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社会福利转型下的福利多元建构:西部农村留守儿童的实证研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-7780-8

出版日期:2016-04

页数:299

字数:289.0千字

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伴随着城镇化的大踏步推进,我国数以亿计的农民进入到城市中,成为数量庞大的外来务工人群。他们在为城市发展做出重大贡献的同时,也在默默地承担着本来不应该由他们承担的很多代价,其子女的抚育问题就是其中重要的一个。由于户籍制度的严格限制和隐含在户籍背后的福利排斥,使我国数千万儿童被父母留在了家乡,他们在生活、健康、教育等方面面临着新的社会风险。对于这些留守儿童所遭遇的问题予以研究,不但有利于推动我国社会福利制度的有序发展,而且对优化我国未来城镇化的发展道路具有重要的意义。

留守儿童问题的研究自2005年以来呈现出了井喷式的发展,这些研究都围绕留守儿童进行了细致的讨论,并为实践领域出台相应的保护政策提供了学理指导。但是,目前的研究也在研究对象、研究视角和研究方法上出现了一定的纰漏,因此无法从社会福利转型的背景下去观察留守儿童的福利建构问题,亟须在学理上进行优化。本书正是从上述问题出发,采取福利多元主义作为核心理论,采取广义社会福利作为观察视角,通过定量和定性相结合的实证调研方式来对留守儿童的福利供应问题展开细致的剖析。本书紧紧围绕留守儿童的福利获取状况及福利供应状况进行针对性的分析,希望通过对福利结构的讨论来研究留守儿童福利的基本状况。

基于四川省宜宾市兴文县的实证调查,本书具有三个基本的发现:(1)留守儿童在遭受市民化福利排斥之后又经历了居民化福利排斥。研究结果显示,儿童群体间在福利获取上的整体差距已经显现,留守儿童在福利获取上显著落后于农村普通儿童,且双亲外出务工的留守儿童比单亲外出务工的留守儿童具有更为有限的福利获取,可见留守因素对儿童福利获取所显示出来的负面效应较为明显。同时,留守儿童与普通儿童在福利获取上形成了一定的结构性差异,前者在资金与保护性服务方面所具有的弱势地位较为有限,在照顾性服务方面所具有的弱势地位则异常明显,且在基本生活福利、健康福利和教育福利等方面均有广泛反映,体现出照顾性服务是当前留守儿童福利获取的核心症结。(2)留守儿童多元福利共担机制嬗变为了家庭福利互济。统计结果反映出,留守儿童的福利衰减主要集中在外出家庭的福利供应领域,留守家庭的福利替代则较为明显,国家、社区和志愿组织未能出现积极的福利替代,因此留守儿童的福利责任转移实际上嬗变成了家庭内部之间的责任调整,外出家庭主要负责资金供应,留守家庭主要负责服务供应,留守儿童的福利服务呈现出了祖孙抱团取暖的“空巢化”现象。同时,国家、社区和志愿组织的福利供应往往依据农村家庭的社会资本来分配,留守家庭反而比非留守家庭更难获得福利提供,因而造成留守儿童在遭受到城乡户籍制度市民化福利排斥的同时也进一步受到了社会资本为基础的居民化福利排斥。(3)留守儿童的福利提供问题本质上是儿童福利转型的问题。留守儿童福利提供的表面缺陷在于家庭福利提供的责任转移不畅,但是其深层次的诱因在于以家庭为主体的福利供应体系难以应对巨大的转型风险。换言之,留守儿童的福利供应问题不是一个简单的家庭责任转移问题,而是福利供应中多元主体的责任分担问题,其本质上反映出我国福利多元主体在福利责任的分配上存在严重的不均衡,并充分体现出了我国补缺型儿童福利制度的脆弱性和普惠型儿童福利制度建构的必要性。

基于以上结论,研究建议主要有三个:(1)逐步平衡城市和农村之间的福利供应差异。当前以身份户籍作为基本福利获取前提的政策对于农村人口具有显著的反向剥夺,对于留守儿童的健康成长具有较强的制约,因而未来应当逐步放宽或者取消因身份户籍而形成的福利差异,逐步平衡城市与农村地区的福利供应,并最终形成互联互通、和谐有序的城乡福利供应网络。(2)形成家庭支持型的社会政策。目前以家庭为主体的福利供应体系已经难以应对人员流动造成的社会风险,福利多元主体在福利供应中的责任失衡进一步加大了家庭所承载的福利压力,未来应当逐步强化国家为支撑、社区为基础、志愿组织为辅助的家庭支持型政策,在福利资金与福利服务方面给予农村家庭更大的支持。(3)加快实现儿童福利制度的转型。我国补缺型儿童福利制度自创建以来虽然发挥了巨大的时代功效,但是随着经济社会的发展已经越来越难以满足民众的现实需要,未来应当逐步加快儿童福利制度从“补缺型”向“普惠型”的转型,加速“院内福利”向“院外福利”的转型速度,强化国家在儿童养育过程中的福利责任回归,确保在儿童福利提供过程中具有更为广泛与充裕的国家保障。

关键词:儿童福利,留守儿童,福利多元主义,社会福利,西部农村地区

Abstract

With the great heap in China's urbanization,hundreds of millions of peasants went into cities and form a huge number of migrant population in China.They make a significant contribution to the development of the cities,however they have to face a lot of social problems.The issue of left-behind children seems to be the most important one.Because of urban-rural separate registration system and different benefits beyond it,tens of millions children have been left by their parents in their hometown,and their basic living,health,education and other aspects have to encounter with some new risks.Therefore,finishing some researches on this issue of left-behind children can be not only to promote the development of China's social welfare system,but also have great significance to optimize the path of China's future urbanization.

Researches on left-behind children have shown a sharp increase since 2005,all these researches have finished some analysis on left-behind children's issues and contributed to our policies in practice.However,current researches also encountered with some important problems in research framework,research perspective and research methods,so these researches can not focus on social welfare transformation behind the obvious problems from the regime of welfare mix theory.Based on these problems,this study want to make welfare pluralism as the core theory,take the social welfare as the viewing angle,and carry out a detailed analysis on left-behind children's welfare supplying system with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical research methods.

Based on the empirical investigation in Xingwen County of Sichuan Province,the study has three basic findings:(1)Left-behind children's welfare re ceiving process meets with not only citizenship exclusive but also residential exclusive.My research finds that the overall welfare receiving gap among different groups has really appeared,with left-behind children's welfare lagging significantly behind that of normal children in rural area and double-parents left-be-hind children felling obviously behind that of single-parent left-behind group,which seems to be a visible negative effect in welfare receiveing of parent-child separation.At the same time,the structural difference between left-behind children and normal children can be also observed in the area of compassionate welfare services,whileas the variance in the aspect of welfare funds and protective welfare sevices is limited,therefore compassionate welfare services should be confined to be the core problem of left-behind children's welfare receiving.(2)Welfare mix system transfores to be familly-supported system.Statistical results reflect that the welfare attenuation of left-behind children is mainly oriented from their migranting families,whileas their stay-in-home families show an obvious increase in left-behind children's welfare providing process,but nation,community and voluntary organizations fails to appear positive alternative.Based on these,left-behind children's welfare supplying system has transfered to be the responsibility of their families,with migranting members being mainly responsible for funding and stay-in-home members mainly for serving,and the provision of left-behind children's welfare services have also gradually become a grandparent-grandson“empty nest”model.Meanwhile,the resources’ distribution of our nation,community and voluntary organizations relying on social capitals of rural families makes left-behind children's families more difficult to get their enough welfare funds or welfare services compared with their conterparts,therefore it forms an obvious“residential exclusion”in China's rual society after the traditional“citizenship exclusion”based on household registration.(3)The welfare providing problem of left-behind children is essentially the transformation problem of children's welfare system.Although the imbalance of famillies’ responsibility seems to be the scapegoat seen from the outside,the real reason under the imbalance is the family-oriented welfare providing network can not cope with current social risks.In another word,the problem of left-behind children's welfare is not a simple welfare reductions but a structural adjust ment in welfare mix,it can obviously reflect the imbalance of subjects’ responsibility in a welfare mix system,and behind this problem we can find the vulnerability of residual social welfare system and necessary of universal social welfare.

Due to above conclusions,this study gives us three suggestions:(1)Gradully balancing the unban and rural welfare system.Current household registion policies taking serious harm to rural population has a strong restriction to the welfare receiving progress of left-behind children,so in the future we should gradually relax or concel houshold registion-oriented welfare variation,balance unban-rural welfare differiences and form a open and harmonious welfare supplying network.(2)Gradually establishing a family-support social policy.Nowadays family-orentied welfare system has not already stand up with higher migranting risks,the imbalance of the responsibility of welfare mix in welfare supplying process has also strengthen the pressure of familly,thus we should gradually finish a family supporting network,which being a nation-gurantied,communities-fundamental,voluntary organizations- assitant system,and provide more supports to rual populations in the aspect of welfare funds and welfare services.(3)Gradually accelerating the transformation of China's child policy.Although residual social welfare system has played a huge effect after its foundation,it seems to become more and more invalid with the development of economic and society.Therefore,we should gradually accelerate the transformation from residual social welfare to universal model,speed up the transformation from inside welfare house system to outside welfare house system,strengthen the responsibility return in the constructive process of child policy,and ensure the extensive and abundant nation guranty for all the children.

Key Words:Children's Welfare,Left-behind Children,Welfare Mix,Social Welfare,Western Rural Area

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
万国威.社会福利转型下的福利多元建构:西部农村留守儿童的实证研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
万国威.社会福利转型下的福利多元建构:西部农村留守儿童的实证研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
万国威(2016).社会福利转型下的福利多元建构:西部农村留守儿童的实证研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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