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密教文献整理与研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-5275-1

出版日期:2014-12

页数:409

字数:409.0千字

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基金信息: 国家社科基金;陕西师范大学优秀著作出版基金 展开
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《密教研究》作为陕西师范大学宗教学集刊之一,是密教研究的专题性学术集刊,主要展现中国学术界研究密教的最新成果,同时也反映国外学者研究密教的相关成果。每两年出版一辑,每辑有一个相对集中的主题,另设动态综述栏。本辑主题是密教文献研究,内分文献总论、日藏文献、敦煌文献、部类文献、梵语文献、藏传文献六类,每类又按论文性质以及时代先后排列,共收入23篇学术论文,均选自第二届中国密教国际学术研讨会论文。

密教文献是佛教文献的组成部分,也是佛教文献中具有自身特点的一类文献。密教文献的主体仍然是大藏经文献,大藏经分为经、律、论三藏,密教也一度组织过本派的经、律、论,中国大藏经史上也有过秘密经、律、论的分类,但独立的三藏体系并没有真正形成。事实上由于密教经典的特殊体裁,历史上曾独立编纂为咒藏,经、律、论、咒并称四藏,还与《菩萨藏》或《杂藏》并称五藏。《咒藏》亦称《禁咒藏》、《持明咒藏》、《陀罗尼咒藏》,唐宋时期的不少译经指明出自《持明咒藏》。《持明咒藏》,梵文 ,就是总持明咒之藏,持即总持,dhāra的意译,音译陀罗尼,在此为行持、持诵之义;明咒,vidyā的意译,是不同于神咒mantra的另一种咒语,亦译明,明另有知识、学科之义;藏,pitaka的意译,指汇编的经典。但最早出现的密教经典是陀罗尼经,其中所说的陀罗尼咒,其梵文原为dhāranī,并非vidyā,也非mantra。陀罗尼咒经也属于佛说经,其内容主要说陀罗尼咒及其功能,并有陀罗尼行法,后来发展成仪轨。根据中国上千年汉译佛经史可知,3—7世纪间翻译的密教经典就是陀罗尼经,这是密教最早也是数量最多的一类经典。陀罗尼经分为三种基本类型,一是陀罗尼咒经,以说陀罗尼神咒及其功用为主;二是陀罗尼契经,仍采用契经的形式,以阐发陀罗尼义理为主,其中包括陀罗尼字门、陀罗尼句门;三是契经与咒经的混合形式,二者兼而有之。另外大乘经的《陀罗尼品》也属于这类陀罗尼经,往往采取混合形式。陀罗尼经以持诵陀罗尼以及阐发其义理为主,形式比较单一。后来在此基础上发展其行持仪轨,形成完整形态的密教经典,这就是上述的《持明咒藏》。传说《持明咒藏》是龙树弟子难陀编纂,他创造性地在陀罗尼咒经中引入手印,通过离合咒印之文,大大扩展了陀罗尼咒的用法及其含义类别,形成一家之言。这类密教经典从6世纪的南北朝后期开始汉译,从中可知持明咒经除了诵咒结印之外,以行持密法为主要内容,包括曼荼罗坛法、像法、供养法、护摩法、成就法以及观想法等,其行持法分为三部、五部不等。这类经后来又突破佛说经的形式,形成密教经典的另一种类型——仪轨(梵文kalpa)。仪轨也称念诵法,真言密教和瑜伽密教的经典都附有仪轨,或经轨一体,或仪轨独立。持明经、真言经、瑜伽经均属于这种类型,也就是经轨兼备型的密教经典,只是从持明经(vidyādhāra)到真言经(mantra)再到瑜伽经(yogā),有一个逐渐发展完善的过程,因而又有一些差别。按三密的完备程度来说,持明经以持诵明咒(vidyā)的语密和手结印契的身密为主,真言经(mantra)则身语意三密完备,而瑜伽经更注重瑜伽观想。从其形态特点来说,持明经的密法系统庞杂繁缛,真言经教义与仪轨兼备,瑜伽经则更加仪轨化。从修持目的来说,持明经以成就世间法为主,真言经以觉悟成佛为根本目的,而瑜伽经则以现证菩提为最高成就。

最晚出现的密教经典是怛特罗类型(梵文tantra),最早译于8世纪前期,题《瞿醯坦跢罗经》。坦跢罗,亦译旦怛罗、怛跢罗、亶怛啰,就是梵文tantra的汉语音译。一行《大日经疏》中屡屡引据,应属善无畏译。后来不空将tantra意译为“大教王经”,如译《金刚顶一切如来真实摄大乘现证大教王经》、《文殊师利菩萨根本大教王金翅鸟王品》。10世纪以后宋代翻译密教经典,即继承不空的译法,仍译tantra为大教王经,也往往把kalpa译为大教王经,这也说明怛特罗经由瑜伽经的仪轨发展而来。大教王经,即梵文mahātantrarājā,其中“王”是rājā的翻译,表示该经的权威性;“经”是汉译附加词,标明属于三藏中的经藏及其佛说的圣神性;“大”是 mahā的翻译,修饰词,表示本经所说教法的地位;“教”则是tantra的翻译,是这一词组的主词,其意思为教法、教说及其教义、教理,也就是佛的教导和说教,构成佛教的核心思想。“教”被形容为“大”,称“大教”者,有以自尊高、贬抑其他之意,犹如大乘。大教的梵文为mahātantra,正好与大乘的梵文mahāyāna相对应。tantra原指织布机以及用来织布的经线,引申为延续、连续、贯穿,故也用来指称密教经典及其教法,以及学术性和概论性的著作、指南、手册及其中的基本原理、准则、要点等。汉文译为“教”,取义教法,与tantra引申义相符。藏文译tantra为rgyud,汉文转译为“续”,也与其原义相符。根据藏传密教的经典分类,密教经典分为事、行、瑜伽、无上瑜伽四续部,为梵文kriyā、caryā、yogā、anuttarayogā的翻译,分别与汉传密教的持明经、真言经、瑜伽经、大教王经对应。四续部是广义上的怛特罗,其中前三类被称为外怛特罗,后一类称内怛特罗,也就是狭义的怛特罗。狭义的怛特罗,汉译也有相应的译名,称最上秘密无上大乘大教王。无上瑜伽又分为大瑜伽(mahāyogā)、无上瑜伽(anuttarayogā)、极致瑜伽(atiyogā)三类,其代表性经典为《密集》、《胜乐》和《喜金刚》、《时轮》等经。怛特罗经也属于仪轨型的经典,形式上分为本续、后续以及释续,其思想特点是深受印度教性力思想影响。怛特罗类型的经典也为印度其他宗教所使用,印度教的毗湿奴派、湿婆派、性力派以及耆那教都有怛特罗经典,与后期密教共同形成一类经典形式和思想倾向,被认为属于非吠陀的印度宗教传统,也被通称为怛特罗的或怛特罗教,或区分为佛教怛特罗、印度教怛特罗、耆那教怛特罗。但西方学术界由此误将怛特罗与密教等量齐观,怛特罗对译为密教,实际上密教是大概念,怛特罗则是小概念,被包含在密教中,而不是对等关系,更不是相反。因此也有的学者称密教为Esoteric Buddhism,以与后期密教Tantric Buddhism相区别,或者指称汉传密教时使用Esoteric Buddhism,指称藏传密教以及印度后期密教时用Tantric Buddhism,这样更为合理。

陕西师范大学宗教研究中心每三年举行一次国际性的密教学术研讨会,第二届中国密教国际学术研讨会于2013年6月27—30日在浙江绍兴召开,分别在会稽山龙华寺和明心书院举行,以2012年国家社科基金重大项目《密教文献文物资料整理与研究》为主题,成为本辑论文的主要内容。在此对资助和承办者明心书院主人宋畅涌先生、龙华寺主人潘建国先生表示衷心的感谢!

本辑的规划、设计校对由笔者负责,具体编辑工作由张文卓博士负责,会议论文编辑工作主要由张文卓和党措负责,文字校订工作由宗教研究中心2011级和2012级硕、博士研究生参与。

吕建福

2014年9月2日

于陕西师范大学宗教研究中心

As one of the religious studies collections of Shaanxi Normal University, Esoteric Studies is a thematic academic journal of esoteric studies, which mainly displays the latest achievements of Chinese academic research on esotericism, and also reflects the relevant achievements of foreign scholars in studying esotericism. A series is published every two years, each with a relatively focused theme and a dynamic review column. The theme of this series is the study of esoteric literature, which is divided into six categories: general literature, Japanese-Tibetan literature, Dunhuang literature, partial literature, Sanskrit literature, and Tibetan literature, each of which is arranged according to the nature and era of the papers, and a total of 23 academic papers are included, all selected from the papers of the Second China International Symposium on Esoteric Education. Esoteric literature is an integral part of Buddhist literature, and it is also a type of literature with its own characteristics in Buddhist literature. The main body of Esoteric literature is still the Tripitaka literature, which is divided into three canons, laws and treatises, and Esoteric Buddhism has also organized its own scriptures, laws and treatises for a time, and there have also been classification of secret scriptures, laws and treatises in the history of the Chinese Tripitaka, but the independent Tripitaka system has not really formed. In fact, due to the special genre of esoteric scriptures, it has been independently compiled into mantras in history, and the sutras, laws, treatises, and mantras are called the four canons, and they are also called the five canons together with the "Bodhisattva Zang" or "Zaizang". The Mantra is also known as the Forbidden Mantra, the Holding Ming Mantra, and the Dharani Mantra, and many translations of the Tang and Song dynasties indicate that it is from the Holding Ming Mantra. Mantra Collection, Sanskrit , that is, the collection of the mantra of always holding, holding is the total holding, the paraphrase of dhāra, transliterated dharani, here is the meaning of doing and holding and chanting; Ming mantra, paraphrase of vidyā, is another kind of mantra different from the divine mantra, also translated, Ming has the meaning of other knowledge and discipline; Tibet, a paraphrase of pitaka, refers to the compilation of classics. But the earliest Esoteric scriptures to appear are the Dharani Sutra, in which the Dharani mantra was originally written in Sanskrit as dhāranī, not vidyā or mantra. The Dharani mantra also belongs to the Buddha's teachings, and its content mainly talks about the Dharani mantra and its functions, and has the Dharani practice, which later developed into rituals. According to the history of Chinese translation of Buddhist scriptures in China for thousands of years, the esoteric classics translated between the 3rd and 7th centuries are the Dharani Sutra, which is the earliest and largest number of esoteric classics. The Dharani Sutra is divided into three basic types, one is the Dharani Mantra Sutra, which is mainly based on the Dharani mantra and its functions; The second is the Dharani Sutra, which still adopts the form of the Dharani Sutra and is mainly based on the interpretation of Dharani doctrines, including Dharani character gate and Dharani sentence gate; The third is a hybrid form of deed and mantra, which is both. In addition, the Mahayana sutra's Dharanipins also belong to this type of Dharani sutra, often taking mixed forms. The Dharani Sutra is mainly based on chanting the Dharani and expounding its teachings, and the form is relatively simple. Later, on this basis, he developed his ritual path and formed a complete form of esoteric scriptures, which is the above-mentioned "Holding Ming Mantra". Legend has it that the Holding Ming Mantra was compiled by Nagarjuna's disciple Nanda, who creatively introduced mudra into the Dharani mantra, greatly expanding the use of Dharani mantra and its meaning categories through the text of the acrostic mantra, forming a family saying. This kind of esoteric scriptures began to be translated into Chinese in the late Southern and Northern Dynasties in the 6th century, from which it can be seen that in addition to chanting mantras and seals, the main content of the Ming Mantra Sutra is to practice tantric methods, including mandala altar methods, image methods, offering methods, protective methods, achievement methods, and meditation methods, etc., and their practice and holding methods are divided into three and five parts. This type of sutra later broke through the form of Buddhist sutras and formed another type of esoteric scripture, ritual (Sanskrit kalpa). Rituals are also called chanting, and the scriptures of Mantra and Yoga esotericism are accompanied by rituals, or the meridians are integrated, or the rituals are independent. The Ming Sutra, the Shingon Sutra, and the Yoga Sutra all belong to this type, that is, the esoteric scriptures with both scriptures and paths, but from the Ming Sutra (vidyādhāra) to the Mantra (Mantra) and then to the Yoga Sutra (yogā), there is a gradual process of development and improvement, so there are some differences. According to the degree of completeness of the three tantras, the Ming Sutra is mainly based on the recitation of the mantra (vidyā) and the body of the hand seal contract, while the Mantra Sutra is complete in the body, language, and meaning, while the Yoga Sutra pays more attention to yoga visualization. In terms of its morphological characteristics, the tantric system holding the Ming Sutra is huge and complex, the teachings and rituals of the Mantra Sutra are both, and the Yoga Sutra is more ritualistic. In terms of the purpose of practice, the Ming Sutra is mainly aimed at achieving worldly Dharma, the Mantra Sutra is based on enlightenment and becoming a Buddha, and the Yoga Sutra is based on the attainment of bodhi as the highest achievement. The latest Esoteric text to appear is the tantra type (Sanskrit tantra), first translated in the early 8th century with the title Qu Feng Tantra Sutra. Tantra, also translated as Dantra, Tantra, or Tantra, is a Chinese transliteration of the Sanskrit word tantra. The repeated quotations in the line "Great Nikkei" should be a good and fearless translation. Later, Bukong translated tantra as "Great Teaching King Sutra", such as translating "Vajradhara True Mahayana Present Testimony of the Great Teaching King Sutra", "Manjushri Bodhisattva Fundamental Great Sect King Golden Winged Bird King Product". After the 10th century, the Song Dynasty translated the esoteric classics, that is, inherited the translation of the void, and still translated tantra as the Great King Sutra, and often translated the kalpa as the Great King Sutra, which also shows that Tatra developed through the rituals of the Yoga Sutra. The Mahātantrarājā, the Sanskrit word mahātantrarājā, where "wang" is a translation of rājā, indicating the authority of the sutra; "Jing" is an additional word in Chinese translation, indicating the sutras belonging to the Three Tripitaka and the sacred deity of the Buddha's teachings; "Da" is a translation of mahā, a modifier that indicates the status of the teachings spoken of in this scripture; "Teaching" is the translation of tantra, which is the main word of this phrase, which means teachings, teachings and teachings, teachings, that is, the teachings and teachings of the Buddha, which constitute the core ideas of Buddhism. "Teaching" is described as "great", and those who call "great teaching" have the meaning of high self-esteem and depreciation of others, just like Mahayana. The Sanskrit word of Mahayana is mahātantra, which corresponds to the Sanskrit word mahāyāna of Mahayana. Tantra originally referred to the loom and the warp thread used to weave cloth, and by extension continuation, continuity, and continuity, so it is also used to refer to the Esoteric texts and their teachings, as well as scholarly and general works, guides, manuals, and the basic principles, guidelines, and points therein. The Chinese translation is "teaching", which takes the meaning of the teaching, which is consistent with the meaning of tantra. The Tibetan translation of tantra as rgyud and the Chinese translation as "continued" also corresponds to its original meaning. According to the classification of Tibetan esoteric classics, the esoteric classics are divided into four continuations: things, actions, yoga, and supreme yoga, which are translations of the Sanskrit words kriyā, caryā, yogā, and anuttarayogā, which correspond to the Han esoteric sutras, the Shingon sutras, the Yoga sutras, and the Great King Sutras. The four continuations are in the broad sense, of which the first three categories are called outer Tantra, and the latter category is called Inner Tantra, that is, Tantra in the narrow sense. In the narrow sense, the Chinese translation also has a corresponding translation name, called the supreme secret supreme Mahayana king. Supreme Yoga is divided into three categories: Mahāyogā, Anuttarayogā, and Atiyogā, and its representative classics are Sutras such as "Intensive", "Shengle" and "Joy", "Joy", "Kalachakra" and so on. The Sutra is also a ritual-type scripture, which is formally divided into continuation, follow-up and interpretation, and its thought is characterized by being deeply influenced by the Hindu idea of sexual power. The Vaishnava, Shiva, Sexualism and Jainism have Tantra scriptures, which together with later Esoteric Buddhism form a class of classical forms and ideological tendencies, and are considered to belong to the non-Vedic Indian religious tradition, also commonly known as Tantra or Tantra, or divided into Buddhist Tantra, Hindu Tantra, Jainism. However, Western academic circles mistakenly equated Tantra and Esoteric Buddhism, and the pair of Tantra is translated as Esoteric Religion, in fact, Esoteric Religion is a big concept, and Tantro is a small concept, which is included in Esoteric Religion, not an equal relationship, not the opposite. Therefore, some scholars call Esoteric Buddhism Esoteric Buddhism to distinguish it from later Tantric Buddhism, or refer to the use of Esoteric Buddhism in Han esotericism, and Tantric Buddhism in referring to Tibetan esotericism and late Indian esotericism, which is more reasonable. The Center for Religious Studies of Shaanxi Normal University holds an international esoteric academic symposium every three years, and the second China Esoteric International Symposium was held in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province from June 27 to 30, 2013, respectively at Huijishan Longhua Temple and Mingxin Academy, with the theme of the 2012 National Social Science Foundation major project "Collation and Research of Esoteric Literature and Cultural Relics", which became the main content of this series of papers. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Song Changyong, owner of Mingxin College, and Mr. Pan Jianguo, owner of Longhua Temple, for sponsoring and undertaker! The author is responsible for the planning and design proofreading of this series, Dr. Zhang Wenzhuo is responsible for the specific editing work, the editing of conference papers is mainly responsible for Zhang Wenzhuo and Dang Tso, and the text editing work is participated by the master's and doctoral students of the 2011 and 2012 masters and doctoral students of the Center for Religious Studies. Lv Jianfu at the Center for Religious Studies of Shaanxi Normal University on September 2, 2014(AI翻译)

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吕建福.密教文献整理与研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2014
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