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中国城市农产品流通发展报告.2016

ISBN:978-7-5203-1191-5

出版日期:2017-10

页数:391

字数:447.0千字

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“无农不稳。”农业,是人类的命脉。无论古今中外,都是事关世界上国家生存发展的基础性产业。“基础不牢,地动山摇。”

农业和其他产业相比,属于弱势产业。农产品是由农民这个弱势群体生产又覆盖每个人日常生活的特殊商品。群众对食品安全和价格的稳定性要求很高,这是完全正常的。因此,农产品流通基础设施和骨干产品批发市场是具有公益性的设施和市场。

世界上发达的经济体都高度重视农产品的流通和基础设施建设。它们在国内生产有政策支持、出口有补贴、进口有国内技术标准和价格保护。美、欧、日等发达国家的政府都以多种方式由财政投资建设农产品流通基础设施和批发市场。同时,充分发挥社会组织与企业的作用,引领并主导农产品流通健康发展和市场供应稳定。

出于对市场经济认识的片面性,我们一度把为数众多的农产品流通和批发业态几乎全部交给了市场,加之千家万户的小生产难以满足千变万化的大市场,粮食等主要产品抓得既稳又好,小商品却带来市场不稳,出现了“姜你军”“蒜你狠”“豆你玩”的调侃。当前,在国家更加重视民生的时期,人民对幸福生活有着不断提高的追求,“柴米油盐酱醋茶”自然就成了每天都会出现在生活中的“国家大事”。

中国是农产品生产大国,蔬菜、水果、水产品及部分肉类等农产品产量均居世界首位。这么大体量的农产品最终要依赖流通才能实现其价值。城市农产品流通体系是影响农产品流通成本和效率的关键和重点。中国农产品流通成本高、流通效率低的问题与城市农产品流通体系不完善有很大关系。目前,中国设市城市有660个,其中城区常住人口超过1000万特大型城市三个,500万—1000万人口超大型城市20多个,100万—500万人口大城市则上百个。因此,建立完善城市农产品流通体系已成为当前中国农产品流通体系建设的一个十分重要的任务。

改革开放30多年来,随着市场经济体制成为社会资源的基础配置手段,城市农产品流通逐渐形成了以批发市场为主导,农贸市场、菜市场以及连锁超市为城市农产品零售主渠道的流通网点。与此同时,城市农产品流通企业组织形式,呈现出多元化和规模化的特点,质量安全和品牌意识逐步增强。简言之,中国农产品流通基本上形成了以批发市场、集贸市场、连锁超市为主要渠道,以农民经纪人、运销商贩、中介组织、加工企业为主体,以产品集散、现货交易为基本流通模式,以原产品和粗加工产品为营销客体的基础流通格局,促进了农业和农村经济发展。但城市农产品流通中,还存在诸多问题,如一些城市农产品批发市场区位分布不合理、功能趋同;农产品流通环节保鲜手段落后,冷链运输占比低,缺乏品质标准化,难以实施行之有效的质量安全监管;专业化的农产品物流企业少,运营成本高;等等。

近期,商务部与国家相关部委连续发文推动公益性农产品基础性设施和重点骨干批发市场的建设,表明了国家对这项工作的高度重视。全国城市农贸中心联合会又会同北京物资学院联合组建了“中国城市农产品流通研究所”,并完成了研究成果《中国城市农产品流通发展报告(2014)》。这些都让我们看到,中国农产品流通领域建设,正在全面深化改革的大路上迈着坚实的步伐。

消费者满怀期待。希望这些研究成果最终惠及全体消费者!

2014年12月1日于北京

"No farm is unstable." Agriculture is the lifeblood of mankind. Whether ancient or modern, Chinese or foreign, it is a basic industry related to the survival and development of countries in the world. "If the foundation is not strong, the ground is shaken." Agriculture is a weaker industry than other industries. Agricultural products are special commodities produced by the vulnerable group of farmers and cover everyone's daily life. It is completely normal for the masses to have high demands on food safety and price stability. Therefore, the agricultural product circulation infrastructure and the backbone product wholesale market are facilities and markets of a public benefit. The world's advanced economies attach great importance to the circulation of agricultural products and infrastructure construction. They have policy support for domestic production, subsidies for exports, domestic technical standards and price protection for imports. The governments of developed countries such as the United States, Europe and Japan have invested in the construction of agricultural product circulation infrastructure and wholesale markets in various ways. At the same time, give full play to the role of social organizations and enterprises, lead and lead the healthy development of agricultural product circulation and stable market supply. Out of the one-sided understanding of the market economy, we once handed over almost all of the circulation and wholesale formats of a large number of agricultural products to the market, and in addition, the small production of thousands of households could not meet the ever-changing large market, grain and other major products were grasped both steadily and well, but small commodities brought market instability, and there was a ridicule of "Jiang You Jun", "Garlic You Ruthless" and "Bean You Play". At present, in the period when the country pays more attention to people's livelihood, the people have a continuous pursuit of a happy life, and "firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce and vinegar tea" has naturally become a "national event" that will appear in life every day. China is a major producer of agricultural products, and the output of vegetables, fruits, aquatic products and some meat ranks first in the world. Such a large volume of agricultural products ultimately depends on circulation to realize its value. The urban agricultural product circulation system is the key and focus affecting the cost and efficiency of agricultural product circulation. The problem of high cost and low circulation efficiency of agricultural products in China has a lot to do with the imperfect circulation system of urban agricultural products. At present, there are 660 cities in China, including three extra-large cities with a permanent population of more than 10 million, more than 20 super-large cities with a population of 5 million to 10 million, and hundreds of large cities with a population of 1 million to 5 million. Therefore, the establishment and improvement of the urban agricultural product circulation system has become a very important task in the construction of China's agricultural product circulation system. Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, as the market economy system has become the basic allocation means of social resources, the circulation of urban agricultural products has gradually formed a circulation network dominated by the wholesale market, with agricultural markets, vegetable markets and chain supermarkets as the main channels of urban agricultural product retail. At the same time, the organizational form of urban agricultural product circulation enterprises presents the characteristics of diversification and scale, and the quality safety and brand awareness are gradually enhanced. In short, the circulation of agricultural products in China has basically formed a basic circulation pattern with wholesale markets, bazaars and chain supermarkets as the main channels, farmers' brokers, distribution and vendors, intermediary organizations and processing enterprises as the main body, product distribution and spot trading as the basic circulation mode, and raw products and rough processed products as marketing objects, which has promoted the development of agriculture and rural economy. However, there are still many problems in the circulation of urban agricultural products, such as unreasonable location distribution and functional convergence of some urban agricultural product wholesale markets; The means of preserving the freshness of agricultural products in the circulation link are backward, the proportion of cold chain transportation is low, and there is a lack of quality standardization, making it difficult to implement effective quality and safety supervision; There are few specialized agricultural product logistics enterprises and high operating costs; Wait a minute. Recently, the Ministry of Commerce and relevant ministries and commissions of the state have successively issued documents to promote the construction of basic facilities and key backbone wholesale markets for public welfare agricultural products, indicating that the state attaches great importance to this work. The National Federation of Urban Agricultural Trade Centers and Beijing Institute of Materials jointly established the "China Urban Agricultural Products Circulation Research Institute", and completed the research results "China Urban Agricultural Products Circulation Development Report (2014)". All these let us see that the construction of China's agricultural product circulation field is taking solid steps on the road of comprehensively deepening reform. Consumers are looking forward to it. I hope that these research results will eventually benefit all consumers! December 1, 2014 in Beijing(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
北京物资学院,全国城市农贸中心联合会城市农产品流通研究所.中国城市农产品流通发展报告.2016[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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MLA 格式引文
北京物资学院,全国城市农贸中心联合会城市农产品流通研究所.中国城市农产品流通发展报告.2016.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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APA 格式引文
北京物资学院和全国城市农贸中心联合会城市农产品流通研究所(2017).中国城市农产品流通发展报告.2016.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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