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庄子齐物思想研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-1594-4

出版日期:2017-12

页数:245

字数:256.0千字

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“齐物”是庄子思想中极为晦涩难懂的一个命题。所谓“齐物”,简言之,就是万物之间没有差别。乍看之下,这明显与经验常识相悖。为了说清万物之间为何没有差别,当代学者从不同的角度诠释“齐物”,然而他们的诠释多不能令人满意。

第一,探析“庄子齐物思想的内涵”。《庄子》内篇特别是《齐物论》一文透显出这样一种“齐物”的内涵:万物在本真的意义上没有差别,但由于“成心”的作用,万物之间虚妄的差别被人们误认作真相。这一内涵是不完整的,它没有说明为何万物在本真的意义上没有差别,也没有明示“成心”为何物。通过解析与“齐物”有紧密关联的“无物”——“未始有物”,我们可以明确,庄子的“齐物”在本质上是一种境界,而且这种境界与佛家万法皆空的境界有相通之处。在文本没有提供更多信息的前提下,我们不妨借助佛家义理将庄子“齐物”的内涵补充完整,这就是:万物之间的差别只是假相,而不具有恒常不变的实体性,所以,从本真的意义上讲,万物之间并无差别;可是,人们总是以一种实体性的思维方式认识差别,从而把原本虚妄的差别执持为真实不变者,这种实体性思维亦即庄子所谓“成心”、佛家所谓我执和法执;只有通过类似于佛家止观的修持工夫——“心斋”“坐忘”去除实体性思维,人们才能认清差别的虚妄性,明了万物本齐——万法皆空的世界真相。

第二,将庄子的齐物思想置于整个“战国‘齐物’思潮”中,考察其个性以及与其他“齐物”思想间的共性和关联。较之惠施的“万物毕同”说和慎到等人的“齐万物”思想,庄子“齐物”思想的个性表现在,他相信万物本齐,并主张通过非理性的“心斋”“坐忘”打破对事物强作区分的思维定式,而惠施、慎到等人都是在承认万物本不齐的前提下以一种理性的、分析的方式“齐物”;不仅如此,庄子的“齐物”只是为了揭示万物齐一的世界真相,易言之,庄子是为“齐物”而“齐物”,而惠施、慎到等人都是通过“齐物”来表达某种政治诉求。庄子“齐物”思想与其他“齐物”思想间的共性表现在,尽管庄子“齐物”的目的不在于表达某种政治诉求,但他的“齐物”与惠施、慎到等人的“齐物”一样,也或多或少地折射出其对某种现行秩序的否定取向;此外,庄子排斥现行秩序的原因是想还生命以本来面目,惠施、慎到等人否定现行秩序的目的是代之以另一种秩序,这两者看似互不相关,实则它们都与老子的原始“齐物”思想存在某种继承关系。

第三,梳理“庄子后学对庄子‘齐物’思想的诠释”。《庄子》外杂篇“齐物”的思路共有三种:其一,万物本不齐,但若能各适其性,那么万物在合于自然的意义上便是齐一的,这一思路在外篇的《骈拇》《天地》《天运》《至乐》《达生》和杂篇的《列御寇》中均有体现;其二,透过宏大的视野看世界,人们可以认识到,万物在绝对的意义上是无法定性的,既然如此,物与物之间也就不存在绝对意义上的区别,就此而言,万物是齐一的,这一思路体现于外篇的《秋水》;其三,万物都是由气构成的,因此,从构成材料上看,万物齐一,这一思路体现在外篇的《知北游》中。上述三者与《庄子》内篇的“齐物”思路大相径庭,它们都不是通过特殊修养——如“心斋”“坐忘”方能证得的境界,而是只需心态、视角的转换即可获取的感悟。

第四,敷陈“向秀、郭象、成玄英等人对庄子‘齐物’思想的再诠释”。向秀、郭象继承和完善了庄子后学对“齐物”的诠释,他们所理解的“齐物”是在物性本不齐的前提下,万物如能“各适其性”,便可以在“逍遥”这一点上“平齐”“无二”。显然,这种“适性”“齐物”观仅仅将前述《庄子》外杂篇“齐物”思路的第一种略加改造,将合于自然等同于“逍遥”。郭象不仅以这种思路诠释外杂篇的“齐物”言论,而且以这种思路诠释内篇特别是《齐物论》的“齐物”言论。成玄英的《庄子疏》在义理的阐发上虽然不拘于郭象《庄子注》的限制,但在对“齐物”的诠释上,仍然重复郭象。郭注、成疏对庄子“齐物”思想的诠释对后世影响深远,于是,当代许多学者便以讹传讹,将外杂篇的“齐物”同内篇的“齐物”混为一谈。

第五,详述“支遁、释德清、章太炎等人对郭象‘齐物’释义的反拨”。在支遁看来,庄子的“齐物”并不是说万物在“逍遥”的意义上齐一,而是指称“至人”所达到的境界。作为一名佛教徒,支遁所谓“至人”特指佛,佛的境界是已经彻底证悟了万法皆空的境界,在这种境界中,人我平等,众生平等,万物平等,差别只是假相而已,这也就是“齐物”了。支遁对于“齐物”的诠释或曾在一时间完全取代郭、向注,此后,也有释德清、章太炎等诠释者在支遁开启的方向上继续进行发挥,但这种诠释对当今学界的影响微乎其微。需要指出的是,支遁等人的诠释方式与《庄子》内篇的“齐物”思路高度吻合,并能够补其不足。就此而论,这种诠释方式理应受到重视。

庄子齐物思想是庄子思想之精髓,齐物思想贯穿《庄子》全书,所以,对庄子齐物思想的理解关乎对整部《庄子》的理解,庄子齐物思想的澄明,必将有助于庄学研究的深入。

“The equality of things”is a very unintelligible proposition in Chuang-tzu's thought.In brief,the so-called“equality of things”means that all things are nondistinctive,which is obviously irreconcilable with common sense at first glance.In order to explain why all things are nondistinctive,the contemporary scholars interpret“the equality of things”from different angles.However,most of their interpretations are not satisfactory.

Firstly,I analyse“the connotation of Chuang-tzu's thought of‘the equality of things'”.In the inner chapters of Chuang-tzu,especially in the article of The Equality of Things and Opinions,there is such a sort of connotation of“the equality of things”that all things are nondistinctive in the sense of the real look,but the false differences between things are mistaken for truths by people because of the effect of people's prejudices.The connotation is incomplete because it doesn't explain why all things are nondistinctive in the sense of the real look and what people's prejudices are.By analysing the“nothing”which is closely related to“the equality of things”,we can understand that Chuang-tzu's“equality of things”is in essence a sort of realm of mind which is similar to Buddhism's realm of mind that everything is void.Under the premise that the texts don't provide more information,we may as well complete the connotation of Chuang-tzu's“the equality of things”by means of Buddhism's principles.The complete connotation is that the differences between things are just illusions and aren't constant and substantive,so all things are nondis tinctive in the sense of the real look;however,people always comprehend differences in the substantive way of thinking which is Chuang-tzu's so-called prejudices or Buddhism's so-called“attachment to selfhood”and“attachment to dharmas”and consequently take originally false differences as real and constant beings;only when substantive thinking is removed by means of the cultivation of Gongfu of“fasting of the mind”or“sitting and forgetting”similar to Buddhism's Samatha-Vipassana,can people recognize the unreality of differences and clearly understand the truth of the world that all things are nondistinctive originally—in other words,everything is void.

Secondly,I put Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”in the background of the whole trend of thoughts of“the equality of things”during the Warring States Period to study its individualities and the universality and relationship between it and other thoughts of“the equality of things”.Compared with Hui Shi's theory of“all things are nondistinctive”and Shen Dao et al.'s thought of“the equality of things”,the individualities of Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”are that Chuang-tzu believed all things are nondistinctive originally and advocated to break the mindset to distinguish things stiffly by non-rational“fasting of the mind”or“sitting and forgetting”,while Hui Shi and Shen Dao et al.equalized things in a rational and analytical way under the premise of admitting that in reality all things are distinct from each other;moreover,the purpose of Chuang-tzu's“equality of things”was just to reveal the truth of the world that all things are nondistinctive and in other words,Chuangtzu equalized things in order to equalize things,while Hui Shi and Shen Dao et al.all equalized things in order to express some political appeal.The universality between Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”and other thoughts of“the equality of things”is that although the purpose of Chuang-tzu's“equality of things”wasn't to express some political appeal,just like Hui Shi and Shen Dao et al.'s“equality of things”,it also reflects the negative orientation toward some existing order more or less.Moreover,the reason why Chuangtzu rejected existing order was that he wanted to restore the true colors of life and the purpose that Hui Shi and Shen Dao et al.negated existing order was that they wanted to replace the order with another order;it looks like that the two aren't correlative,but in fact they both have some inheritance relationships with Lao-tzu's original thought of“the equality of things”.

Thirdly,I sort out“Chuang-tzu's disciples' interpretations of Chuang-tzu's thought of‘the equality of things'”.There are totally three ways of thinking of equalizing things in the outer and miscellaneous chapters of Chuang-tzu.In the first place,in reality all things are distinct from each other but as long as they can suit their natures,they will be nondistinctive in the sense of being according to their natures.This way of thinking is embodied in Webbed Toes,Heaven and Earth,The Revolution of Heaven,Perfect Enjoyment,The Full Understanding of Life of the outer chapters and Lie Yu-kou of the miscellaneous chapters.In the second place,seeing the world from a large field of view,people can realize that the natures of things can't be determined in the absolute sense and under the circumstances,there aren't absolute differences among things,which means all things are nondistinctive.This way of thinking is embodied in The Floods of Autumn of the outer chapters.In the third place,all things are composed of qi and therefore they are nondistinctive in the aspect of constitute material.This way of thinking is embodied in Knowledge Rambling in the North of the outer chapters.The above three are very different from the way of thinking of equalizing things in the inner chapters of Chuang-tzu.In other words,all of them aren't realms of mind by means of special cultivation such as“fasting of the mind”or“sitting and forgetting”,but rather perceptions just by means of the transformation of attitude or angle of view.

Fourthly,I elaborate“Xiang Xiu,Guo Xiang and Cheng Xua nying et al.'s reinterpretation of Chuang-tzu's thought of‘the equality of things'”.Xiang Xiu and Guo Xiang inherited and completed Chuang-tzu's disciples' interpretation of“the equality of things”.In the eyes of them,“the equality of things”is that under the premise that in reality all things' natures are distinct from each other,all things can be nondistinctive in the aspect of“being free and unfettered”if they can suit their natures.Obviously,this sort of concept of“the equality of things”by“suiting things' natures”just slightly transformed the above first way of thinking of equalizing things in the outer and miscellaneous chapters of Chuang-tzu and equated being according to things' natures with“being free and unfettered”.Guo Xiang not only interpreted the texts of“the equality of things”in the outer and miscellaneous chapters in the way of thinking,but also interpreted the texts of“the equality of things”in the inner chapters,especially in The Equality of Things and Opinions in the way of thinking.Although Cheng Xuanying's Rectification of Chuang-tzu wasn't limited by Guo Xiang's Annotation for Chuang-tzu in the aspect of elucidating philosophical connotations,he still imitated Guo Xiang in the aspect of interpreting“the equality of things”.The interpretation of Chuang-tzu's thought of‘the equality of things'”in Guo Xiang's Annotation for Chuang-tzu and Cheng Xuanying's Rectification of Chuang-tzu had profound influence on later generations.So many contemporary scholars incorrectly relay an erroneous information to confuse“the equality of things”in the outer and miscellaneous chapters with“the equality of things”in the inner chapters.

Finally,I expatiate“Zhi Dun,Shi Deqing and Zhang Taiyan et al.'s refutation of Guo Xiang's interpretation of‘the equality of things'”.In the eyes of Zhi Dun,Chuang-tzu's“equality of things”doesn't mean all things are nondistinctive in the aspect of“being free and unfettered”,but refers to perfect men's realm of mind.As a Buddhist,Zhi Dun's so-called perfect men refer in particular to Buddhas.Buddhas' realm of mind is the one that they have already real ized everything is void thoroughly.In this realm of mind,people are nondistinctive and sentient beings are nondistinctive and all things are nondistinctive and differences are just illusions,which is“equality of things”.At one time Zhi Dun's interpretation of“the equality of things”perhaps replaced Guo Xiang and Xiang Xiu's interpretation completely,and since then many interpreters such as Shi Deqing and Zhang Taiyan continued to develop Zhi Dun's interpretation,but the interpretation's influence on present academic circles is very little.It should be pointed out that Zhi Dun et al.'s way of interpretation is highly consistent with the way of thinking of equalizing things in the inner chapters of Chuang-tzu and can make up for latter insufficiencies.From this point of view,this way of interpretation should be attached importance to.

Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”is the quintessence of Chuang-tzu's thought,and the thoughts of“the equality of things”are throughout the entire Chuang-tzu.Therefore,the understanding of Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”concerns the understanding of the entire Chuang-tzu and the clarification on Chuang-tzu's thought of“the equality of things”will certainly contribute to the in-depth research on Chuang-tzu.

Key Words: Chuang-tzu;The Equality of Things;The Equality of Things and Opinions;Webbed Toes;To Suit Things'Natures;Sunyata

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
李凯.庄子齐物思想研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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李凯.庄子齐物思想研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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李凯(2017).庄子齐物思想研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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