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伊斯兰教法:经典传统与现代诠释

ISBN:978-7-5161-0494-1

出版日期:2011-10

页数:322

字数:310.0千字

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在伊斯兰教里,伊斯兰教法专称“沙里亚”(Sharī'a)。“沙里亚”一词,阿拉伯语本义指“通向水源的道路”,引申为“行为”、“道路”。《古兰经》中称“常道”,意即“真主的大道”、“真主的常道”和“古人的常道”等。圣训中则称“先知的逊奈”。与沙里亚相对应的一个词称为“费格海”(Figh)。在阿拉伯语中“费格海”有“通晓”、“了解”之意,通常译为“伊斯兰教法学”,指研究《古兰经》、圣训律例的法律学说,特指伊斯兰教法学家所创制的法律制度。“沙里亚”就其本身的性质说来是“真主的大法”,只能成为解释的对象而不能任意予以改变。但其发展却离不开教法学家的诠释,教法学家使亘古不变的立法原则同“当代需要”结合起来。

选择伊斯兰教法为研究对象,笔者认为至少有两个原因:第一,教法是伊斯兰教的核心;第二,是教法与伊斯兰宪政和穆斯林生活极为密切,是看得见摸得着的。研究它不仅对我国有益而且对世界的发展和人类社会的进步无疑有积极的现实意义。面对占世界人口六分之一的穆斯林社会这样一个庞大群体存在的基本事实,我们应该对伊斯兰教法的现实影响予以足够的重视。

拙作在占有大量阿拉伯文、英文和中文文献第一手资料的基础上,借鉴国内外学者的研究成果,以宗教学研究方法为主,历史学、法学和政治学等相关研究方法为辅,对伊斯兰教法的传统地位和现实影响进行了较为深入的探讨。

拙作包括绪论、正文和结语三大部分。

绪论 主要论述了伊斯兰教法的基本概况、本拙著研究的理论依据和实践意义、基本结构和内容、国内外教法研究的现状、拙作的创新点与特色及不足。通过绪论,使学术界对伊斯兰教法能有一个总体的认识,并注意它在穆斯林群体中发挥的作用和其在现实社会中的影响。

正文 论文在继承前人研究的基础上,以7章的篇幅来揭示主题。

首先,论述伊斯兰教法的历史背景、理论渊源及其传统内容。这部分内容包括以下4章。

第一章,伊斯兰教法概述。论述了伊斯兰教法产生的社会背景和理论渊源、伊斯兰教法学派的形成、伊斯兰教法的基本内容和伊斯兰教法的流播等。

第二章,宗教义务。主要论述净仪和“六大信仰”及“念”、“礼”、“斋”、“课”、“朝”五功等。

第三章,伊斯兰教民法。因为伊斯兰教民法包括的内容比较广泛,在此不可能尽述。故,本章主要探讨了婚姻家庭、遗产继承和卧格夫制度。首先,对婚姻家庭法作了论述,注重讨论了婚姻制度和家庭制度。其次,对遗产继承法涉及的“法定”继承、遗嘱继承和遗赠进行了详细论述。再次,考证了卧格夫的渊源、详细论述了卧格夫的种类及其性质和部分国家的改革等。

第四章,刑法。伊斯兰教刑法包括固定刑罚、同态复仇刑罚和酌定刑的惩罚三大部分。首先,引经据典,详细地阐释了叛教、叛乱、盗窃、抢劫、通奸、诽谤和酗酒等固定刑及刑罚;其次,重点论述同态复仇刑及刑罚的渊源、证据及血金赔偿等;再次,阐述酌定刑的范围及认定、酌定刑罚的传统方式以及证据(举证)、血金赔偿、法官职权等。

其次,以历史与现实相结合的方法,提出两大问题予以深入探讨。一是伊斯兰教法与战争和和平,二是伊斯兰教法与人权。这两个问题的时代特征是显而易见的。从正反两方面进行了尊重事实的论述,力图消除因受西方思想影响在人们观念中对伊斯兰教法失之偏颇的看法和给予的不公正评价,以助于更好地把握当今对伊斯兰世界和伊斯兰教法的研究。

第五章,集中探讨了伊斯兰教的和平与战争法的基本内容、教法传统中对“和平区”和“战争区”的划分及传统吉哈德思想在现当代的演变。在讨论“两区”时,引证教法学家的论点,对“两区”的概念、性质以及简单划分“和平区”和“战争区”而造成的后果进行了比较详细地论述。

第六章,论述伊斯兰教法与人权。重点探讨了伊斯兰教法中的人权概念、人权适用范围;对伊斯兰教“义务先于权利”的人权观予以深入讨论,认为伊斯兰教法的人权旨在调整真主与人之间的“隶属”关系和人与人之间的“平衡”关系;在讨论伊斯兰教法与人权实践时,对东西方学者关注、争论最多的伊斯兰教法中的妇女地位和非穆斯林权利进行了客观而又公正的论述。

最后,结合中国穆斯林实际,就伊斯兰教法对中国穆斯林的影响给予了充分的论述。

第七章,以伊斯兰教传入中国的历史线索为背景,结合中国穆斯林实际,就教法对中国穆斯林的影响给予了充分的论述。涉及唐宋时期的“蕃制”(蕃坊制度)、元代的“回回法”、明清时期伊斯兰教法的本土化、民国以来的伊斯兰教法及其与当代中国穆斯林的宗教实践等。通过这些历史的论述和研究,以期对当代中国穆斯林有所借鉴,使制度化的宗教及其信仰者能够更好地为当代中国社会的稳定与发展做出应有的贡献。就前人的成果来看,尚未有研究中国伊斯兰教法或伊斯兰教法在中国演化的文论,祈望起到抛砖引玉的作用。

结语 笔者认为,1.从历史事实和宗教义理角度,对“沙里亚”、“伊斯兰教法”、“伊斯兰法”或“伊斯兰法律”等概念进行了必要的界定。认为“沙里亚”是广义上的宗教律例和礼法制度,不是严格意义上的狭义的“法律”。2.传统教义是一种永远不能改变的定制,民法所包括的部分有灵活运用的巨大空间。3.应该正确客观地评价伊斯兰教法的吉哈德和人权思想,在坚持国际基本原则的前提下,允许各国依据自己的国情,逐步实现充分的人权。4.不同国度或不同地域的伊斯兰教,在保持基本特质的前提下,灵活运用教法“创制”的原则和精神,使其在现代社会中发挥有效的积极进取精神,为人类社会的发展做更大更有益的贡献。

Abstract

The word Shar'i a referring to Islamic law means“approach to water source”and is deduced to“behavior”,“path”in Arabic.Shari'a is called“way of Allah”in Quran and“sunna of the Prophet”in Hadith.Obviously,it is composed of precepts of God and behaviors of the Prophet.Another word about Islamic law is fiqh.Its original meaning in Arabic is“learning”or“understanding”,which always is translated to“Islamic jurisprudence”in English.Fiqh refers to study of law theory derived from Quran and Hadith,especially of inferences drawn by scholars from the sources of law.In a sense,fiqh is the“man-made law”.Comparatively,as the law of Allah in nature Shari'a is j ust an unchangebale obj ect of explenation.However,the fixed doctrine of Shari'a and the need of time are fused together by j urisprudents,and Shari'a in fact got changed.

There fore,there're at least two reasons for the study of Shari'a.Firstly,Shari'a is the core of the Islam;secondly,it has close relationship with Moslem society,which is visible and sensible.The study has a great realistic significance for both China and the world development and human progress.With Human beings having entered the 21st century,co-existing and developing of diversifying culture has become the theme of times.Facing with the basic reality that the Muslim population takes up about one sixth of the world population,we should pay enough attention to the realistic influence of Shari'a.

Basing on a large number of first-hand English,Arabic and Chinese literatures and using the research results of other domestic and foreign scholars for reference,the paper discusses in depth the traditional position of Shari'a and it's influence to the reality.While mainly using the research methods for religion science,the author also applies relevant methods of other sciences as supplement,such as the science of history,sociology and laws.

The paper includes three sections:introduction,main body and conclusion.

Introduction.Above all,this part gives a brief presentation of Shar'i a.The theoretical argument and the practical significance,the framework and fundamental content of this paper are introduced then.Additionally,the current research of Shari'a are reviewed.Further more,the creative findings and the additional work remains to be done are pointed out.The introduction of this paper expects to give a general cognition of Shari'a to academia and arouse the research of Shari'a function in Muslem and its influence to the society in reality.

Main body.The subj ect will be discussed by chapter 7.The main body can be divided into three sections.

The first section(chapter1-4)discusses historical background,theoretical origin and tradition content of Shari'a.While describ.g its origin,evolution and historical forms according to the facts,the paper relatively accurately discusses its basic content which includes religion incumbency,civil law and criminal law.Though it seems repeat the previous research,there are still some new supplements.For example,it provides a more reasonable arrangement and new description for the civil law,extents and deepens the investigation of criminal law,as well as digs into the Hudud basic content of Hudud Crimes,Quesas Crimes and Ta'azīr Crimes.While discussing Ta'azīr Crimes ,more new contents such as testimony,pension compensation,j usticer's authority and criminal law application are also discussed as a complementarity so that the study is ad vanced greatly on the base of previous achievements.

The section two(Chapter5-6)proposes two questions,one of which is Shari'a,war and peace,and the other is Islam and human rights ,then discusses in detail.their characteristics of time of are easily observable

The Chapter 5 tries to center the discussion on the Islam ideas about war and peace,the basic content of its war law,division of the peaceful area and war area in the tradition of Sharia,as well as modern and contemporary evolution of traditional Jihad(holy war).While discussing“two areas”,by quoting some Shari'a scholars'viewpoints,the paper analyzes in detail its concept,nature and consequences resulted from simply dividing into“peaceful area”and“war area”.As we see,it is necessary to discriminate Jihad ideas of traditional religious significance from distorting or abusing of Jihad by some contemporary extremists,therefore to pay attention to positive and negative social influences of Jihad.

Chapter 6 deals with the relation of Shari'a and human rights.After making a review of human rights history,by taking“Universal Declaration of Human Rights”as frame of reference,this part elaborates on the human rights concept of Shari'a and its application.By digging into the Islam human concept of“duties before rights”,we believe that the aim of the human rights in Shari'a is to coordinate human beings'interdependence relation to Allah and”equilibrium relationship”In addition to among human beings themselves.For the issues of women status in Shari'a and non-Muslim rights,which have attracted most attention and disputes in academic circles,the paper tries to deal with them from an obj ective and neutral stand point,and argues that it's not advisable to take one method or any single nation's mind as the sole criterion for j udging human rights practice.Any nation should be permitted to eventually realize its people's human rights in accordance with fundamental realities of the country;at the same time,it should insist it's rights of cultural recognition and not to give up cultural tradition for the purpose of development.

In Section III,Chapter 7,the paper firstly describes the practice of Shari'a in China since Tang Yong-hui 2nd year(A.D651).The author believes Muslims in“Fan-fang,”the coast of southeast of China,were belong to Sunnite sect,as they were j ust fulfilling the basic religious obligations according to the Koran,Mohammed's behavior or speech and the canon law of four orthodox Caliphs period.Sharia was widely spread out in China by oral communication in the Song Dynasty and changed later accordingly subj ectively and obj ectively with expansion of hyphenated Muslims,which is necessary from a historical standpoint.In conclusion,Islam of Tang and Song Dynasty was basically a religion of foreign residents.While the religion practices were kept within the limits of religious obligations and civil law,penal laws was still charged by the Chinese government,with no socalled“Capitulations”there.Secondly,Islam experienced highest development in Yuan Dynasty.How to coordinate the relationships between Muslims,society and monarch is the main issues in that time.Therefore,the section focuses on the benign interaction between the majority of society and the Muslims in addition to the relations of the laws of Islam and of the realm.We found that Shari'a has experienced wide spreading and Chinese assimilation in Yuan Dynasty;moreover,with the wide spreading of Islam throughout China,it's civil law changed much because of interactive influences among different cultures,nationalities and legal systems.“Dual-faith”provided a solution for how to deal with nonMuslim monarch.Thirdly,since from Ming Dynasty,the law has been completely taken as the customs of the minorities who believed in Islam.After Sufilism Moslems was established in Qing Dynasty,the Islam law evolved the state of diversity from unity so that the ceremony system of”practicing internally and clarifying externally”was formed at that.

Conclusion.The author believes,firstly,by looking at the historical facts and religious theology,the so-called“Shari'a”is not the“Islamic law”according to law researchers.“Shari'a”is factually a set of religious rules and ceremony system based on the Koran and oracles of Allah and not a“law”technically.Secondly,the traditional Moslem theology is a system unable to change forever,but its civil law has left large space for flexible applying.Thirdly,we should evaluate Jihad of Islamic law and it's human rights ideas obj ectively and permit a nation gradually fulfill its human rights according to the realities of the country,while insisting the international basic laws.At last,on the premise of keeping its fundamental properties,Islam groups in different regions or countries should apply the“creation”spirits of Islamic theology into the development of modern society.

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
哈宝玉.伊斯兰教法:经典传统与现代诠释[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2011
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MLA 格式引文
哈宝玉.伊斯兰教法:经典传统与现代诠释.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2011E-book.
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APA 格式引文
哈宝玉(2011).伊斯兰教法:经典传统与现代诠释.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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