to incorporate factors such as resource input, transaction characteristics, risks, and competition into one system, and study the impact of relevant factors on the choice of alliance structure and mode and alliance performance of agricultural product channels from an empirical perspective. Secondly, this book takes the agricultural product channel alliance built by farmers and leading enterprises as the research object, studies the factors affecting the stability of agricultural product channel alliance from the aspects of psychological expectation and reputation cognition, and conducts empirical analysis, and puts forward the mechanism to maintain the stability of agricultural product channel alliance. This book is the phased research results of the humanities and social science research project of the Ministry of Education "Research on the Reform and Innovation of China's Agricultural Product Circulation System" (10YJC790397), the Hubei Provincial Social Science Foundation "Research on the Construction of Hubei Agricultural Products Modern Circulation System" (2012118) and the Central University for Nationalities Central University Basic Scientific Research Business Fund Project "Research on the Transformation of Agricultural Product Circulation Channels" (CSW14021), and the suggestions put forward have been approved by the main leaders of the Hubei Provincial Government. And adopted by the relevant departments of Hubei provincial government. Due to the limited academic level of the author, this book will inevitably have some defects and deficiencies, and readers are kindly requested to criticize and correct. Zhao Xiaofei, January 2015(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
赵晓飞.中国农产品营销渠道联盟问题研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
赵晓飞.中国农产品营销渠道联盟问题研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
赵晓飞(2015).中国农产品营销渠道联盟问题研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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