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心理层面的儒家思想

ISBN:978-7-5203-0244-9

出版日期:2017-06

页数:304

字数:336.0千字

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基金信息: 国家社科基金 展开
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人类的伟大之处在于创造了以终极观为核心的、以德性追求为本质特征的文明体系。“德性”既是人类社会的普遍品性,也是不同的“文化”现象。其普遍性在于,任何成熟的文明无不以“德性”为最基本、最高尚的追求;其差异性在于,不同的文化对于“德性”的内容、来源和实质,有不同认定。社会的运行与管理,文明的延续与发展也是依赖“德性之理”之制度化设计与道德规范作用而维系的。

儒家思想是中华民族精神文明的主流。孔子总结了早期农耕社会形成的伦理道德思想,升华形成了儒家思想。儒家思想因契合古代农耕社会的政治需要,自汉代起成为中国主流意识形态学说,对中国社会的结构和形态有无法比拟的巨大作用。不同时代的儒者,无论是大儒名硕,还是乡绅书生,无不围绕儒家之德性而思、而行,遂使儒家成为内容广博、各家所论同中有异的思想体系,支撑着中华文明的大厦。

但是,近代以来,儒家思想赖以生存的社会形态被西方的坚船利炮摧毁,社会被迫转型,儒家处于被不断质疑中。儒家如何回应理性之时代精神的挑战,成为能否重新进入大众心灵的思想任务。

思想史在这方面的努力是巨大的,成果也十分丰硕。但在笔者看来,应以发展的原则来回应——作为联结过去和未来的主流文化,儒家思想不应仅指向于过去,亦应指向于未来;不应仅“活”在学术世界里,只是学者的问题,也应是化解当下社会问题的思想资源;不应仅是残缺习俗,潜在地作用于人,而应有意识地加以提升,重新进入大众的心灵,以整合进社会秩序。简言之,如何使儒家思想既保留传统理念,又汲取时代精神而前行,是重大的学术挑战。

由此,本书的学术任务是,从心理层面对儒家思想的发展逻辑及其现代挑战进行理论回应。

“心理层面”,可能不少读者会把其与“心理学”等同,这恰恰是笔者有意识避免的。“心理层面”的方法论取向是“问题中心”而非学科(心理学)中心——目的不是使儒家思想成为心理学的理论资源,也不是以心理学的理论生硬地套用到儒家思想,而是围绕人的活动的天然动因和必然伴随物——心理世界的内在机制,讨论儒家思想的逻辑线索、知识结构、特征气质及其现代转换。

这是以经验科学的“实”,讨论儒家思想问题的“虚”,是“虚”“实”结合的学术尝试。主要内容为:

一是,儒家终极观的形成及其精神框架。孔子是儒家终极观“仁”的提出者。“仁”说被认为是改写了中国精神世界的转折点。那么,孔子为什么会提出“仁”?“仁”形成的时机和心理机制如何?“仁”形成后儒家的心灵世界和气质是什么样的?“仁”的提出对于儒家思想发展又带来了什么样的内在挑战?这即孔子思想框架的心理分析问题。

二是,儒家思想演变的心理动力机制。儒家是通过对德性“体源”的不断讨论而发展的。为什么这一问题会不断出现?后儒如何围绕这方面的问题,形成了思想有差异但又互补的学说?儒家思想发展的总体特征是什么?

三是,儒家思想在当下社会的根本性挑战与回应。近现代以来儒家思想面临挑战的精神实质是什么?如何以符合时代精神的方式,对儒家思想的合理性进行论证与提升,使之重新进入大众的心灵?

本书围绕这些问题提出了自己的看法。主观上虽然尽力,但以经验性学术方式讨论古老的如心性之类抽象的问题,多少是犯了传统儒家学术之“忌”的,所论亦可能有不当。因此,静待赐教。

景怀斌

2017年4月30日

The greatness of human beings lies in the creation of a civilization system with the ultimate view as the core and the pursuit of virtue as the essential feature. "Virtue" is not only a universal character of human society, but also a different "cultural" phenomenon. Its universality lies in the fact that any mature civilization takes "virtue" as the most basic and noble pursuit; The difference lies in the fact that different cultures have different opinions on the content, source and essence of "virtue". The operation and management of society, the continuation and development of civilization are also maintained by the institutionalized design of "virtue" and the role of moral norms. Confucianism is the mainstream of the spiritual civilization of the Chinese nation. Confucius summarized the ethical and moral ideas formed in the early agrarian society, and sublimated Confucianism. Because Confucianism meets the political needs of ancient agrarian society, it has become the mainstream ideological doctrine in China since the Han Dynasty, and has an incomparable and huge effect on the structure and form of Chinese society. Confucians of different eras, whether they were famous Confucians or squire scholars, all thought and acted around the virtues of Confucianism, so that Confucianism became a system of thought with a wide range of content, and the similarities and differences of each school, supporting the edifice of Chinese civilization. However, since modern times, the social form on which Confucianism depended has been destroyed by the strong cannons of the West, and society has been forced to transform, and Confucianism has been constantly questioned. How Confucianism responds to the challenge of the zeitgeist of reason becomes the ideological task of whether it can re-enter the hearts of the masses. The efforts of intellectual history in this regard have been tremendous, and the results have been very fruitful. But in my view, the response should be based on the principle of development – as a mainstream culture that connects the past and the future, Confucianism should not only point to the past, but also to the future; It should not only "live" in the academic world, but only a problem of scholars, but also an ideological resource to solve current social problems; It should not be merely a mutilated custom, potentially acting on people, but should be consciously elevated and re-entered into the mass psyche in order to integrate into the social order. In short, how to make Confucianism retain traditional ideas while absorbing the spirit of the times is a major academic challenge. Thus, the academic task of this book is to provide a theoretical response to the logic of Confucianism and its modern challenges at the psychological level. "Psychological level", many readers may equate it with "psychology", which is precisely what the author consciously avoids. The methodological orientation of the "psychological level" is "problem center" rather than disciplinary (psychology) center - the purpose is not to make Confucianism a theoretical resource of psychology, nor to apply Confucianism bluntly with psychological theory, but to discuss the logical threads, knowledge structure, characteristic temperament and modern transformation of Confucianism around the natural motive and inevitable companion of human activity - the internal mechanism of the psychological world. This is an academic attempt to combine "virtuality" and "reality" with the "reality" of empirical science to discuss the problems of Confucianism. The main contents are: First, the formation of the ultimate view of Confucianism and its spiritual framework. Confucius was the originator of the ultimate Confucian concept of "ren." The "ren" theory is considered to have rewritten the turning point in the spiritual world of China. So, why did Confucius propose "ren"? What is the timing and psychological mechanism of the formation of "ren"? What was the spiritual world and temperament of Confucianism after the formation of "ren"? What kind of inherent challenges does the proposal of "ren" bring to the development of Confucianism? This is the psychoanalytical problem of Confucius' ideological framework. The second is the psychodynamic mechanism of the evolution of Confucianism. Confucianism developed through constant discussion of the "physical origin" of virtue. Why does this problem keep coming up? How did Later Confucianism form a doctrine with different but complementary ideas around this issue? What are the general characteristics of the development of Confucianism? Third, the fundamental challenge and response of Confucianism in today's society. What is the spiritual essence of the challenges that Confucianism has faced since modern times? How can the rationality of Confucianism be demonstrated and enhanced in a way that conforms to the spirit of the times, so that it can re-enter the hearts of the masses? This book presents its own views on these issues. Although subjectively trying our best, discussing ancient abstract issues such as the mind in an empirical academic way is somewhat contrary to the "taboo" of traditional Confucian scholarship, and may also be inappropriate. Therefore, wait for teaching. Jing Huaibin, April 30, 2017(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
景怀斌.心理层面的儒家思想[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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景怀斌.心理层面的儒家思想.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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景怀斌(2017).心理层面的儒家思想.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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