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中国南海海陆经济一体化研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-3852-6

出版日期:2013-12

页数:457

字数:499.0千字

丛书名:《中国—东盟经贸发展与南海战略系列丛书》

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纵观五千年中华文明史,人们想到的往往是无比璀璨的内陆文明,对于我们海洋文明方面的积极作为和卓越成就则较为忽视,连近代著名哲学家黑格尔都曾说过,中国是一个与海“不发生积极关系”的国家。其实,中国自古以来就是一个“背陆面海”的国家,既有广袤的陆地国土,亦有辽阔的海洋国土,在创造辉煌陆地文明的同时,也创造了先进的海洋文明。据考古学者考证,数万年前生活在这片古老国土上的原始先民即已开始接触海洋,对海洋进行有组织的探索,从海洋中获取食物资源。随后,建造船舶开展海外交通,《周易》中“刳木为舟,剡木为楫,舟楫之利,以济不通,致远以利天下”是对三皇五帝时期造舟方法和舟船价值的记载。《尚书》中“岛夷卉服,厥篚织贝,厥包橘、柚、锡贡。沿于江海、达于淮泗”记载的是当时与海外“岛夷”国的交通经济联系。殷商以后始建海港,以进一步加强与海外的贸易交流,《史记·货殖列传》中“番禺,亦其一都会也,珠玑、犀、玳瑁、果、布之凑”记载的则是我国殷商早期海港——“番禺港”的海外贸易交换产品之情况。春秋战国时期沿海诸侯国除了重视对海洋之探索,还颇重视对各自的所属海域利益之保护,由此萌发海权意识并着手组织海上武装。秦汉以后,海洋文明始为兴盛,特别是汉武帝以后,开辟了与南海诸国及印度半岛等地的水上交通线路,从事经常性的贸易往来,这就是著名的“海上丝绸之路”。盛唐时期,与海外诸国经济贸易往来频繁,在沿海兴建大型港口,海上交通更为发达,从登州、扬州等港出发,可到达今日之日韩,从广州出发,经海上“丝绸之路”则可到达波斯湾。两宋时期,海外贸易更为繁荣,港口与海上交通进一步发展。至明,郑和率舰队七下西洋,其规模之大、人数之多、时间之长、航程之远,创当时世界绝无仅有之奇迹,既扬国威,又大大加强了与海外诸国之政治经济联系。但也就是明朝开始禁海锁国,从朱元璋屡屡禁海至明中期后的“片板不许入海”,再至清朝的进一步禁海,中华民族长期兴盛的海洋文明走向衰落,与同期世界海洋文明的蓬勃发展形成鲜明对比。禁海锁国政策的实行,使中国丧失了对外贸易的主动权,阻碍了资本主义萌芽的发展,隔阻了与先进文明的交流与对接,招致近代列强的不断侵略,中华文明从此开始全面衰落。“实现中华民族伟大复兴”,这是伟大的“中国梦”。复兴海洋文明,实现海洋强国则可以说是中国伟大的“海洋梦”。“海洋梦”是实现“中国梦”的重要组成部分,也是实现“中国梦”的重要战略和路径。围绕这一梦想,近代仁人志士有着深邃的思考,最为著名的代表人物魏源著《海国图志》,前所未有地提出构建“大海国”的理想蓝图。近代以来的几代领导人从孙中山开始,以其伟大政治家特有的智慧和战略眼光,高瞻远瞩地提出了海洋强国的思想理念。孙中山倡导积极发展海洋实业,争取中国海洋权益。毛泽东十分重视海军建设和发展海洋事业,提出一定要建设强大的海军。邓小平也十分重视海军力量建设,多次强调“发展海洋事业,振兴国家经济”,并创造性地提出“搁置争议,共同开发”的解决岛争的远见卓识。以江泽民同志为核心的第三代领导人,在中共十六大首次提出“实施海洋开发战略的目标”。以胡锦涛同志为总书记的中央领导集体强调要增强海洋意识,首次公开宣示中国是海洋大国。中共十八大报告中,建设海洋强国正式纳入国家大战略。习近平总书记在2013年7月30日主持中共中央政治局第八次集体学习时强调,建设海洋强国是中国特色社会主义事业的重要组成部分;2013年10月习近平总书记在访问东盟国家时提出“建设21世纪海上丝绸之路”的重大战略构想。仁人志士和伟大政治家的海洋思想构成了中国“海洋梦”的丰富内涵。怎样实现“海洋梦”?中国共产党十七届五中全会通过国民经济和社会发展“十二五”规划纲要,明确提出“坚持陆海统筹,制定和实施海洋发展战略,提高海洋开发、控制、综合治理能力,推进海洋经济发展”,可以说,“陆海统筹”和“陆海一体化”(两者既有联系又有区别)是实现“海洋梦”或“海洋强国”战略的重要途径和方式。广义而言,“陆海统筹”是在充分认识我国具有陆地大国和海洋大国双层属性的基础上,把陆域和海域作为整体战略统筹谋划;狭义而言,“陆海统筹”主要属于区域经济范畴,即整合区域内的陆域和海域资源优势,以促进区域经济发展。“陆海经济统筹”和“陆海经济一体化”是目前“陆海统筹”和“陆海一体化”研究的主流方向。实践层面,国家开始大力推进,2013年1月23日,国务院正式批复《浙江舟山群岛新区发展规划》,明确要求新区积极探索海洋经济科学发展新路径,努力打造海洋海岛综合保护开发新模式,不断创新陆海统筹协调机制,切实推进舟山群岛新区开发开放和又好又快发展,成为全国陆海统筹发展的先行区和示范区。山东、广东等地亦积极开始了类似的探索。关于“陆海经济一体化”或“海陆经济一体化”,国内外虽然提出了相关概念,也进行了相关研究,但大多数研究较为分散和零乱,本书《中国南海海陆经济一体化研究》旨在对这一领域进行全新、系统的探索,力求在以下几个方面形成自己的特色和创新:一是视角独特,从南海问题切入,把国家海洋战略和南海战略紧密联系在一起,即从全新的视角研究海陆经济一体化的理论与实践,同时为有效解决南海问题,维护南海安全稳定提供新的战略思考。二是视野开阔,以南海为“中心区”,根据南海地区开发和利用南海资源的程度,以及地理位置、海陆交通情况、海陆经济联动能力和海陆产业结构差异等因素,将中国南海海陆经济一体化空间层次划分为南海中心区、内陆辐射区、国际合作区,从国内外更为广阔的视野展开研究。三是理论创新,对海陆经济一体化内涵、特征、范畴、动力、机制等基本理论进行较为系统的创造性研究,如从区位论角度揭示海陆经济一体化的特征,同时,基于海洋经济区位和陆域经济区位的联动与协调,科学界定海陆经济一体化的范畴,研究提出海陆经济空间、资源产业、生产要素、基础设施、生态环境等六个方面的一体化并将其贯穿于全书的研究中。四是关注现实,重视理论创新和现实关注的高度融合,既研究海陆经济一体化对于维护南海安全稳定、促进海洋强国战略实施、推动打造中国—东盟自贸区“升级版”、深化与港澳台的合作等方面的重大战略意义,同时以广西“海洋强区”为例,深入探讨海洋强国战略在地方区域层面的具体实践。五是方法创新,如设计海陆经济一体化总态势指标体系和其内各子系统一体化态势指标体系,并列举了关键指标的测度方法。2012年8月,夏飞教授率领学术团队申报国家社会科学基金重大项目《未来十年中国—东盟经贸格局演变与我国南海安全战略构建研究》(12&ZD041)获得批准,该项目遵循国家领导人“经济外交”的相关精神,力图通过进一步深化中国—东盟经贸合作,升级中国—东盟经贸关系影响和促进南海局势的安全稳定。该项目在中国社会科学出版社出版系列著作,其中《中国南海海陆经济一体化研究》是夏飞教授及其团队着力打造的一本具有全新体系的著作。自古以来,人类文明的历史与浩瀚的海洋有着密不可分的联系,两千五百年前古希腊海洋家狄未斯托克曾言:“谁控制了海洋,谁就控制了一切。”21世纪,人类更是进入了海洋的世纪。让我们抢抓机遇,共同研究海洋、开发海洋、保护海洋,助推“海洋梦”,共筑伟大的“中国梦”。是为序。国家行政学院经济学部主任中国公共经济研究会常务副会长

Throughout the 5,000-year history of Chinese civilization, people often think of the incomparably brilliant inland civilization, and ignore the positive deeds and outstanding achievements of our maritime civilization, and even the famous modern philosopher Hegel once said that China is a country that "does not have a positive relationship" with the sea. In fact, since ancient times, China has been a country with "back land and sea", with both vast land and vast maritime land, creating a brilliant land civilization and an advanced marine civilization at the same time. According to archaeologists, the primitive ancestors who lived in this ancient land tens of thousands of years ago began to contact the ocean, conduct organized exploration of the sea, and obtain food resources from the ocean. Subsequently, ships were built to carry out overseas transportation, and in "Zhou Yi", "Wood for boats, wood for boats, the benefits of boats, to help the impossible, to benefit the world" is a record of the boat-building methods and the value of boats during the period of the Three Emperors and Five Emperors. In the Book of Shang, "Daoyi Hui clothing, Yu Yu weaving shells, Yu Bao orange, pomelo, Xigong." Along the Jianghai River and the Huaisi River" records the transportation and economic ties with overseas "island Yi" countries at that time. In the "History of Goods and Colonies", "Panyu, also a metropolis, pearl, rhinoceros, tortoiseshell, fruit, and cloth" records the overseas trade exchange products of China's early Yin merchants' seaport - "Panyu Port". During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the coastal princes attached great importance to the exploration of the sea, but also attached great importance to the protection of their own maritime interests, so they developed a sense of sea power and began to organize maritime armed forces. After the Qin and Han dynasties, maritime civilization began to prosper, especially after Emperor Wudi of Han, he opened up water communication routes with the South China Sea countries and the Indian peninsula, and engaged in regular trade, which is the famous "Maritime Silk Road". During the Tang Dynasty, economic and trade exchanges with overseas countries were frequent, large ports were built along the coast, and maritime traffic was more developed, starting from Dengzhou, Yangzhou and other ports, you can reach today's Japan and South Korea, starting from Guangzhou, you can reach the Persian Gulf through the maritime "Silk Road". During the Two Song Dynasty, overseas trade became more prosperous, and ports and maritime traffic were further developed. In the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He led a fleet to the Western Ocean seven times, and its scale, large number, long time, and long voyage created a miracle unique in the world at that time, which not only promoted the national prestige, but also greatly strengthened the political and economic ties with overseas countries. However, that is, the Ming Dynasty began to ban the sea and lock the country, from Zhu Yuanzhang's repeated bans to the "plates are not allowed to enter the sea" after the middle of the Ming Dynasty, and then to the Qing Dynasty's further ban on the sea, the long-prosperous marine civilization of the Chinese nation went into decline, in sharp contrast to the vigorous development of the world's marine civilization in the same period. The implementation of the policy of banning the sea and closing the country has caused China to lose the initiative in foreign trade, hindered the budding development of capitalism, blocked exchanges and docking with advanced civilizations, and attracted continuous aggression by modern powers, and Chinese civilization has since begun to decline in an all-round way. "Realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation" is the great "Chinese dream". Rejuvenating marine civilization and realizing maritime power can be said to be China's great "ocean dream". The "Ocean Dream" is an important part of realizing the "Chinese Dream" and an important strategy and path for realizing the "Chinese Dream". Focusing on this dream, modern benevolent people have deep thinking, and the most famous representative figure Wei Yuan's book "Picture of the Sea Country" puts forward an ideal blueprint for building a "sea country" as never before. Beginning with Sun Yat-sen, several generations of leaders in modern times have put forward the idea of a maritime power with great foresight with the unique wisdom and strategic vision of great statesmen. Sun Yat-sen advocated the active development of marine industry and fought for China's maritime rights and interests. Mao Zedong attached great importance to naval construction and the development of maritime undertakings, and proposed that a powerful navy must be built. Deng Xiaoping also attached great importance to the building of naval forces, repeatedly stressed "developing maritime undertakings and revitalizing the national economy," and creatively put forward the far-sighted vision of "shelving disputes and jointly developing" to resolve island disputes. The third-generation leader with Comrade Jiang Zemin as the core put forward for the first time at the 16th CPC National Congress the "goal of implementing the marine development strategy." The central leadership with Comrade Hu Jintao as general secretary stressed the need to enhance maritime awareness and publicly declared for the first time that China is a maritime power. In the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the construction of a maritime power was officially included in the national strategy. On July 30, 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over the eighth collective study of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee and stressed that building a maritime power is an important part of the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics; In October 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward the major strategic concept of "building the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road" during his visit to ASEAN countries. The maritime ideas of people with lofty ideals and great statesmen constitute the rich connotation of China's "Ocean Dream". How to realize the "Ocean Dream"? The Fifth Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China adopted the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" for national economic and social development, which clearly put forward "adhering to the overall planning of land and sea, formulating and implementing marine development strategies, improving the ability of marine development, control and comprehensive management, and promoting the development of the marine economy". Broadly speaking, "land-sea coordination" is based on fully understanding that China has the dual attributes of land power and maritime power, and takes land and sea area as an overall strategic overall planning; In a narrow sense, "land-sea integration" mainly belongs to the category of regional economy, that is, integrating the advantages of land and sea resources in the region to promote regional economic development. "Land-sea economic integration" and "land-sea economic integration" are the mainstream directions of research on "land-sea integration" and "land-sea integration". On January 23, 2013, the State Council officially approved the "Zhejiang Zhoushan Archipelago New Area Development Plan", which clearly requires the new area to actively explore a new path for the scientific development of marine economy, strive to create a new model of comprehensive protection and development of marine islands, constantly innovate the overall planning and coordination mechanism of land and sea, effectively promote the development and opening up of Zhoushan Archipelago New Area, and develop well and rapidly, and become a pioneer area and demonstration area for the coordinated development of land and sea in the country. Shandong, Guangdong and other places have also actively begun similar explorations. Regarding "land-sea economic integration" or "sea-land economic integration", although relevant concepts have been proposed at home and abroad, and relevant research has been carried out, most of the research is scattered and fragmented, this book "Research on Maritime and Land Economic Integration in the South China Sea" aims to carry out a new and systematic exploration in this field, and strive to form its own characteristics and innovations in the following aspects: First, the perspective is unique, starting from the South China Sea issue, and closely linking the national marine strategy and the South China Sea strategy. That is, to study the theory and practice of land and sea economic integration from a new perspective, and at the same time provide new strategic thinking for effectively solving the South China Sea issue and maintaining security and stability in the South China Sea. Second, with the South China Sea as the "central area", according to the degree of development and utilization of the resources of the South China Sea in the South China Sea area, as well as factors such as geographical location, sea and land transportation, sea-land economic linkage capacity and differences in the industrial structure of sea and land, the spatial level of sea-land economic integration in the South China Sea is divided into the central area of the South China Sea, the inland radiation area and the international cooperation zone, and the research is carried out from a broader perspective at home and abroad. The third is theoretical innovation, which conducts more systematic and creative research on the connotation, characteristics, scope, power, mechanism and other basic theories of sea and land economic integration, such as revealing the characteristics of sea and land economic integration from the perspective of location theory, and at the same time, based on the linkage and coordination of marine economic location and land economic location, scientifically define the scope of sea and land economic integration, and research and propose the integration of six aspects such as sea and land economic space, resource industry, production factors, infrastructure, ecological environment and so on and run through the research of the whole book. The fourth is to pay attention to reality, attach importance to theoretical innovation and the high degree of integration of practical concerns, not only study the great strategic significance of land and sea economic integration for maintaining security and stability in the South China Sea, promoting the implementation of the maritime power strategy, promoting the construction of an "upgraded version" of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, and deepening cooperation with Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and at the same time taking Guangxi's "maritime power zone" as an example to deeply discuss the specific practice of the maritime power strategy at the local and regional levels. Fifth, method innovation, such as designing the general situation indicator system of land and sea economic integration and the integration situation indicator system of various subsystems within it, and listing the measurement methods of key indicators. In August 2012, Professor Xia Fei led the academic team to apply for the approval of the major project of the National Social Science Foundation of China, "Research on the Evolution of China-ASEAN Economic and Trade Pattern and the Construction of China's Security Strategy in the South China Sea in the Next Decade" (12&ZD041), which follows the relevant spirit of "economic diplomacy" of national leaders and strives to upgrade China-ASEAN economic and trade relations and influence and promote the security and stability of the situation in the South China Sea by further deepening China-ASEAN economic and trade cooperation. The project has published a series of books by China Social Sciences Press, among which "Research on the Integration of Land-Sea Economy in the South China Sea" is a book with a new system created by Professor Xia Fei and his team. Since ancient times, the history of human civilization has been inextricably linked to the vast ocean, and 2,500 years ago, the ancient Greek oceanoist Divestoke said: "Whoever controls the ocean controls everything." "In the 21st century, mankind has entered the century of the ocean. Let us seize the opportunity to jointly study, develop and protect the ocean, promote the "Ocean Dream" and build the great "Chinese Dream" together. is the order. Director of the Department of Economics of the National Academy of Administration, Executive Vice President of the China Public Economics Research Association(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
夏飞,张建中,郑铁桥,秦强,欧阳青东.中国南海海陆经济一体化研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2013
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夏飞,张建中,郑铁桥,秦强,欧阳青东.中国南海海陆经济一体化研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2013E-book.
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夏飞,张建中,郑铁桥,秦强和欧阳青东(2013).中国南海海陆经济一体化研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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