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湘江流域绿色发展研究

Research on Green Development of Xiangjiang River Basin

ISBN:978-7-5203-0509-9

出版日期:2017-06

页数:354

字数:368.0千字

丛书名:《中国社会科学院国情调研丛书》

点击量:7880次

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基金信息: 中国社会科学院创新工程学术出版资助项目 展开
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一 关于绿色发展的内涵与外延的界定

绿色发展是以习近平同志为核心的党中央从当前国际国内形势出发提出的一项重大发展战略,是马克思主义中国化的最新理论成果之一。同时,绿色发展也是2012年联合国环发大会提出的可持续发展新思维与新思路。改革开放以来,我国经济增速迅猛,但是,由于发展方式粗放,造成了十分严重的生态环境问题。针对这一状况,党的十八大提出了包括生态文明建设在内的中国特色社会主义“五位一体”总布局,强调要“着力推进绿色发展、循环发展、低碳发展,形成节约资源和保护环境的空间格局、产业结构、生产方式、生活方式,从源头上扭转生态环境恶化趋势,为人民创造良好生产生活环境,为全球生态安全做出贡献。”十八届五中全会进一步将绿色发展确定为指导我国未来发展及制定相关战略规划的五大理念之一。

概括地说,绿色发展的内涵可以理解为:在经济发展水平不断提高的同时,生态环境质量也不断改善的发展模式。显然,绿色发展是针对传统经济发展模式提出来的一种新型发展模式,它要求经济发展必须以生态环境承载力为约束条件,尊重、顺应和保护自然,朝着节约自然资源和保护环境的方式转变。

从绿色发展的内涵出发,凡是有利于同时改善经济发展水平和生态环境质量的发展行为,都可以称为绿色发展。具体来说,绿色发展可区分为两大方面。一是所有围绕资源、环境效率的改善而采取的生产方式和生活方式的变革行为,包括生产技术、工艺和相关设备革新或更新、产业结构优化调整、区域经济格局总体协调、生活用品和相关设备使用以及生活习惯的转变等。理论上说,循环发展和低碳发展应属于上述类型的绿色发展。二是直接为保护和改善生态环境质量所采取的行动,如设立生态保护区、植树造林、治理水土流失、土地沙化等各种生态问题、降低或消除各种环境污染物。

二 本次调研的目的与意义

作为中国特色社会主义理论的重要内容、指导我国未来发展的重大理念,绿色发展的理论意义不言而喻,但全面实施绿色发展的战略部署和相关政策措施的设计亟待具体化、明晰化。与大力推进绿色发展密切相关的一系列问题还有待于从实践中去观察、提炼,包括当前我国绿色发展面临着怎样的困难和挑战,有哪些问题亟待解决,关键领域有哪些,需要突破哪些技术“瓶颈”,应建立怎样的体制、机制,有哪些制度需要改革、创新等。与此同时,虽然绿色发展理念被正式提出的时间不长,但在实践层面,一些地区早已在这方面开展了大量先行先试的工作。及时总结我国绿色发展实践中的经验教训,有助于我国未来进一步推进绿色发展,继而推动我国生态文明建设乃至整个特色社会主义事业的全面发展。因此,针对绿色发展的国情调研具有十分重大的现实意义,同时也十分有助于推动绿色发展的理论研究。

课题组调研的目的在于深入理解我国绿色发展的实践基础,及时把握绿色发展进展状况及其演化态势,总结、提炼绿色发展实践中的经验教训,评估绿色发展相关战略和政策的效果及影响,洞察进一步推进绿色发展面临的困难和挑战,为我国绿色发展总体战略和政策的完善提供参考意见,同时,为调研地区的绿色发展提出具体思路和建议。

之所以选取湖南省湘江流域作为调研地区,是因为湖南省是我国较早探索绿色发展的地区,其湘江流域长株潭城市群“两型”社会试验区早在2007年12月14日就获得国务院批准;2010年8月2日,湖南省委、省政府决定将“两型”社会建设由长株潭城市群推向全省;2012年4月20日,湖南省委、省政府出台《绿色湖南建设纲要》,强调将绿色发展理念贯穿到新型工业化、新型城镇化、农业现代化和信息化建设全过程,实现绿色崛起。因而,作为绿色发展的调研地点,湖南省湘江流域具有十分突出的典型性。

三 本次调研实施过程

为了做好本次调研活动,中国社会科学院数量经济与技术经济研究所联合湖南省社会科学院,组织绿色发展领域的骨干科研人员成立课题组,以“湖南省湘江流域绿色发展现状与对策研究”为题,申请了中国社会科学院国情调研基地项目。课题组负责人为中国社会科学院数量经济与技术经济研究所所长李平和湖南省社会科学院院长刘建武。课题组成员包括中国社会科学院数量经济与技术经济研究所的韩胜军、张杰、张友国、李玉红、彭绪庶、吴滨、蒋金荷、陈金晓、胡安俊和刘建翠;湖南省社会科学院的李晖、罗黎平、刘险峰和杨顺顺。本书即为该项目的结题报告。

本课题于2016年5月上旬正式启动。在半年多的时间里,课题组通过收集和梳理相关政策文献,把握湘江流域绿色发展的总体战略和思路,并据此确定调研提纲。通过跟踪调研,对湘江流域的绿色规划及其实施状况进行了评估;通过相关数据的收集、整理,并通过构建绿色发展指标体系,定量评估了湘江流域绿色发展进程;对其中存在的问题和不足进行了深入分析;继而提出湘江流域整体的绿色发展政策建议。

为了更深入地了解湘江流域的绿色发展状况,课题组选取湘江流域源头的江永县、湘江流域中段,同时也是湖南省经济社会发展核心区域的长株潭城市群、湘江流域末端岳阳市所辖的临湘市作为案例,对这三个地区绿色发展的现状、经验及面临的挑战进行了深入调研分析。先后与湖南省当地绿色发展领域的专家学者、临湘市委市政府及相关部门负责人、江永县委县政府及相关部门负责人、有关乡镇、村负责人及工业园区企业负责人进行了座谈。实地考察了相关企业及农户生产基地。获取了大量一手资料,并在上述访谈过程中有针对性地考察了相关政策的实施状况。通过半年多的努力,课题组达到了预期的调研目的,按预定计划形成了调研报告。

四 调研报告内容概述

本书分为上、下两篇。上篇以整个湘江流域为对象展开论述,包括整个湘江流域经济社会及生态环境的基本状况的分析、湘江流域绿色发展规划及实施情况、湘江流域8个地市绿色发展进展态势的定量测评、进一步推进绿色发展面临的困难和挑战以及关于整个湘江流域绿色发展的对策建议。下篇对湘江流域绿色发展三个典型案例进行重点分析。课题组选取的典型案例包括湖南省经济社会发展核心区域——长株潭城市群的“两型”社会发展、江永县以及临湘市的绿色发展。

第一章 湘江流域经济社会和生态环境的基本情况。分析表明,近十年来,湖南经济实力迈上了新台阶。全社会固定资产投资、消费、外贸、旅游收入都增长迅速;经济结构不断优化;2015年城市化率已达到56.1%;城乡居民收入和居住条件不断改善,科技卫生事业迅速发展。同时,湖南省水资源及矿产资源丰富;用水效率、能源效率不断改善,但仍低于全国平均水平;水环境质量稳中有升;顺利实现主要污染物减排目标。湘江流域的8个地市的常住人口占湖南常住人口的60.82%,地区GDP占湖南省GDP的78.35%。8个地市在经济总量、人均GDP、经济增长速度、产业结构、居民收入、居住条件、城市化率、生态环境状况等方面存在明显差异。

第二章 湘江流域绿色发展规划与实施情况。湖南已经在湘江流域绿色发展的总体规划与制度建设方面取得了较大进展。早在2013年2月,湖南省就出台了《湘江流域科学发展总体规划》,并于2012年9月底正式颁布了我国首部关于江河流域保护的综合性地方法规——《湖南省湘江保护条例》。一系列关于生态环保的专项规划措施也已出台并实施,如《湘江流域水污染综合整治实施方案》《贯彻落实〈大气污染防治行动计划〉实施细则》《湖南省土壤环境保护规划(2011—2020年)》。这些规划的实施及相关保障机制的建立和完善,使湘江流域在绿色发展的各主要方面都取得了显著成效。例如,湘江水质已整体为优,空气质量有了大幅度改善,一些地区的土壤重金属污染得到有效治理。

第三章 湘江流域沿江各市绿色发展水平测评。课题组根据绿色发展的内涵建立了一个有关绿色发展的评价指标体系,采用层次分析法和专家咨询法对指标权重做了设定,继而对2007—2014年湘江流域8个地市的绿色发展水平予以评分。结果表明,8个地市的绿色发展综合指数都存在不同程度的波动性,没有形成逐年稳步提高的趋势;8个地市的绿色发展水平差异大,东部地区城市的绿色发展水平高于西部地区城市。

第四章 湘江流域进一步推进绿色发展战略面临的困难和挑战。首先,湘江流域在经济绿色化过程中面临着发展阶段、以重化工业为主的产业结构、城镇化需求快速上升、产业链上的低附加值地位等方面的制约和挑战。其次,在资源节约与环境保护过程中面临的困难和挑战,包括能源资源禀赋和消费结构、沿线工矿区过度开发导致环境保护与恢复治理历史遗留问题、流域河道底泥重金属污染累积性问题等生态治理难题、湘江源头区推进绿色发展面临的经济发展与生态环境保护的矛盾等。再次,湘江流域的绿色发展面临着资金、技术以及人才等多方面的要素供给困难和挑战。最后,在绿色发展制度建设和文化、理念转变方面,湘江流域也面临着诸多困难。

第五章 湘江流域推进绿色发展战略的对策建议。在环境治理方面,本章专门针对水污染治理、大气污染治理、土壤修复、生活/餐厨垃圾处置以及海绵城市建设提出了一系列政策建议。在绿色产业发展方面,提出了一系列关于农业、工业以及服务业绿色化的对策。在绿色技术创新方面,提出了搭建绿色技术创新平台、提升绿色技术自主创新能力以及强化绿色人才引进培育机制的建议。提出的绿色消费发展政策体系涉及政府绿色采购政策、如何落实国家各项绿色消费政策、强化农产品安全保障的财税扶持机制、实施各项绿色消费战略行动以及增强绿色消费发展的体制保障。关于绿色金融发展的政策建议,主要包括推动湘江流域绿色金融工具创新、绿色金融产品创新和绿色金融发展支持政策创新。

第六章 长株潭城市群“两型”社会建设调研。长株潭属于湖南省中心地区,该地区的发展思路历经了“长株潭经济一体化”—争取“国家老工业基地”政策—“两型”社会建设的演化过程。其“两型”社会建设共有三个规划阶段,目前正处于第三阶段开局时期。长株潭城市群“两型”社会改革试验的主要做法,包括通过出台《长株潭城市群资源节约型和环境友好型社会建设综合配套改革试验总体方案》《长株潭城市群区域规划(2008—2020年)》等重大规划方案,加强对“两型”社会建设的引领和顶层设计;积极推进传统产业改造、战略新兴产业发展和创新驱动,推动经济转型;大力推进相关改革,为“两型”社会建设提供体制机制保障;率先构建了“两型”社会标准体系,强化引导和监督、考核;同时,强化社会参与,营造文化氛围。长株潭“两型”社会建设进一步提升了该地区的经济发展动能,优化其经济发展模式,改善了民生,促进了社会全面发展和生态环境的显著改善。本章建议通过拓展改革先行先试范围,深化加大要素市场改革以及加大“两型”社会重大项目的建设力度等措施进一步促进长株潭“两型”社会建设。

第七章 江永县绿色发展的实践、经验与进一步深化。江永县属于湘江源头地区,拥有一些独特的自然和人文资源优势。由于缺乏发展传统产业的优势且资源环境约束日益趋紧,江永县迫切希望向绿色发展转型。为此,江永县采取的措施,包括通过存量工业产业的绿色化改造以及推进农业生态转型发展措施来推进产业的绿色化转型;通过大力发展电商产业文化旅游业以及新能源和清洁能源产业来培育绿色增长点;持续强化生态环境保护和污染治理。显然,政府的积极作为、绿色经济的不断发展壮大以及努力探索本地模式有力地推进了江永县的绿色发展。不过,江永县的绿色发展仍然面临着基础设施滞后、经济增长冲动、资金不足等一系列困难和挑战。因此,在江永县自身努力的同时,湖南省以及国家层面也需提供相应的政策扶持,促进江永县进一步的绿色发展。

第八章 临湘市县域经济绿色发展的机遇与挑战。临湘市是湖南省的北大门,该市区位优势独特,交通便捷,自然资源和人力资源都很丰富。该市经济处于工业化中期阶段,工业以矿产资源和农产品加工业为主;城镇化水平低于全国平均水平。近年来,临湘市积极拓展农业绿色发展途径(如积极发展生态农业),稳步实施工业绿色发展战略(如重点开展工业园区绿色建设),以节能减排为绿色发展的重要抓手(强化政府责任),取得了良好的成效。不过,临湘市在林业绿色发展、水务与水资源保护、环境污染治理方面面临的问题也很严峻。总体来看,临湘市的绿色发展经验,主要包括合理制定绿色发展的总体规划及政策,加大农业污染治理力度,加快推进工业绿色转型,夯实林业发展保障机制,强化水资源保护以及兼顾城乡环境保护。

通过本次调研,课题组认为,湘江流域绿色发展的一些宝贵经验,对我国其他地区的绿色发展有重大的启示意义。

第一,绿色发展离不开地方党委和政府的积极倡导与引领:(1)党委和政府的顶层设计与科学规划是绿色发展的第一推动力;(2)绿色发展的长效激励机制需要党委和政府来建立与完善;(3)顺民心、重民生,启动绿色治理“攻坚战”。

第二,坚持以科技创新支撑绿色发展:(1)以“两型”社会先进技术推动产业绿色转型;(2)以循环利用技术,提升资源利用效率;(3)以综合治污技术,美化城乡环境。

第三,中西部地区要突出县域绿色发展的战略地位:(1)通过“调结构、转方式”以及体制机制改革为绿色发展提供外部和内部新动力;(2)要通过绿色技术创新为绿色发展提供新的技术支撑。

第四,大力推进农村环保能力建设,解决环境保护中长期存在的“重城镇、轻农村”问题。湖南省探索出了“分户减量、分散处理”和“以县为主、市级补贴、镇村分担、农民自治”农村环保模式。

第五,通过进一步强化规划的协调机制,进一步完善环保监管体制机制来化解绿色冲突。湖南省对区域绿色发展进行整体谋划和统一要求,成立了由省长任组长的绿色湖南建设领导小组,定期对重点地区、重点行业、重点企业、重点项目执行情况开展专项检查和跟踪督查。

李平 刘建武

2017年3月

I. Definition of the Connotation and Extension of Green Development: Green Development is a major development strategy put forward by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core based on the current international and domestic situation, and is one of the latest theoretical achievements of the Sinicization of Marxism. At the same time, green development is also a new thinking and new idea for sustainable development put forward by the 2012 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Since the reform and opening up, China's economic growth has been rapid, but due to the extensive development mode, it has caused very serious ecological and environmental problems. In response to this situation, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the general layout of socialism with Chinese characteristics, including the construction of ecological civilization, emphasizing the need to "focus on promoting green development, circular development and low-carbon development, forming a spatial pattern, industrial structure, production mode and lifestyle that conserves resources and protects the environment, reverse the trend of deterioration of the ecological environment from the source, create a good production and living environment for the people, and contribute to global ecological security." "The Fifth Plenum of the 18th Central Committee further identified green development as one of the five major concepts to guide China's future development and formulate relevant strategic plans. In a nutshell, the connotation of green development can be understood as: while the level of economic development continues to improve, the quality of the ecological environment is also constantly improving. Obviously, green development is a new development model proposed for the traditional economic development model, which requires that economic development must be constrained by the carrying capacity of the ecological environment, respect, adapt to and protect nature, and transform into a way to save natural resources and protect the environment. Starting from the connotation of green development, any development behavior that is conducive to improving the level of economic development and the quality of the ecological environment at the same time can be called green development. Specifically, green development can be divided into two major aspects. The first is all the changes in production methods and lifestyles adopted around the improvement of resources and environmental efficiency, including the innovation or renewal of production technology, technology and related equipment, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structure, the overall coordination of regional economic pattern, the use of daily necessities and related equipment, and the transformation of living habits. Theoretically, circular development and low-carbon development should belong to the above types of green development. The second is the actions taken directly to protect and improve the quality of the ecological environment, such as the establishment of ecological reserves, afforestation, control of various ecological problems such as soil erosion and land desertification, and the reduction or elimination of various environmental pollutants. Second, as an important content of the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics and a major concept guiding China's future development, the theoretical significance of green development is self-evident, but the strategic deployment of comprehensive implementation of green development and the design of relevant policies and measures need to be concretized and clarified. A series of issues closely related to vigorously promoting green development still need to be observed and refined from practice, including what difficulties and challenges China's green development is currently facing, what problems need to be solved urgently, what are the key areas, what technical "bottlenecks" need to be broken, what systems and mechanisms should be established, and what systems need to be reformed and innovated. At the same time, although the concept of green development has not been formally proposed for a long time, at the practical level, some regions have already carried out a lot of pre-emptive work in this regard. Timely summarizing the lessons learned in China's green development practice will help China further promote green development in the future, and then promote the comprehensive development of China's ecological civilization construction and even the entire cause of socialism with characteristics. Therefore, the investigation of national conditions for green development is of great practical significance, and it is also very helpful to promote the theoretical research of green development. The purpose of the research group is to deeply understand the practical basis of China's green development, timely grasp the progress of green development and its evolution, summarize and refine the lessons learned in green development practice, evaluate the effect and impact of green development related strategies and policies, gain insight into the difficulties and challenges faced by further promoting green development, provide reference opinions for the improvement of China's overall green development strategy and policies, and put forward specific ideas and suggestions for green development in the survey area. The reason why the Xiangjiang River Basin in Hunan Province was selected as the research area is because Hunan Province is the earliest area in China to explore green development, and its "two-type" social experimental zone of Changzhutan urban agglomeration in the Xiangjiang River Basin was approved by the State Council as early as December 14, 2007. On August 2, 2010, the Hunan Provincial Party Committee and the Hunan Provincial Government decided to promote the construction of a "two-type" society from the Changzhutan urban agglomeration to the whole province; On April 20, 2012, the Hunan Provincial Party Committee and the Hunan Provincial Government issued the "Green Hunan Construction Outline", emphasizing the concept of green development throughout the whole process of new industrialization, new urbanization, agricultural modernization and informatization construction, so as to achieve a green rise. Therefore, as a research site for green development, the Xiangjiang River Basin in Hunan Province has a very prominent typicality. 3. In order to do a good job in this research activity, the Institute of Quantitative and Technical Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Hunan Academy of Social Sciences organized key researchers in the field of green development to set up a research group, and applied for the National Conditions Research Base Project of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences with the title of "Research on the Status Quo and Countermeasures of Green Development in the Xiangjiang River Basin of Hunan Province". The leaders of the research group are Li Ping, director of the Institute of Quantitative and Technical Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and Liu Jianwu, president of the Hunan Academy of Social Sciences. The research group members include Han Shengjun, Zhang Jie, Zhang Youguo, Li Yuhong, Peng Xushu, Wu Bin, Jiang Jinhe, Chen Jinxiao, Hu Anjun and Liu Jiancui from the Institute of Quantitative and Technical Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Li Hui, Luo Liping, Liu Xianfeng and Yang Shunshun of Hunan Academy of Social Sciences. This book is the final report of the project. This project was officially launched in early May 2016. For more than half a year, the research group grasped the overall strategy and ideas of green development in the Xiangjiang River Basin by collecting and sorting out relevant policy literature, and determined the research outline accordingly. Through follow-up research, the green planning and implementation status of the Xiangjiang River Basin were evaluated. Through the collection and collation of relevant data and the construction of green development indicator system, the green development process of the Xiangjiang River Basin was quantitatively evaluated. An in-depth analysis of the problems and shortcomings was carried out; Then, it put forward the policy suggestions for the overall green development of the Xiangjiang River Basin. In order to have a deeper understanding of the green development of the Xiangjiang River Basin, the research group selected Jiangyong County at the source of the Xiangjiang River Basin, the middle section of the Xiangjiang River Basin, the Changzhutan Urban Agglomeration, which is also the core area of economic and social development of Hunan Province, and Linxiang City, which is under the jurisdiction of Yueyang City at the end of the Xiangjiang River Basin, as cases, and conducted in-depth investigation and analysis of the status, experience and challenges of green development in these three regions. He has held discussions with experts and scholars in the field of local green development in Hunan Province, heads of Linxiang Municipal Party Committee and Municipal Government and relevant departments, Jiangyong County Party Committee and County Government and relevant departments, responsible persons of relevant townships and villages, and heads of industrial park enterprises. We visited relevant enterprises and farmers' production bases. A large number of first-hand information was obtained, and the implementation of relevant policies was examined in a targeted manner during the above-mentioned interviews. Through more than half a year's efforts, the research group achieved the expected research purpose and formed a research report according to the predetermined plan. IV. Overview of the content of the research report: This book is divided into two parts: the first and the next. The first part discusses the entire Xiangjiang River Basin, including the analysis of the basic economic, social and ecological environment of the entire Xiangjiang River Basin, the planning and implementation of green development in the Xiangjiang River Basin, the quantitative evaluation of the progress of green development in eight prefectures and cities in the Xiangjiang River Basin, the difficulties and challenges faced by further promoting green development, and countermeasures and suggestions for the green development of the entire Xiangjiang River Basin. In the second part, three typical cases of green development in the Xiangjiang River Basin are analyzed. Typical cases selected by the research group include the "two-type" social development of Changzhutan urban agglomeration, the core area of economic and social development in Hunan Province, and the green development of Jiangyong County and Linxiang City. Chapter I: The Basic Situation of the Economic, Social and Ecological Environment of the Xiangjiang River Basin. Analysis shows that in the past decade, Hunan's economic strength has reached a new level. The fixed asset investment, consumption, foreign trade and tourism income of the whole society have grown rapidly; Continuous optimization of the economic structure; In 2015, the urbanization rate reached 56.1%; The income and living conditions of urban and rural residents have been continuously improved, and the scientific and technological health undertakings have developed rapidly. At the same time, Hunan Province is rich in water resources and mineral resources; Water efficiency and energy efficiency continue to improve, but they are still below the national average; The quality of the water environment has increased steadily; Successfully achieve the emission reduction target of major pollutants. The permanent population of the eight prefectures and cities in the Xiangjiang River Basin accounts for 60.82% of the permanent population of Hunan, and the regional GDP accounts for 78.35% of the GDP of Hunan Province. There are obvious differences in economic aggregate, per capita GDP, economic growth rate, industrial structure, residents' income, living conditions, urbanization rate, and ecological environment among the eight prefectures and cities. Chapter II: Planning and Implementation of Green Development in the Xiangjiang River Basin。 Hunan has made great progress in the overall planning and institutional construction of green development in the Xiangjiang River Basin. As early as February 2013, Hunan Province issued the Master Plan for the Scientific Development of the Xiangjiang River Basin, and at the end of September 2012, it officially promulgated China's first comprehensive local regulation on the protection of river basins - the Regulations on the Protection of the Xiangjiang River in Hunan Province. A series of special planning measures on ecological and environmental protection have also been introduced and implemented, such as the Implementation Plan for Comprehensive Improvement of Water Pollution in the Xiangjiang River Basin, the Implementation Rules for the Implementation of the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, and the Soil Environmental Protection Plan of Hunan Province (2011-2020). The implementation of these plans and the establishment and improvement of relevant safeguard mechanisms have enabled the Xiangjiang River Basin to achieve remarkable results in all major aspects of green development. For example, the water quality of the Xiangjiang River has been improved overall, the air quality has been greatly improved, and the soil heavy metal pollution in some areas has been effectively treated. Chapter III: Assessment of the Green Development Level of Municipalities along the Xiangjiang River Basin。 According to the connotation of green development, the research group established an evaluation index system for green development, used the analytic hierarchy method and expert consultation method to set the weight of the index, and then scored the green development level of eight prefectures and cities in the Xiangjiang River Basin from 2007 to 2014. The results show that the green development composite index of the eight prefectures and cities has different degrees of volatility, and there is no trend of steady improvement year by year. The green development level of the eight prefectures and cities varies greatly, and the green development level of cities in the eastern region is higher than that of cities in the western region. Chapter IV Difficulties and challenges in further promoting the green development strategy in the Xiangjiang River Basin. First of all, in the process of economic greening, the Xiangjiang River Basin faces constraints and challenges in terms of development stage, industrial structure dominated by heavy chemical industry, rapid rise in urbanization demand, and low value-added status in the industrial chain. Secondly, the difficulties and challenges faced in the process of resource conservation and environmental protection, including energy resource endowment and consumption structure, the historical problems of environmental protection and restoration caused by overexploitation of industrial and mining areas along the route, the accumulation of heavy metal pollution in river sediment in river basins, and the contradiction between economic development and ecological environmental protection faced by promoting green development in the headwaters of the Xiangjiang River. Third, the green development of the Xiangjiang River Basin faces difficulties and challenges in the supply of capital, technology and talents. Finally, in terms of green development system construction and cultural and conceptual transformation, the Xiangjiang River Basin is also facing many difficulties. Chapter V: Countermeasures and Suggestions for Promoting the Green Development Strategy in the Xiangjiang River Basin. In terms of environmental governance, this chapter puts forward a series of policy recommendations on water pollution control, air pollution control, soil remediation, domestic/food waste disposal and sponge city construction. In terms of green industry development, a series of countermeasures for the greening of agriculture, industry and service industries were proposed. In terms of green technology innovation, suggestions were put forward to build a green technology innovation platform, improve the independent innovation ability of green technology, and strengthen the introduction and cultivation mechanism of green talents. The proposed green consumption development policy system involves the government's green procurement policy, how to implement the national green consumption policy, strengthen the fiscal and tax support mechanism for the safety and security of agricultural products, implement various green consumption strategic actions, and enhance the institutional guarantee for green consumption development. The policy recommendations on the development of green finance mainly include promoting the innovation of green financial instruments, green financial products and supporting policy innovation for green finance development in the Xiangjiang River Basin. Chapter VI Investigation on the "Two Types" of Social Construction in the Changzhutan Urban Agglomeration. Changzhutan belongs to the central area of Hunan Province, and the development ideas of this area have gone through the evolution process of "Changzhutan economic integration" - striving for the policy of "national old industrial base" - "two-type" social construction. Its "two-type" social construction has three planning stages, and it is currently in the beginning of the third stage. The main practices of the "two-type" social reform experiment in Changzhutan urban agglomeration include strengthening the guidance and top-level design of "two-type" social construction through the introduction of major planning plans such as the "Overall Plan for the Comprehensive Supporting Reform Experiment for the Construction of a Resource-Saving and Environment-friendly Society in Changzhutan Urban Agglomeration" and "Changzhutan Urban Agglomeration Regional Planning (2008-2020)"; Actively promote the transformation of traditional industries, the development of strategic emerging industries and innovation drive, and promote economic transformation; Vigorously promote relevant reforms to provide institutional and mechanism guarantees for the construction of a "two-type" society; Take the lead in building a "two-type" social standard system, strengthen guidance, supervision and assessment; At the same time, strengthen social participation and create a cultural atmosphere. The construction of the "two types" society in Changzhutan has further enhanced the economic development momentum of the region, optimized its economic development model, improved people's livelihood, and promoted the comprehensive social development and significant improvement of the ecological environment. This chapter proposes to further promote the construction of a "two-type" society in Changzhutan by expanding the scope of reform and piloting, deepening and increasing factor market reform, and increasing the construction of major projects in the "two-type" society. Chapter VII Practice, Experience and Further Deepening of Green Development in Jiangyong County. Jiangyong County belongs to the source area of the Xiangjiang River and has some unique advantages of natural and human resources. Due to the lack of advantages in developing traditional industries and increasingly tight resource and environmental constraints, Jiangyong County is eager to transform to green development. To this end, the measures taken by Jiangyong County include promoting the green transformation of industries through the green transformation of existing industrial industries and the promotion of agro-ecological transformation and development measures; Cultivate green growth points by vigorously developing e-commerce industry, cultural tourism, and new energy and clean energy industries; Continue to strengthen ecological environmental protection and pollution control. Obviously, the government's positive efforts, the continuous development of the green economy, and the efforts to explore local models have strongly promoted the green development of Jiangyong County. However, the green development of Jiangyong County still faces a series of difficulties and challenges such as lagging infrastructure, impulsive economic growth, and insufficient funds. Therefore, while Jiangyong County is making its own efforts, Hunan Province and the national level also need to provide corresponding policy support to promote the further green development of Jiangyong County. Chapter VIII: Opportunities and Challenges for the Green Development of the County Economy in Linxiang City. Linxiang City is the northern gate of Hunan Province, which has unique advantages, convenient transportation, and abundant natural and human resources. The city's economy is in the middle stage of industrialization, and the industry is mainly mineral resources and agricultural product processing industry; The level of urbanization is lower than the national average. In recent years, Linxiang City has actively expanded the ways of green agricultural development (such as actively developing ecological agriculture), steadily implemented the industrial green development strategy (such as focusing on the green construction of industrial parks), and regarded energy conservation and emission reduction as an important starting point for green development (strengthening government responsibility), and achieved good results. However, Linxiang City is also facing serious problems in green forestry development, water and water resources protection, and environmental pollution control. Overall, Linxiang's green development experience mainly includes rationally formulating overall plans and policies for green development, increasing the intensity of agricultural pollution control, accelerating the green transformation of industry, consolidating the guarantee mechanism for forestry development, strengthening the protection of water resources and taking into account urban and rural environmental protection. Through this survey, the research group believes that some valuable experiences in green development in the Xiangjiang River Basin have great enlightenment significance for green development in other parts of China. First, green development is inseparable from the active advocacy and guidance of local party committees and governments: (1) the top-level design and scientific planning of party committees and governments are the first driving force for green development; (2) The long-term incentive mechanism for green development needs to be established and improved by the Party Committee and the government; (3) Follow the people's will, restore people's livelihood, and start the "tough battle" of green governance. Second, adhere to scientific and technological innovation to support green development: (1) promote the green transformation of industries with "two-type" advanced social technology; (2) Improve resource utilization efficiency with recycling technology; (3) Beautify the urban and rural environment with comprehensive pollution control technology. Third, the central and western regions should highlight the strategic position of county green development: (1) provide new external and internal impetus for green development through "structural adjustment and mode transformation" and institutional reform; (2) It is necessary to provide new technical support for green development through green technology innovation. Fourth, vigorously promote the capacity building of rural environmental protection and solve the long-standing problem of "emphasizing towns and neglecting rural areas" in environmental protection. Hunan Province has explored the rural environmental protection model of "household reduction, decentralized treatment" and "county-based, municipal-level subsidies, township and village sharing, and farmers' autonomy". Fifth, resolve green conflicts by further strengthening the coordination mechanism of planning and further improving the environmental protection supervision system and mechanism. Hunan Province has carried out overall planning and unified requirements for regional green development, and established a leading group for green Hunan construction headed by the governor, which regularly carries out special inspections and follow-up supervision on the implementation of key regions, key industries, key enterprises and key projects. Li Ping Liu Jianwu, March 2017(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
李平,刘建武,张友国,方向新.湘江流域绿色发展研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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MLA 格式引文
李平,刘建武,张友国,方向新.湘江流域绿色发展研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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APA 格式引文
李平,刘建武,张友国和方向新(2017).湘江流域绿色发展研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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