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诗意德育论

A theory of poetic moral education

ISBN:978-7-5161-1421-6

出版日期:2012-11

页数:378

字数:397.0千字

丛书名:《传承与发展:教育科学探索丛书》

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图书简介

中国是一个“兴于诗”、“重于教” 的国家,其中“诗教” 是中华民族传统教育的精华。但在近代教育发展历程中,一度奉“理性教育” 为圭臬,在移植、借鉴日本、苏联以及其他西方教育思想的时候有意或无意地淡漠了传统教育思想的传承与发扬,使得当前的教育,尤其是德育成为“非诗意” 与“非民族” 的存在。一个有着悠久文化教育历史的国家在“面向世界、面向未来、面向现代化” 发展教育的同时,还必须珍惜和发扬自己民族的教育传统,只有这样才能够培养出对国家建设、民族兴盛以及世界文明作出积极贡献的人才。

在新的历史时期,如何弘扬传统“诗教”,改变德育规训的言说方式,弥补纯粹理性价值取向德育的不足之处?冯铁山于2001年借着新课改的东风,着手探索挖掘中华民族文化的诗意元素,将“诗” 的教学引入课堂,指导一线教师开展“新诗进课堂” 实验,组织编写了《诗意语文学本》,进而发展成为全国教育科学“十五” 规划课题“新诗教实验”。在不增课时、不择生源的前提下,实验取得了显著成效。查有梁先生高度评价实验成果,认为这是中华“诗教” 的与时俱进,是在继承传统文化精华基础上的创新。冯铁山2007年考入陕西师范大学教育学院教育学原理专业,攻读博士学位,成为我的博士生。在读博的三年时间里,他以前期的实验研究为基础,通过阅读大量的文献资料,直接以“诗意德育研究” 作为博士学位论文选题,展开了对诗教德育化问题深入而系统的研究,把先前的实验与理论推进到一个全新的层次和水平。选题不仅列入陕西师范大学优秀博士学位论文资助项目,而且2009年成功申报并立项为国家社科基金“十一五” 国家项目。论文完成后,经过国内教育界、文学界十余名著名专家的评审,评审专家和答辩委员对该论文给予了高度评价,一致认为是一篇优秀的博士论文。他的这部《诗意德育论》就是在博士论文基础上发展而成的课题研究成果。

判断、确立并追求教育某一领域或某一问题的研究价值,是教育专业人员从事教育理论与教育实践探索的内在动因。冯铁山将传统诗教发展成为“诗意德育” 有何价值呢?

从研究的逻辑前提看,人的存在和存在方式是全部人学研究由之出发的一个前提性问题,自然也是诗意德育研究的逻辑起点问题。马克思指出:“整个所谓世界历史不外是人通过人的劳动而诞生的过程,是自然界对人说来的生成过程。”2847682 他把人的存在界定为实践的存在,从而提供了关于人存在的总体性把握。按照马克思实践哲学思想,人通过劳动而生成,通过实践而自立,实践是人特有的“自由自觉的活动”。马克思的这种“实践存在说” 为诗意德育理论的构建和实践提供了基本的思维方法。从主体实践的范围和层次看,人的实践是人以自己自然的感性为基础,并通过物质工具这一中介,去改造物质世界的活动。这可以引导德育工作者把教育对象看做自然存在、社会存在和精神存在的结合体。从实践的方式与手段看,人必须借助劳动工具、精神或符号去认识自然、社会、自我,因此人的存在可划分为类存在、群体存在和个体存在三种形态。这三种存在浓缩到个体身上,分别表示着人的个别形态、特殊形态和一般形态。这有利于指导教育者把握德育工作的共在性与独特性、现实性与可能性。从实践的过程与结果看,人能够按照“人的尺度” 和“物的尺度” 去认识客观世界,正如马克思认为的人“懂得按照任何一个种的尺度来进行生产,并且按照美的规律来建造世界”;而动物活动只生产自身,其生产具有片面性,“只是按照它所属的那个种的尺度和需要来建造”2847683这可以引导教育者认识德育对象的主体性以及他们德性发展的自觉性与创造性。从总的发展趋势来看,人的实践是逐步由自在走向自觉,由他在走向自由与创造的活动;在活动的过程中,人的自主性与主体性不断增强。因此,德育也应该处于开放性的存在状态,处于合乎规律性与目的性统一的创造旅途。

从研究的文化基础看,中华民族教育历来都有家长或师者以“诗”教子或示儿、以“诗” 教生,从而化育子、生的道德品质的传统。孔子创造性地提出“立于礼,兴于诗,成于乐” 的璀璨思想观点,将诗和道德修养内源性地紧密联系起来,进而催生并实践了诗教的教育形式和方法。他告诫弟子:“不学《诗》,无以言” (《论语·季氏》),以《诗》作为成就理想人格的重要工具与根本途径,反映在道德认知方面就是“小子何莫学乎《诗》?《诗》可以兴,可以观,可以群,可以怨。迩之事父,远之事君,多识于鸟兽草木之名”(《论语·阳货》)。通过“诗” 的导引,受教育者不仅在“兴观群怨” 中明白侍奉父母的道理,还可以在“连类引譬” 中练就侍奉君长的技能,习得政治、外交的才能;而且,还可以扩大知识面,认识大量鸟兽草木的名称,学习自然知识。这就是说,诗教既可使受教育者回归生活,学会做事,学会做人,学会学习;还有助于他们通过富有人格化与对象化的象征物去反躬自身,比类人的生活,实现“自然人” 向“社会人” 乃至“自我人” 的层层转化,促使他们自主超越各种既定的对象性关系,将自我德性的塑造融贯到道德认知方面。

从研究的现实意义看,任何德育都是目的性与规律性统一的教育活动,其统一就体现在是否尊重受教育者的需要以及遵循德育本身固有的规律。其中,知情意与“行” 的圆融是教育目标达成的关键。如何规范并导引受教育者的道德行为?传统规训教化式德育是一种通过传输和强化道德规范知识而建立起来的道德教育体系。这种道德教育以要求受教育者接受既定的道德教育规范知识,遵守和服从既定的、明确的和统一的道德规范要求,并以外部约束来保证其实施效率为主要特征,带有明显的主客二元的、分离性的和单纯外施性的特点,难以进入和谐完美的道德教育境界。先秦儒家提出道德行为的培养需要“博学之、审问之、慎思之、明辨之、笃行之”(《礼记·中庸》);而明代学者王阳明付诸实践,率领弟子“每日轮值一班歌诗,其余静听,每五日各班唱于本学,每逢朔望则合唱于书院”284768420 世纪二三十年代,陶行知先生和徐特立先生也尝试采用诗教的形式导引学生形成良好的道德行为——发现学生优点、长处就写诗赞扬;发现学生缺点、错误就写诗批评。诗意德育研究革故鼎新,把“言语实践” 作为道德教育的本体,注重发挥诗意言说的导向、凝聚、动力等功能,从自在与自为的维度去创设诗意情感场,让导引者和体验者同时生活在情感场内进行全息式的体验与感悟,共同地、互动地相互诱发和唤醒个体或群体德性发展的主动性与主体性,在领悟自然诗意、社会诗意、自我诗意的过程中,对外在于自己的道德规范发生切己的融通与理解,从而化作自觉的行为;通过“诗” 一般典雅语言的暗示与导引,教育者和受教育者都是自觉自愿地在言语实践活动中,在“学、问、思、辨、行” 过程中将道德行为的修养变为自觉、自动的习惯。诗意德育不仅可以剔除道德教育的虚伪性,使道德教育实践变得意趣盎然;更由于改变单一传输道德规范知识的做法,凭借“感知行为中主观运动着的身体”2847685 理解、融通并建构生存实践中的各种关系,促使导引者和体验者的生命在自我解构与建构中印证着自身存在的价值和意义;赋予自然、社会以及自我以审美的观照与积极的意义,从而创造出丰满的人生和可能的生活。这种实践的实质就是超越了主客体二元对立的思维方式,超越了自我有限的存在,使人的生命成为一种自由自觉的存在。

冯铁山为人诚恳谦逊,勤奋好学,更难能可贵的是,他具有勇于实践的探索精神。作为一名大学教师,他多年深入一线,与老师们结成亲密的伙伴式合作研究关系,登上中小学讲坛与教师们一道磨课、上课,展现了一个直面现实问题又善于沟通、交往、对话的学者风采。值此专著付梓发行之际,我希望这本书能够产生积极的社会影响,并期待他在已有的研究基础上进一步深入下去,力争为弘扬中华传统教育精华作出更大的贡献。

栗洪武

2012年4月18日

于陕西师范大学

China is a country of "poetry" and "education", among which "poetry education" is the essence of traditional Chinese education. But in the modern education development course, once served as "rational education", the migration, draw lessons from Japan, the Soviet union and other western education thought consciously or unconsciously indifference when inheritance and carry forward the traditional education ideas, makes the current education, especially moral education become the "poetic" and "the existence of a nation". When a country with a long history of education culture develops education "facing the world, future and modernization", it must also cherish and carry forward its own national education tradition. Only in this way can it cultivate talents who make positive contributions to national construction, national prosperity and world civilization.

in the new historical period, how to carry forward the traditional "poetry teaching", change the way of saying moral education discipline, make up for the deficiency of moral education of pure rational value orientation? Feng Tieshan in 2001 by the new curriculum reform, to explore the poetic elements of mining of Chinese national culture, to the introduction of the "poem" teaching classroom, guide the front-line teachers to carry out the "new poetry into classroom" experiment, organizes the poetic literature book, and then developed into the national education science "fifteen" planning subject "poetry teaching experiment". Under the premise of not increasing class hours and not selecting students, the experiment has achieved remarkable results. Mr. Zha youliang spoke highly of the experimental results, holding that this is the advance with The Times of Chinese "poetry teaching" and an innovation based on inheriting the essence of traditional culture. In 2007, feng tieshan was admitted to education college of shaanxi normal university, majoring in principles of pedagogy. He studied for a doctor's degree and became my doctoral student. During the three years of his doctoral study, he took the preliminary experimental research as the basis, read a large number of literature materials, and directly selected "the study of poetic moral education" as the topic of his doctoral thesis, carried out an in-depth and systematic study on the moral education of poetry education, and pushed the previous experiments and theories to a new level and level. The selected topic was not only listed in the excellent doctoral dissertation funding project of shaanxi normal university, but also successfully applied for and approved as the "11th five-year plan" national project of national social science fund in 2009. After the completion of the thesis, it was evaluated by more than ten famous experts in the domestic education and literary circles. The evaluation experts and the defense committee gave high comments on the thesis, and all agreed that it was an excellent doctoral thesis. His "poetic moral education" is based on the doctoral thesis developed from the research results. The intrinsic motivation for education professionals to engage in education theory and education practice exploration is to judge, establish and pursue the research value of a certain field or a certain issue of education. What is the value of feng tieshan developing traditional poetry education into "poetic moral education"?

from the perspective of the logical premise of the study, the existence and mode of existence of human beings is a leading issue of all human studies, and it is also the logical starting point of the study of poetic moral education. Marx pointed out: "the whole so-called world history is nothing but the process of man's birth through man's labor and the process of nature's generation for man. He defined human existence as the existence of practice, thus providing the overall grasp of human existence. According to Marx's philosophy of practice, man is born through labor and stands on his own feet through practice, which is a unique "free and conscious activity" of man. Marx's theory of practical existence provides a basic thinking method for the construction and practice of poetic moral education theory. From the perspective of the scope and level of subjective practice, human practice is an activity in which human beings transform the material world based on their own natural sensibility and through the medium of material tools. This can lead moral educators to regard education as a combination of natural existence, social existence and spiritual existence. Seen from the way and means of practice, people must know nature, society and themselves with the help of labor tools, spirit or symbols. Therefore, human existence can be divided into three forms: class existence, group existence and individual existence. These three kinds of existence condense to the individual, respectively representing the individual form, special form and general form of human being. This is conducive to guiding educators to grasp the universality, uniqueness, reality and possibility of moral education. From the process and results of practice, people can understand the objective world according to the "human scale" and "the scale of things", just as Marx thought that people "know how to produce according to the scale of any kind, and build the world according to the law of beauty"; However, animal activity only produces itself, and its production is one-sided. "it is only constructed according to the scale and needs of the species to which it belongs" 2847683, which can guide educators to know the subjectivity of moral education objects and their consciousness and creativity of moral development. From the general trend of development, man's practice is gradually from free to conscious, from his activities towards freedom and creation; In the process of activities, people's autonomy and subjectivity are constantly enhanced. Therefore, moral education should also be in the open state of being, in the creation of the unity of regularity and purpose. From the perspective of the cultural basis of the research, the Chinese nation education has always had the tradition that parents or teachers teach their children by "poetry", and teach their students by "poetry", so as to cultivate their moral quality. Confucius creatively put forward the brilliant idea of "being based on ceremony, thriving in poetry, and achieving success in music", which closely linked poetry and moral cultivation endogenously, and then gave birth to and practiced the education form and method of poetry teaching. He warned his disciples: "if you don't learn" shi ", there is no way to speak "(ji shi, analects of Confucius). "Poetry" can xing, can view, can group, can complain. You of matter father, far of matter gentleman, much knowledge at bird beast grass and trees of name "(" the analects of Confucius · Yang goods"). Through the guidance of "poetry", the educated can not only understand the truth of serving their parents in "xingguan group resentment", but also practice the skills of serving their leaders in "connecting classes and analogy", so as to acquire political and diplomatic talents. In addition, it can also expand the scope of knowledge, know the names of a large number of animals and plants, learn natural knowledge. That is to say, poetry teaching can make the educated return to life, learn to do things, learn to behave, learn to learn; It also helps them to reflect on themselves through personification and objectification symbols, compare the life of human-like people, realize the transformation from "natural person" to "social person" and even "self person", promote them to transcend various established objective relations independently, and integrate the shaping of self-virtue into moral cognition. From the practical significance of research, any moral education is a education activity with a unified purpose and regularity, which is reflected in whether to respect the needs of the educated and follow the inherent rules of moral education. Among them, the harmony of understanding and action is the key to achieve the goal of education. How to regulate and guide the moral behavior of the educated? Traditional moral education based on discipline is a moral education system established through the transmission and reinforcement of moral standard knowledge. This moral education to educatee accept established morals education knowledge, abide by and obey the established, clear and unified code of ethics, and the external constraints to ensure that its operational efficiency as the main characteristics, with obvious subject-object binary, separability and simple applied characteristics, is difficult to enter the harmonious perfect moral education of the state. The Confucian school of the pre-qin dynasty proposed that the cultivation of moral behavior should be "erudite, inquisitive, deliberative, discerning and earnest" (the book of rites, the doctrine of the mean). And Ming dynasty scholar wang yangming into practice, led the disciple "daily rotation a class song poetry, the others listen, sing in this study, each 5 class at syzygy chorus in the academy" < footnote > 2847684 < / footnote > 20 or 30 s of the 20th century, Mr Tao's poetry and will also try to use in the form of a guiding students form good moral behavior, found that students write a poem praising advantages, strengths; Find the students shortcomings, mistakes on writing poetry criticism. Completely-new poetic moral education research, the words "practice" as the noumenon of moral education, pay attention to play to the poetic narration of guidance, condensation, power, and other functions, from the dimension of comfortable and literature to create poetic emotion, make guidance and experience life in emotional field holographic experience and comprehension, collectively, interactive to each other cause and awaken individual or group of virtue development initiative and subjectivity, to comprehend the natural poetry, social poetry, poetry in the process of the self, is foreign to his own moral standard cut his own accommodation and understanding, thus into conscious behavior; Through the implication and guidance of the elegant language of "poetry", both the educator and the educated voluntarily change the cultivation of moral behavior into a conscious and automatic habit in the process of "learning, asking, thinking, distinguishing and acting". Poetic moral education can not only eliminate the falsity of moral education, but also make the practice of moral education become interesting. In addition, due to the change of the single transmission of moral standard knowledge, "the body moving subjectively in perceptual behavior" is used to understand, integrate and construct various relationships in survival practice, so as to promote the life of the guide and experiencer to verify the value and significance of their own existence in self-deconstruction and construction. Endow nature, society and self with aesthetic reflection and positive significance, thus creating a full life and possible life. The essence of this kind of practice is that it transcends the thinking mode of dualistic opposition between subject and object, transcends the limited existence of self, and makes human life become a kind of free and conscious existence.

feng tieshan is sincere and humble, diligent and studious. What is more valuable is that he has the courage to practice the spirit of exploration. As a university teacher, he has been working in the front line for many years, forming a close partnership and cooperative research relationship with teachers. He has been on the rostrum of primary and secondary schools to grind and teach together with teachers, showing a scholar who is good at communication, communication and dialogue in face of real problems. On the occasion of the publication of this monograph, I hope this book can have a positive social impact, and look forward to his further study on the basis of existing research, and strive to promote the essence of traditional Chinese education to make greater contributions.

li hongwu

April 18, 2012

at shaanxi normal university

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冯铁山.诗意德育论[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2012
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冯铁山.诗意德育论.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2012E-book.
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