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非均衡:当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑

ISBN:978-7-5161-8676-3

出版日期:2016-08

页数:261

字数:213.0千字

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张敏的著作《非均衡:当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑》问世,基于两个理由,我们应当重视和推介。第一,作者是一位青年学者,这是她的第一本著作,所要回答的是当代中国政治发展的动力是什么、为什么及其怎么样这样的大问题。虽然其学术功力显得比较稚嫩,书中的有些观点也不够成熟,但多年来坚持不懈的学术努力所取得的成果还是值得肯定和褒奖的,其著作值得对当代中国政治学术研究有兴趣的人细读和品味。第二,当代中国政治本身就是一个国内外实务界和学术界长期的、持续关注的热点问题,而且随着中国世界大国地位的逐步确立呈现出越来越热的趋势,国内外许多人基于不同的态度和立场,从不同的角度审视中国政治,提出了各自不同的观点。即便是在马克思主义的视域之中,人们的认识也是五光十色。正是这种多元观点的交流、碰撞、相互吸纳与借鉴,使关于当代中国政治的认识不断走向深入,相信本书也能为这种深入有所贡献。

在政治领域中,均衡的政治关系、规范化了的自由、民主是现代社会人们追求的美好的政治理想,与此相对应,非均衡乃至失衡则是一种客观实在。应然与实然、理想与现实,是决定人类生活的两极,人类无时无刻不在其中做艰难的选择,政治领域尤其如此。失衡如何防治,非均衡怎样才能走向均衡,政治何以完善并最终达成社会生活的相对稳定状态,能否在均衡视域中解读中国政治及其蕴含的主要关系,又是否可以认为现代意义上政治就是在现有的制度的框架内人为地构建出各种均衡和谐的政治关系?

在我们的文化传统中,“阴阳平衡”、“中庸”、“过犹不及”的理念根深蒂固,因此,平衡也一直被当作理想状态。但是,近代社会发展进程中,帝国主义的野蛮侵略和我们在与其较量中的弱势地位,使先进的中国人认识到,社会变革是唯一的出路,不但要变法,而且要变体。变革不能在追求平衡中实现,非平衡才是基本选择。于是,在赶超发达国家,自立于世界民族之林的强烈期盼和雄心壮志的背景下,政治发展的建构主义色彩愈益浓厚,并且使非平衡追求按照先进的中国人设计的理想蓝图更加充分地体现出来:历史上的两次民主主义革命中革命一方寄希望于“东风压倒西风”、“你死我活”、“一个阶级推翻另一个阶级”行动与追求使非均衡成为推动历史发展的基本动力;就是在改革开放进程中我们所实行的“让一部分人和一部分地区先富起来”的现代化路径选择也体现了以非均衡推动当代中国政治发展的基本诉求。

如果说,基于对未来的美好追求,我们可以从均衡的角度审视现代中国政治,那么,基于中国政治发展的现实,非均衡却是我们理解政治发展、政治转型和剖析政治生活的一个很好的视角。同时非均衡本身也构成了政治发展的动力机制,由此审视中国政治或许能使我们更加深入地把握其内在本质与运行逻辑。诚如C.E.布莱克所言,“从均衡是必需的角度来研究社会,能取得的成绩是有限的,因为社会从来就不是均衡的,它处于不断变化的过程中”。正是这种认识促使作者选择了本书的研究视角和研究对象。

作者认为,非均衡既是对政治发展动力体系总体特征的表述和概括,又是特定政治主体设计和主导之下政治发展过程和发展逻辑的写照和体现。首先,政治发展是多种因素共同作用的合力引起的结果。恩格斯说:“历史是这样创造的:最终的结果总是从许多单个的意志的相互冲突中产生出来的,而其中每一个意志,又是由于许多特殊的生活条件,才成为它所成为的那样。这样就有无数互相交错的力量,有无数个力的平行四边形,由此就产生出一个合力,即历史结果,而这个结果又可以看作一个作为整体的、不自觉地和不自主地起着作用的力量的产物。因为任何一个人的愿望都会受到任何另一个人的妨碍,而最后出现的结果就是谁都没有希望过的事物。所以到目前为止的历史总是像一种自然过程一样地进行,而且实质上也是服从于同一运动规律的。”动力是多元化、多层次、多元向度的力所构成的一个系统,但是每一种力的作用又不是处于平衡的状态之中。其中,有某种要素必然居于核心地位,起着关键性的作用,引导和制约着其他因素共同推动着政治的发展。其次,当代中国政治发展的现实动力体系具有时代烙印和中国特色。这种动力体系中主要有三种力量:一是全球化时代国际社会现代化杠杆的外驱力;二是执政党和政府政治设计与决策引领的领导力;三是民众自身对美好生活追求和向往的内驱力。中国是一个在强国家弱社会、权力支配权利轨道上长期运行并且由浓厚传统文化支撑而获得了高度政治合法性的国家,特别是现代社会国家具有的非常强的动员能力和社会资源的整合能力,以及社会各领域获得了广泛认同的顶层设计的制度安排,就使得党和政府政治设计与决策引领的领导力成为三种力量之中的根本。最后,政治发展的建构主义色彩必然使非均衡成为政治发展内在逻辑的基本体现。政治承载着人们对美好社会生活的期待,这些目标期待的先后主次决定了政治发展的序列性和非均衡性。正是这种非均衡性使政治发展在从传统向现代转换的过程中保持了一定的压力和张力,不至于因其他力量的失衡而引发衰退态势。非均衡发展是通过局部突破,进而在扩大战果中带动整体的发展战略,是“集中力量办大事”,实现有限力量的有效集合和运用,以带动有效发展,通过渐进性逐次增加和积累发展的合法性,撬动中国社会这架沉重的马车,使其进入良性运行的轨道。当然,任何选择都是有风险的,非均衡也可能因为人理性的有限性而使政治发展从一开始就偏离正确的轨道,在其他约束条件不变的情况下,其后果也会变得越来越糟。

本书从非均衡的视角解读当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑是一个有益的尝试。当代中国政治发展的动力是什么、为什么及其怎么样的问题,是一个大问题,作者提出了一些较有新意的观点,不仅有助于理解党和国家对现阶段政治发展战略的选择,也为政府的政策制定提供了相关理论参考和支持,在理论观点和现实应用上都有一定的新意。

就学术研究本身而言,在梳理和总结马克思主义关于“非均衡”的基本观点以及西方学界非均衡理论相关理论的基础上,对政治发展动力体系的非均衡做了基本的规定和解读,并对其特征、意义以及运行逻辑进行较为深入的论述和分析,这是有价值的。也许本书观点的科学性有待考证,一些观点也不够成熟,但在阐释论证的过程中,对非均衡的学理分析、理论构设以及对非均衡的价值理性等内容的探讨中,多少印证了作者对马克思主义政治发展理论基本问题的一些思考。如果本书能为学术论争提供一个平台,作者的目的也就达到了。

王俊拴

2016年春于西安/雁塔

Zhang Min's book "Non-Equilibrium: The Dynamics and Logic of Political Development in Contemporary China" came out for two reasons that we should pay attention to and promote. First, the author is a young scholar, and this is her first book, which aims to answer the big question of what is the driving force of contemporary China's political development, why and how. Although his academic skills are relatively immature and some of the ideas in the book are not mature enough, the results of his unremitting academic efforts over the years are still worthy of recognition and praise, and his works are worthy of careful reading and taste by those interested in the academic study of contemporary Chinese politics. Second, contemporary Chinese politics itself is a hot issue that has been a long-term and continuous concern of domestic and foreign practical circles and academic circles, and with the gradual establishment of China's status as a world power, many people at home and abroad have viewed Chinese politics from different angles based on different attitudes and positions, and put forward their own different views. Even in the perspective of Marxism, people's understanding is colorful. It is this exchange, collision, mutual absorption and reference of multiple views that has deepened the understanding of contemporary Chinese politics, and I believe that this book can also contribute to this deepening. In the political field, balanced political relations, standardized freedom, and democracy are the beautiful political ideals pursued by people in modern society, and correspondingly, non-equilibrium and even imbalance are an objective reality. What should be and what is, ideal and reality, are the two poles that determine human life, in which human beings make difficult choices all the time, especially in the political field. How to prevent imbalance, how can non-equilibrium move towards equilibrium, how can politics improve and eventually achieve a relatively stable state of social life, can Chinese politics and its main relationships be interpreted from the perspective of equilibrium, and can it be considered that politics in the modern sense is artificially constructing various balanced and harmonious political relations within the framework of the existing system? In our cultural tradition, the concepts of "yin and yang balance", "moderation" and "excess" are deeply rooted, so balance has always been regarded as the ideal state. However, in the process of modern social development, the barbaric aggression of imperialism and our weak position in the contest with it have made the advanced Chinese realize that social change is the only way out, not only to change the law, but also to change it. Change cannot be achieved in the pursuit of balance, and non-equilibrium is the basic choice. Therefore, against the background of the strong expectation and ambition of catching up with and surpassing the developed countries and standing on their own feet among the nations of the world, the constructivism of political development has become more and more intense, and the ideal blueprint designed according to advanced Chinese has been more fully reflected: in the two democratic revolutions in history, the revolutionary side pinned its hopes on the actions and pursuit of "the east wind overwhelms the west wind", "you die and I live", and "one class overthrows the other" to make non-equilibrium the basic driving force for historical development; Even in the process of reform and opening up, we have implemented the modernization path of "letting some people and some regions get rich first", which also reflects the basic demand to promote the political development of contemporary China with unbalanced aspects. If we can examine modern Chinese politics from a balanced perspective based on the beautiful pursuit of the future, then based on the reality of China's political development, non-equilibrium is a good perspective for us to understand political development, political transformation and analyze political life. At the same time, imbalance itself constitutes the dynamic mechanism of political development, so examining Chinese politics may enable us to grasp its inner essence and operating logic more deeply. As C.E. Black said, "There is a limit to what can be achieved by studying society from the point of view that equilibrium is necessary, because society is never equilibrium, it is in a process of constant change". It is this realization that led the author to choose the research perspective and object of this book. The author believes that non-equilibrium is not only the expression and summary of the overall characteristics of the dynamic system of political development, but also the portrayal and embodiment of the political development process and development logic under the design and leadership of specific political subjects. First, political developments are the result of a combination of factors. Engels said: "History is created in such a way that the final result always arises from the conflict of many individual wills, each of which in turn becomes what it is due to many special living conditions." Thus there are innumerable intersecting forces, parallelograms of innumerable forces, from which a synergistic force arises, the historical result, which in turn can be seen as the product of a force acting unconsciously and involuntarily as a whole. For the wishes of any one are hindered by any other, and the result is something that no one has hoped for. So history up to now has always proceeded like a natural process, and in essence it is subject to the same laws of motion. "Power is a system composed of diverse, multi-level, multi-dimensional forces, but the action of each force is not in a state of equilibrium. Among them, there is a certain element that must occupy a central position, play a key role, guide and constrain other factors to jointly promote political development. Second, the actual dynamic system of contemporary China's political development has the imprint of the times and Chinese characteristics. There are three main forces in this dynamic system: first, the external driving force of the lever of international modernization in the era of globalization; the second is the leadership led by the political design and decision-making of the ruling party and government; The third is the internal driving force of the people's own pursuit and yearning for a better life. China is a country that has been operating for a long time on the track of strong country and weak society, power domination and power, and has obtained a high degree of political legitimacy supported by strong traditional culture, especially the very strong mobilization ability and social resource integration ability of the modern society, as well as the top-level design institutional arrangements widely recognized in all fields of society, make the leadership led by the political design and decision-making of the party and government the fundamental of the three forces. Finally, the constructivist color of political development inevitably makes non-equilibrium the basic embodiment of the internal logic of political development. Politics carries people's expectations for a better social life, and the priority of these goals and expectations determines the sequence and uneven nature of political development. It is this imbalance that allows political development to maintain a certain pressure and tension in the process of transition from tradition to modernity, so as not to cause a decline due to the imbalance of other forces. Unbalanced development is a development strategy that drives the whole through partial breakthroughs and then expands the results of the war, which is to "concentrate forces to do great things", realize the effective gathering and use of limited forces, so as to promote effective development, and through gradual increase and accumulation of the legitimacy of development, pry the heavy carriage of Chinese society into the track of benign operation. Of course, any choice is risky, and the imequilibrium can deviate political development from the right track from the beginning because of the limited nature of human reason, and the consequences will get worse and worse if other constraints remain equal. This book is a useful attempt to interpret the dynamics and logic of contemporary China's political development from a non-balanced perspective. The author puts forward some more innovative views, which not only help to understand the choice of the party and the state for the current political development strategy, but also provides relevant theoretical reference and support for the government's policy formulation, and has certain novelties in theoretical views and practical applications. As far as academic research itself is concerned, on the basis of sorting out and summarizing the basic views of Marxism on "non-equilibrium" and the relevant theories of non-equilibrium theory in Western academic circles, it is valuable to make basic provisions and interpretations of the non-equilibrium of the dynamic system of political development, and to discuss and analyze its characteristics, significance and operating logic in depth. Perhaps the scientific nature of the views in this book needs to be verified, and some views are not mature enough, but in the process of explaining and arguing, the discussion of non-equilibrium academic analysis, theoretical construction, and non-equilibrium value rationality has confirmed some of the author's thinking on the basic issues of Marxist political development theory. If this book can provide a platform for academic debate, the author's purpose will be achieved. Wang Jun tied up in Xi'an/Yanta in the spring of 2016(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
张敏.非均衡:当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
张敏.非均衡:当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
张敏(2016).非均衡:当代中国政治发展的动力与逻辑.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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