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一百多年来吴语句法类型演变研究:基于西儒吴方言文献的考察

A study on the evolution of syntactic types in wu language in the past 100 years: based on the literature of wu dialect of western Confucianism

ISBN:978-7-5161-6255-2

出版日期:2015-06

页数:417

字数:436.0千字

点击量:5592次

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基金信息: 教育部人文社科基金 展开
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图书简介

素娥索序,初以为她欲出版以自己的博士学位论文为基础的书稿,但翻阅过后,却发现内容之丰富,令人目不暇接,研究之深入,已远非当年博士论文可比拟,令人刮目相看。记得素娥是复旦百年校庆那一年毕业的,近十年来她孜孜不倦追求学问,尤其是极力搜求并研究传教士方言文献,能有今天的成绩也是理所当然。

素娥的书稿研究一百多年来吴语句法类型的历史演变,是吴语历史句法学和吴语句法类型学的佳作。此作的重要特点是以近代西儒吴语文献为语料。

西洋传教士的方言学著作对研究汉语方言的重要性,早就有人注意,例如罗常培1932年就曾发表论文《西洋人研究中国方音的成绩及其缺点》(《世界日报》国语周刊72期)。但是似乎向来评价不高,为学界所忽视。一直到20世纪80年代,方言学界才重拾遗珠,至今渐渐形成研究高潮。不过研究者和旁观者都有一个普遍的疑问,即这些文献记录方言是否准确?是否有许多书面语成分?关于这个问题可以专题讨论。这里仅就在书稿所引罗马字本《温州土白马太福音》中的三个例子略加分析。

例1,“眙着丈母娘热病躺是搭。”案:此例中的“躺”温州口语不用,与之相对应的口语词是“翻”。

例2,“伉差人相伴坐搭,要眙箇起事干个结果。”案:“希望得到”义的“要”,温州口语读音是[i5],本字是“爱”。写做“要”,是写书面语。“要”是训读字。例1中的“躺”也是训读字。

用汉字记录方言词,有时不用这个词的本字或原字,而借用一个同义字或近义字来记录,这个被借用的字即是训读字,这个字的读音仍按本字或原字的读音读,称为训读音。温州话借用“要”字记录“爱”这个词。“爱”即是本字,“要”即是训读字。其读音仍按原字读作i5(e5的音变),不按“要”的本音读作iɛ5。记录方言词用训读字是常见的现象。从这个角度来看,以上两例不能算错误。

例3,“其大家变爻面色。”案:这句话通常的说法应该是“其大家(人)面色变爻”。因为温州话是话题优先方言,“面色”通常前置于动词。译者采用动宾语序,应该是照搬原文的语序,即是“死译”(翻译学上的所谓异化译法)结果。对此类语料或可回避采用。

总之,利用传教士文献研究方言语法,应无大碍。

所谓传教士方言文献,大致包括三大类:方言学著作、方言《圣经》和方言杂书。大家采用比较多的是第一类文献。第二类“方言圣经”用作方言句法比较研究有一个极大的好处是,语料有高度一致性和可比性。就是说各种方言的不同说法,都可以追溯到圣经里的同一个句子。这本书稿研究吴语句法类型学,就大量采用方言圣经语料,这是很有见地的。方言《圣经》又分罗马字本和汉字本两小类,其中罗马字本因为须转写成汉字,采用时又要多下一番工夫,故采用者较少。本书稿却大量采用罗马字本的语料,足见作者的勤奋是在一般之上。不过国内语言学者对方言《圣经》并未充分重视和利用,不无遗憾。至于第三类“方言杂书”,例如用上海话写的《三个小姐》《造洋饭法》《油拉八国》(讲欧洲地理),则至今几无人采用,就连这些文献本身,也十分罕见,而这类文献,对历史句法和词汇研究却是大有价值的,令人扼腕。

游汝杰

序于上海景明花园

2015年1月

At first, Su'e thought that she wanted to publish a manuscript based on her doctoral dissertation, but after reading it, she found that the content was rich and dizzying, and the depth of research was far from comparable to the doctoral dissertation of that year. I remember that Su'e graduated in the year of the 100th anniversary of Fudan University, and in the past ten years, she has tirelessly pursued knowledge, especially the search and research of missionary dialect literature, and it is natural that she can have today's achievements. Su'e's manuscript studies the historical evolution of Wu syntactic types over the past hundred years, and is a masterpiece of Wu historical syntactic and Wu syntactic typology. An important feature of this work is that it is based on modern Western Confucian-Wu texts. The importance of the dialectological works of Western missionaries to the study of Chinese dialects has long been noted, for example, Luo Changpei published a paper in 1932 entitled "The Achievements of Westerners in the Study of Chinese Dialects and Their Disadvantages" (World Journal, Chinese Weekly No. 72). However, it seems that it has always been poorly evaluated and ignored by the academic community. It was not until the 80s of the 20th century that the dialectology community regained its pearls, and it has gradually formed a research climax. But researchers and onlookers alike have a common question: Are these documented dialects accurate. Are there many written language components? This issue could be discussed on a thematic basis. Here is only a brief analysis of three examples from the Roman text "The Gospel of Wenzhou Tubai Matthew" cited in the manuscript. Example 1, "Lying down with fever in my mother-in-law." Case: The "lying" Wenzhou colloquial word in this example is not used, and the corresponding colloquial word is "turn". Example 2, "Sending people to sit with each other, you have to do something to get a result." "Case: "Hope to get" the meaning of "want", Wenzhou colloquial pronunciation is [i5], the original word is "love". Writing as "want" means writing the written word. "Want" is the precept word. The word "lying" in Example 1 is also a premonitive word. Use Chinese characters to record dialect words, sometimes not using the original or original character of the word, but borrowing a synonym or synonym to record, this borrowed character is the Xun reading character, the pronunciation of this character is still pronounced according to the pronunciation of the original character or the original character, called Xun Yin Yin. Wenzhou dialect borrows the word "want" to record the word "love". "Love" is the word, and "want" is the word for reading. Its pronunciation is still pronounced i5 (the transliteration of e5) according to the original word, and it is not pronounced iɛ5 according to the original pronunciation of "want". It is common to record dialect words and read them with admonitions. From this point of view, the above two examples cannot be considered errors. Example 3, "Everyone turns pale." Case: The usual phrase for this sentence should be "everyone (people) turn pale." Because Wenzhou dialect is a topic-first dialect, "complexion" is usually preceded by a verb. The translator adopts the verb-object order, which should be copied from the word order of the original text, that is, the result of "dead translation" (the so-called alienated translation method in translation). Such corpus may be circumvented. In short, the use of missionary literature to study the grammar of dialects should be fine. The so-called missionary dialect literature roughly includes three categories: dialectological works, dialect Bibles, and dialect miscellaneous books. The first type of literature is more widely used. The second type of "dialect Bible" used as a comparative study of dialect syntax has the great advantage of having a high degree of consistency and comparability of the corpus. That is, different sayings in various dialects can be traced back to the same sentence in the Bible. The manuscript of this book studies the typology of Wu syntax, and makes extensive use of dialect biblical corpus, which is very insightful. The dialect Bible is divided into two subcategories: romaji and Chinese characters, among which romaji have to be transcribed into Chinese characters, and it takes more effort to adopt them, so there are fewer adopters. However, the manuscript of this book uses a large number of Romaji corpus, which shows that the author's diligence is above the average. However, domestic linguists have not paid sufficient attention to and used the dialect Bible, which is not without regret. As for the third type of "dialect miscellaneous books", such as "Three Ladies", "The Method of Making Foreign Rice" and "Youla Eight Kingdoms" written in Shanghainese, which are hardly used so far, even these documents themselves are very rare, and such documents are of great value to the study of historical syntax and vocabulary. You Rujie in Shanghai Jingming Garden, January 2015(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
林素娥.一百多年来吴语句法类型演变研究:基于西儒吴方言文献的考察[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
林素娥.一百多年来吴语句法类型演变研究:基于西儒吴方言文献的考察.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
林素娥(2015).一百多年来吴语句法类型演变研究:基于西儒吴方言文献的考察.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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