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中国吴文化源头与梅里古都

ISBN:978-7-5161-6246-0

出版日期:2015-08

页数:406

字数:393.0千字

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《中国吴文化源头与梅里古都》一书,是四年前即2011年2月由江苏省吴越文化研究会、江南大学、江苏省吴越文化研究院、无锡新区吴越文化保护研究委员会和无锡国家高新区发展研究院等联合主办,无锡市人大常委会新区工作委员会和无锡市吴文化研究会协办的大型区域性学术研讨会的成果精选文集。2011年2月14日,来自“长三角”区域的上海、南京、杭州、苏州、无锡、常州、镇江、湖州、南通等十多个城市八十余位专家学者济济一堂,在无锡新区梅村就大会的主题,展开了丰富而精彩纷呈的学术交流。其中,吴文化源头和梅里古都的认证、泰伯及其精神研究、吴文化本体表现及其影响研究、吴越文化比较研究四个方面的论文,篇数相对较多,既有精湛的学术新观点,又有广博的文化新视野,是我国吴文化研究学术发展史上值得关注和重视的一次高峰论坛。

吴越文化自20世纪30年代获得科学命名以来,除抗日战争期间外,一直是地域文化和先秦长江下游古文明研究的重点领域,并由此突破了黄河流域中原文明中心说,构建起中华文化多元一体的文明起源论。吴越在春秋战国时期,以其强大而风格鲜明的文化形象,叱咤风云,留载史册,是中华文明跻身人类轴心时代的重要标志之一,其英雄辈出的时代特征积淀为文化基因,孕育出了人文渊薮的江南。本次研讨会适逢21世纪10年代的起始之年和“十二五”规划的开局之年,在怀古、释古之余,追溯中华民族至德精神之源,对当代中国社会主义核心价值观的构建,具有重要的现实意义。

通过学术交流,与会专家学者就相关论题和热点问题,形成了以下共识:

一、太湖流域是吴文化的核心区,梅里是吴文化的源头。《辞源》释“泰伯城”:地名,春秋吴都城,也称梅里吴城;又释“梅里”:泰伯所居。释义十分精当。梅村即古梅里,其东北鸿山西麓有泰伯墓,在地望上佐证了梅里古都的吴文化源头地位。

关于泰伯南奔荆蛮的地点,学界存在着多种观点,但大都倾向“荆蛮”即指江南。江南大学程勉中教授的《泰伯奔吴建都梅里考因》一文,运用《周易》原理,结合《周礼》《尚书》等先秦典籍,论证泰伯南奔至太湖之滨,是目标明确的理性选择。“文身断发”是泰伯南奔落脚定居后的关键词。众多典籍一致认为,“文身断发”是古越族人的文化形象和特征,蕴含着生活习俗、自然生态、原始信仰等复杂的信息关联度。从文化人类学考察,“文身断发”是族群的文化标志。这无疑表明,泰伯南奔定居在古越族族群之中,并被拥戴为“君长”,自号“勾吴”。古越族中的“千余家”族群,从此摆脱“荆蛮”之泛称,以“句吴”之名自立。“吴”由此成为地名(国名、城名),即泰伯治理的地域之名。

宁镇地区吴文化起源说,始自20世纪50年代以来的考古发现。但该考古学观点大都回避宁镇地区原属东夷族群(南淮夷)聚居之地。该地发现的吴国遗迹,是吴国逐渐强盛,向西拓展,并吞若干原属楚国庇护的方国后,包容了东夷、华夏等族群文化的结果。如镇江丹徒地区,古称朱方,公元前545年吴王夷昧将该地作为齐国逃臣庆封的封邑,《左传》载:“庆封奔吴,吴句余予之朱方,聚其族焉而居之,富于其旧。”来自齐国的庆封们聚其族焉而居于吴国境内的朱方,而且比以前更富了,那么他们所携有的齐文化信息就必然会遗存于该地了。

吴国早期都城筑于梅里,世称泰伯城,早在东汉就有文献记载。本次研讨会有多篇论文予以探讨和论证,均认为历史上的泰伯城是太湖流域最早的国都之城,虽已湮没,也不可轻易否定,否则会沦为历史虚无主义者。古代君主之墓与君主国治之城,在地望的关系度上是有逻辑的紧密性的,此乃古代十分重要的礼制之一。泰伯墓自古存世至今,不见争议,有力地佐证了泰伯城就在梅村的历史记载。

二、泰伯是吴文化的创始者、江南文明的人文始祖。其“至德”精神经孔子的倡导而影响深远,既是江南文人“道德文章”的源头,也是江南近现代工商实业家以德经商的宗旨之源,在构建当代主流价值观时应予以继承发扬。

本次研讨会有近30篇论文,涉及泰伯生年、泰伯奔吴、“三让天下”等微观考释,还有宏观论述泰伯精神与江南文明及其历史、现实意义的。我们认为,泰伯史迹因文献记载略而不详,确实需要进一步考证,但应本着有一说一的实事求是精神,避免陷入繁琐的窠臼。泰伯的“至德”精神,确实需要学界大力弘扬,使之深入人心,但在推崇泰伯功德时应避免极端化倾向。泰伯开创的吴文化,并非是在一张白纸上创建的,而是他自觉地将中原文明与江南本土文明相整合的结果,由此提升了太湖流域的文明发展水平,加速了吴地文明的发展进程。例如,“伯渎河”的开凿,标志着江南“水文化”的觉醒,这与江南本土的稻作文明有着因果关系,由此而在“数年之间,民人殷富”。

三、吴文化源远流长,博大精深,是中华民族优秀传统文化中最具活力和创造力的地域文化之一。其文化形象鲜明而魅力无穷,至今仍在发挥着不可估量的作用。

本次研讨会有20多篇文章讨论了吴文化的多样性和丰富性,有概述性的《试述吴文化源流及其发展》,有联系现实的《吴文化的开拓精神与新时期的转型发展》,还有涉及吴歌、戏曲、丝绸、风俗等吴文化的诸多内容。江苏省社科院唐茂松研究员的《吴文化源远流长与吴太伯“至德”立国》一文,揭示了“尚武—武德”、“尚文—文德”、“务实—商德”的吴文化发展特征,认为吴文化是“中华民族大文化中朝气蓬勃的先进文化”。

同时,我们认为吴文化研究如何避免宽泛化、碎片化倾向,如何在考古学、先秦史、地域文明、文化人类学、城市社会学等学术视域中构建吴文化本体研究范畴,是值得学界予以重视的大课题。

四、吴越文化研究获得进一步的整合。江、浙、沪两省一市以及其他省市的专家、学者、各方面的研究者,“以文会友”,积极参与本次研究讨论,贡献自己的研究成果,相同或不相同的见解相互发生,在碰撞中交融。与会专家学者十分赞赏在江、浙两省省市领导支持和指导下,由无锡、苏州、南京、杭州、扬州和无锡高新区等单位联合发起成立的江苏省吴越文化研究会,突破了吴越的现行省际藩篱,是20世纪30年代蔡元培任会长的“吴越史地研究会”的后继者,为长三角区域文化研究的一体化发展起到了推动之力。

吴越文化的核心区均经历了“马家浜文化—崧泽文化—良渚文化—马桥文化”的文明发展序列。“包孕吴越”太湖崖刻,深刻而鲜明地揭示了吴文化与越文化的血缘关系。鸿山越国贵族墓的考古发现,不仅填补了越文化的诸多空白,而且进一步说明了吴越文化的政治文化中心在太湖流域。本次研讨会上有近10篇文章论及鸿山越国贵族墓考古发现。浙江省博物馆研究员曹锦炎《吴文化研究中的重大课题—鸿山越国贵族墓考古发现及启迪》一文,充分肯定了该考古发现对越文化研究的重要意义,解决了以往越文化研究中的一些不明朗问题,但将其推断为战国早期勾践时代似乎偏早,推定在战国中期或稍后更符合史实,其时越国已迁都于吴。苏州博物馆研究员钱公麟、陆雪梅《鸿山越国贵族墓地的发现对吴文化研究的贡献》一文,不约而同地也论述了越国迁都于吴,是吴地核心区发现越国墓的历史主因,无锡鸿山、苏州真山的吴、越、楚贵族墓群的存在,进一步说明了吴文化的中心在太湖流域。由此提出:“研究太湖流域的商周文化,必须了解熟悉越文化;反之要剖析宁镇地区的商周文化,少不了要了解研究南淮夷文化,这要比单纯以吴文化论吴文化更科学、更实际”;并“相信随着对南淮夷文化研究的深入,宁镇地区的商周文化一定会昭然于天下”。这是令人可喜的学术交锋,是本次研讨会步向深入的标志之一,也是江苏省吴越文化研究会《区域科学发展需要将吴文化与越文化联系起来研究》一文所预示的学术愿景。

本次学术研讨会形成了上述四点共识,意义十分重要。泰伯城筑在梅里,是吴国早期都城,澄清了吴文化起源的歧义。泰伯的至德精神在吴地文明发展史上代代相传,至今仍有巨大的感召力。吴越文化的整合研究获得新的平台。“吴文化本体”概念的提出,具有理论指导意义。

由于吴文化源头与梅里古都的学术研究是整个吴文化研究系统中带有基础性、根本性的一项学术活动,它对于当下和今后吴文化进一步深入理论研究和学术探讨具有极其重要的学术价值。因此,学术界多次建议将这次论文成果结集公开出版。2011年12月,在无锡新区党工委、管委会的支持和指导下,由江南大学、无锡新区吴越文化保护研究委员会和无锡国家高新区发展研究院等单位共同研究决定,拟从百余篇论文中选择部分成果,报送北京出版部门正式出版。后来由于种种原因,使这项工作延搁了下来。党的十八大以来,习近平总书记非常重视祖国的传统文化,他把祖国传统文化作为治国理政的重要思想文化资源。吴文化作为中华传统文化的重要组成部分,是推进江南经济文化繁荣,实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要文化基因和精神支柱。基于这种社会责任感,2013年以来,我们组织部分热心专家学者将这批文稿正式进行了选编和加工,使之公开出版。要说明的是,那次研讨会共收到论文130篇,但依据“中国吴文化源头与梅里古都”这一主题,本书仅选取了46篇论文,而与主题相关的从宏观上论述泰伯精神与江南文明的发展和吴文化本体范畴的研究以及对吴越文化的研究的许多论文,虽然文章质量也很好,但不能一一编入,请有关作者予以理解和谅解。

感谢中国社会科学院服务局局长林旗、中国社会科学出版社纪宏先生和王斌先生等领导和朋友对该书出版的支持和帮助。

黄胜平

2015年4月

The book "The Source of Wu Culture in China and the Ancient Capital of Meili" is a selection of the results of a large-scale regional academic seminar co-sponsored by Jiangsu Wuyue Cultural Research Association, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu Wuyue Cultural Research Institute, Wuxi New Area Wuyue Cultural Protection Research Committee and Wuxi National High-tech Zone Development Research Institute four years ago, in February 2011, and co-organized by the New District Working Committee of the Standing Committee of the Wuxi Municipal People's Congress and the Wuxi Wu Culture Research Association. On February 14, 2011, more than 80 experts and scholars from more than 10 cities including Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Huzhou and Nantong gathered together in Meicun, Wuxi New Area, to carry out rich and wonderful academic exchanges on the theme of the conference. Among them, the certification of the source of Wu culture and the ancient capital of Meili, the study of Taibo and its spirit, the study of the ontological expression and influence of Wu culture, and the comparative study of Wuyue culture have a relatively large number of papers, which not only have superb new academic views, but also have a broad new cultural vision, which is a summit forum worthy of attention and attention in the history of academic development of Wu culture research in China. Since the Wuyue culture was scientifically named in the 30s of the 20th century, except during the Anti-Japanese War, it has been a key area of research on regional culture and ancient civilization in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the pre-Qin Dynasty, and thus broke through the theory of the Central Plains civilization center in the Yellow River Basin and built the theory of the origin of civilization with the diversity and integration of Chinese culture. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, Wu Yue was one of the important symbols of Chinese civilization in the era of human axis with its strong and distinctive cultural image, which was one of the important symbols of Chinese civilization in the era of human axis. This seminar coincides with the beginning of the 10s of the 21st century and the first year of the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", which is of great practical significance for the construction of the core values of socialism in contemporary China. Through academic exchanges, the participating experts and scholars reached the following consensus on relevant topics and hot issues: 1. The Taihu Lake Basin is the core area of Wu culture, and Meili is the source of Wu culture. "Etymology" explains "Taibo City": place name, Spring and Autumn Wu Capital City, also known as Meili Wucheng; Also released "Merry": Tabor dwelled. The paraphrasing is very precise. Mei Village is Gumeili, and there is the Taibo tomb at the western foot of Hongshan Mountain in the northeast, which proves the origin of Wu culture in the ancient capital of Meili. There are many views in the academic circles about the location of Taibo Nanben Jingman, but most of them tend to "Jingman" refers to Jiangnan. Professor Cheng Mianzhong of Jiangnan University's article "Taibo Ben Wu Jiandu Meri Kaoyin" uses the principle of "Zhou Yi" and combines the "Zhou Li" and "Shang Shu" and other pre-Qin classics to argue that Taibo running south to the shore of Taihu Lake is a rational choice with clear goals. "Tattoo and broken hair" is the key word after Taber Nanben settled down. Many texts agree that "tattoo severed hair" is the cultural image and characteristic of the ancient Yue people, which contains complex information correlations such as living customs, natural ecology, and primitive beliefs. From the perspective of cultural anthropology, "tattoo broken hair" is a cultural symbol of ethnic groups. This undoubtedly shows that Taibo Nam Ben settled among the ancient Yue ethnic group and was supported as "Jun Chang" and called himself "Gou Wu". The "more than a thousand families" ethnic group in the ancient Yue ethnic group have since got rid of the general name of "Jing Barbarian" and established themselves under the name of "Juwu". "Wu" thus became the name of the place (country name, city name), that is, the name of the territory governed by Taibo. The origin of Wu culture in the Ningzhen area is said to have been archaeological discoveries since the 50s of the 20th century. However, this archaeological view mostly avoids that the Ningzhen area was originally inhabited by the Dongyi ethnic group (Southern Huaiyi). The ruins of the Wu state found there are the result of the gradual strengthening of the Wu state, its expansion to the west, and the annexation of several Fang states that were originally sheltered by the Chu state, and the inclusion of Dongyi, Huaxia and other ethnic cultures. For example, the Dantu area of Zhenjiang, known as Zhu Fang in ancient times, was used by King Yi of Wu in 545 BC as a fiefdom of Qingfeng, a fugitive minister of the Qi state, and the "Zuo Chuan" contains: "Qingfeng Ben Wu, Wu Yuyu Yu Zhu Fang, gather his clan to live there, rich in its old." "The Qingfeng people from the Qi State gathered their clan to live in Zhu Fang in the territory of the Wu Kingdom, and they are richer than before, then the Qi cultural information they carry will inevitably be left there. The early capital of the Wu state was built in Meili, known as Taibo City, and there are records as early as the Eastern Han Dynasty. A number of papers in this symposium discussed and argued, all of which believe that the historical Taber City was the earliest capital city in the Taihu Lake Basin, and although it has disappeared, it cannot be easily denied, otherwise it will become a historical nihilist. The tomb of the ancient monarch and the city ruled by the monarchy are logically close in terms of the relationship between the earth, which is one of the very important ceremonial systems in ancient times. The tomb of Tabor has existed since ancient times, and there is no controversy, which strongly supports the historical record of Taber City in Mei Village. Second, Taibo is the founder of Wu culture and the humanistic ancestor of Jiangnan civilization. Its spirit of "supreme virtue" has had a far-reaching influence through the advocacy of Confucius, and is not only the source of the "moral articles" of the literati in Jiangnan, but also the source of the purpose of doing business with virtue by modern and modern industrial and commercial industrialists in Jiangnan, which should be inherited and carried forward when constructing contemporary mainstream values. There are nearly 30 papers in this seminar, involving microscopic interpretations such as the birth year of Taibo, Taibo Benwu, and "Three Lets the World", as well as macroscopic discussions on the spirit of Taibo and Jiangnan civilization and its historical and practical significance. We believe that the Tabor historical site is omitted due to the lack of documentation, and indeed needs further investigation, but it should be in the spirit of seeking truth from facts and avoiding falling into cumbersome traps. Taber's spirit of "supreme virtue" does need to be vigorously promoted by academics and made deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, but extremist tendencies should be avoided when promoting Taber's merits. The Wu culture created by Taibo was not created on a blank piece of paper, but the result of his conscious integration of the Central Plains civilization with the native civilization of Jiangnan, thereby improving the level of civilization development in the Taihu Lake Basin and accelerating the development process of Wudi civilization. For example, the excavation of the "Bodu River" marked the awakening of the "water culture" in Jiangnan, which is causally related to the indigenous rice cultivation civilization in Jiangnan, and thus "within a few years, the people became rich". Third, Wu culture has a long history, broad and profound, and is one of the most dynamic and creative regional cultures among the excellent traditional culture of the Chinese nation. Its cultural image is vivid and fascinating, and it still plays an inestimable role today. There are more than 20 articles discussing the diversity and richness of Wu culture, including "Trying to Describe the Origins and Development of Wu Culture", "The Pioneering Spirit of Wu Culture and the Transformation and Development of the New Period" in connection with reality, and many contents involving Wu culture such as Wu songs, opera, silk, and customs. Tang Maosong, a researcher at the Jiangsu Academy of Social Sciences, wrote an article entitled "Wu Culture Has a Long History and Wu Taibo's "Founding of the Country", which reveals the characteristics of the development of Wu culture of "Shangwu-Wude", "Shangwen-Wende" and "Pragmatism-Shangde", and believes that Wu culture is "a vigorous and advanced culture in the great culture of the Chinese nation". At the same time, we believe that how to avoid the tendency of generalization and fragmentation in Wu culture research, and how to construct the research scope of Wu culture ontology in academic perspectives such as archaeology, pre-Qin history, regional civilization, cultural anthropology, and urban sociology is a major topic worthy of academic attention. Fourth, the study of Wuyue culture has been further integrated. Experts, scholars and researchers from Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai provinces and cities as well as other provinces and cities actively participated in this research discussion and contributed their own research results. The experts and scholars attending the meeting greatly appreciated the support and guidance of provincial and municipal leaders of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Wuyue Cultural Research Association of Jiangsu Province, jointly initiated by Wuxi, Suzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Yangzhou and Wuxi High-tech Zone, which broke through the current inter-provincial barriers of Wuyue and was the successor of the "Wuyue Historical Research Association" chaired by Cai Yuanpei in the 30s of the 20th century, and played a role in promoting the integrated development of cultural research in the Yangtze River Delta region. The core areas of Wuyue culture have experienced the civilization development sequence of "Majiabang culture-Songze culture-Liangzhu culture-Maqiao culture". The cliff carving of "Bao Pregnant Wu Yue" in Taihu Lake profoundly and clearly reveals the blood relationship between Wu culture and Yue culture. The archaeological discovery of the tomb of the nobles of the Yue Kingdom in Hongshan not only fills many gaps in the Yue culture, but also further illustrates that the political and cultural center of the Wuyue culture is in the Taihu Lake Basin. Nearly 10 articles in this symposium discussed the archaeological discovery of the noble tombs of Hongshan Yue Kingdom. Cao Jinyan, a researcher at the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, wrote "Major Issues in the Study of Wu Culture - Archaeological Discoveries and Enlightenment of the Noble Tombs of the Yue Kingdom in Hongshan", which fully affirmed the importance of the archaeological discovery to the study of Vietnamese culture and solved some unclear problems in previous research on Vietnamese culture, but it seems to be too early to infer it as the early Warring States era, and it is presumed that it is more in line with historical facts in the middle of the Warring States period or later, when the Yue State had moved its capital to Wu. Suzhou Museum researchers Qian Gonglin and Lu Xuemei's article "The Contribution of the Discovery of the Noble Cemetery of the Yue Kingdom in Hongshan to the Study of Wu Culture" also discusses that the relocation of the capital of the Yue Kingdom to Wu is the main historical reason for the discovery of Yue National Tombs in the core area of Wu Di, and the existence of the tombs of Wu, Yue and Chu nobles in Wuxi Hongshan and Suzhou Zhenshan further explains that the center of Wu culture is in the Taihu Lake Basin. From this, it is proposed: "To study the Shang and Zhou culture in the Taihu Lake Basin, we must understand and be familiar with the Yue culture; On the contrary, to analyze the Shang and Zhou culture in the Ningzhen area, it is indispensable to understand and study the culture of Nanhuaiyi, which is more scientific and practical than simply discussing Wu culture with Wu culture"; And "I believe that with the deepening of the study of the culture of Nanhuaiyi, the Shang Zhou culture in the Ningzhen area will definitely be obvious to the world." This is a gratifying academic confrontation, one of the signs of the deepening of this symposium, and the academic vision foreshadowed by the article "Regional Scientific Development Needs to Linking Wu Culture and Yue Culture" by the Jiangsu Wuyue Culture Research Association. This academic symposium has formed the above four consensus, which is of great significance. Taibo City was built in Meili, the early capital of the Wu state, which clarified the ambiguity of the origin of Wu culture. Taibo's spirit of virtue has been passed down from generation to generation in the history of the development of Wudi civilization, and it still has great inspiration. The integrated research of Wuyue culture has gained a new platform. The concept of "Wu culture ontology" is of theoretical guiding significance. Since the academic research on the source of Wu culture and the ancient capital of Meili is a basic and fundamental academic activity in the entire Wu culture research system, it has extremely important academic value for further theoretical research and academic discussion of Wu culture at present and in the future. Therefore, the academic community has repeatedly suggested that the results of this paper be collected and published. In December 2011, with the support and guidance of the Party Working Committee and Management Committee of Wuxi New Area, Jiangnan University, Wuyue Cultural Protection Research Committee of Wuxi New Area and Wuxi National High-tech Zone Development Research Institute jointly decided to select some results from more than 100 papers and submit them to the Beijing publishing department for official publication. Later, for various reasons, this work was delayed. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping has attached great importance to the traditional culture of the motherland, and he has regarded the traditional culture of the motherland as an important ideological and cultural resource for governing the country. As an important part of traditional Chinese culture, Wu culture is an important cultural gene and spiritual pillar for promoting the economic and cultural prosperity of Jiangnan and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Based on this sense of social responsibility, since 2013, we have organized some enthusiastic experts and scholars to formally select and process these manuscripts and make them publicly published. It should be noted that a total of 130 papers were received at that seminar, but according to the theme of "The Source of Wu Culture in China and the Ancient Capital of Meili", only 46 papers were selected in this book, and many papers related to the theme that discussed the development of the Taibo spirit and Jiangnan civilization and the research on the ontology of Wu culture and the study of Wu and Yue culture, although the quality of the articles is also very good, but they cannot be compiled one by one, please ask the relevant authors for their understanding and understanding. I would like to thank Lin Qi, Director of the Service Bureau of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Mr. Ji Hong and Mr. Wang Bin of China Social Sciences Press, and other leaders and friends for their support and help in the publication of this book. Huang Shengping, April 2015(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
黄胜平,程勉中.中国吴文化源头与梅里古都[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
黄胜平,程勉中.中国吴文化源头与梅里古都.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
黄胜平和程勉中(2015).中国吴文化源头与梅里古都.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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