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蒙古语喀喇沁土语社会语言学研究

A Sociolinguistic Study on Mongolian Haraqin Vatois

ISBN:978-7-5161-5506-6

出版日期:2015-04

页数:584

字数:584.0千字

丛书名:《国家哲学社会科学成果文库》

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基金信息: 国家哲学社会科学成果文库 展开
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图书简介

本著共分九章。第一章“绪言”,包括课题研究的目的、研究现状及意义、课题的设计思路和研究内容、研究方法,以及主要观点和创新点等内容。

第二章“喀喇沁蒙古族源流及氏族构成”,从不同角度论证“喀喇沁”一词源于职业名称——北魏时期的宫廷宿卫“曷剌真”;“喀喇沁”作为部落和职业名称,主要来自元代的钦察军及哈剌赤户;“喀喇沁”作为独立、统一的部落,形成于明代;在清代,“喀喇沁”为蒙古部落名兼行政区域名称。

第三章为“赤峰市喀喇沁旗蒙古族语言文字使用情况”。社会调查及问卷调查数据显示:喀喇沁旗蒙古族人口中,使用蒙古语言文字者的比例不到0.6%。1921—1936年出生的70—85岁年龄层次的人属于从蒙古语向蒙古语和汉语双语过渡的时代,时值民国时期;1938—1950年出生的55—68岁年龄层次的人属于双语并用时代,时间包括抗日战争、解放战争直到新中国成立;1951—1990年出生的17—55岁年龄层次的人属于转用汉语的时代。据推算,再过一代人,即30年左右,喀喇沁旗将不存在实质上使用蒙古族语言文字的人。

第四章为“赤峰市宁城县喀喇沁蒙古族语言使用情况”。社会调查及问卷调查数据显示:宁城县的蒙古语已进入濒危阶段。在濒危语言(方言)区,家庭是母语激励源,社会是汉语激励源,社区人员的实际语言能力,一般情况下,接近两种语言使用机率的折中值。语言模式转换的一般过程是,首先是双语得到发展,纯蒙古语的使用受抑制,汉语使用逐步扩大;其次是蒙古语从社会交际领域退出,双语使用率下降,汉语使用率稳步上升;最后是完全转用汉语。语言模式转换的速度,城镇快于乡村,子女快于父母,干部快于农民和学生。在濒危语言(方言)区,学校是母语、母文化保护的重要阵地,合并学校时,应分别对待,谨慎处理。

第五章为“辽宁省喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治县蒙古族语言使用情况”。社会调查和问卷调查数据显示:喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治县蒙古族人口中蒙古语使用者占全县蒙古族总人口的15.9%,真正的使用者不足10%。喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治县蒙古族语言使用模式,在新中国成立前就从蒙古语单语过渡到蒙汉双语模式,从新中国成立初至1979年,再从蒙汉双语过渡到汉语单语模式。喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治县蒙古语在使用上已出现断代,成为濒危土语。

第六章为“喀喇沁部的地理分布及人口移动对民族接触和语言接触的影响”。“自然村地名数据库”数据显示:移民对喀喇沁地区民族接触和民族构成模式的形成有重大影响,而民族接触和民族构成模式是影响语言接触、语言转用过程和进度的最重要的社会因素。平泉县移民开始早、规模大,蒙古族村落成为少数孤岛,在边缘孤岛中,蒙古语以蒙古族聚居的自然村为依托,不同程度地得以保存和传承。喀喇沁旗移民开始早,但受土地所有权限制,形成蒙汉杂居模式,程度逐渐加深,兼用、转用彼此的语言成为自然选择,汉族人口逐渐占优势,汉语替代蒙古语的趋势开始形成。宁城县的移民开始早,由于有清廷的支持和专门开发机构,移民可以大规模地、独立地建村并开发利用当地的土地和山林,居住模式是分离式的,蒙汉民族各保一方,杂居程度较低,蒙古族聚居村落较好地保存了蒙古语。喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治县移民及其居住模式深受时局影响,在康熙之前蒙汉自然杂居,乾隆后汉族移民占优势,民国及新中国成立后出现一个调整过程,杂居程度加深,但不及喀喇沁旗。在蒙古族聚居的自然村中,蒙古语保留程度比喀喇沁旗好,但不如宁城县。

“自然村地名数据库”数据还显示,喀喇沁地区蒙古语自然村地名按词义分类,可包括自然地理式、氏族人名式、职业分工式、聚落计户式四种类型。自然地理式村名显示喀喇沁人以山地聚落为主;氏族人名式村名显示喀喇沁部由众多氏族融合而成;职业分工式村名显示喀喇沁地区曾经有过发达的畜牧业和狩猎、山林经营传统,农业及其他职业也逐步得到发展;聚落计户式村名显示,喀喇沁地区初期的蒙古村落以3、5、7、8户为主,规模很小。同名自然村名前加特定限定词,是自然村的横向扩展形式,以驻地核心村命名自然村上一级行政单位,是农村管理网络的纵向扩展形式。喀喇沁地区蒙古语地名的汉化有音译、音译加意译、意译加音译、意译、两名并行、改名等不同过程。地名演化是语言演变的一种。

第七章“喀喇沁地区蒙古族双语教育研究”认为,语言文字的使用深受国家制度的约束。特定语言在最大范围内的通行功能和国家政治权力相结合,便产生语言权威,体现在学校语言的选择及其安排顺序、国家对语言文字的规范上。语言文字教育与国家的教育制度和政策运行机制有密切关系。此外,语言教育同人口比例、分布及其变动,同居民对语言教育的经济支撑能力,以及受教育者对社会发展的期望值等,都有不可分割的密切联系。

第八章为“喀喇沁地区异族通婚对语言使用模式演变的影响”。异族通婚对语言模式的演变有重要影响,但不是决定的因素。异族通婚的影响,主要表现为汉族母亲将汉语带进家庭,并影响子女家庭语言模式。异族通婚家庭语言模式演变的决定因素是社会语言环境,其中工作语言和邻里语言是最重要的因素。蒙古语文教育对蒙古语的保持和应用具有重要意义,但如果社会环境的汉化趋势强劲,那么学校蒙古语文教育最终抵挡不住来自社会的压力。婚姻观和语言观演变的基础是社会实践。家庭中有异族通婚或异族通婚史,家庭成员在社会中多用汉语,一般会赞同或包容异族通婚、转用汉语。各种语言模式的家庭,不论有没有实践基础,都表示赞同使用双语,因为它是异族通婚家庭各方都能够接受的言语表达策略。

第九章为“总结与理论探索”。个案研究总结可以概括为:

(一)统一国家的建立和社会职业角色是氏族整合为部落的重要因素。

(二)民族接触的程度取决于民族之间的接触方式、地理位置和移民模式。

(三)土地所有权随民族间及民族内部阶级关系的变化而变化,命系黄土者才真正守护那份土地。

(四)人名、地名的汉化受语言演变和语言转用规律支配。

(五)语言使用模式类型及语言转换阶段及速度。

喀喇沁地区蒙古族语言使用模式分保持型、转用型、双语型三类。双语型进一步分为蒙古语濒危型、蒙古语衰弱型和蒙古语下滑型。

从喀喇沁建旗到21世纪30年代,一共不到400年,前300年,蒙汉语经过长时间的接触,蒙古语渐渐丧失优势地位,后100年,蒙古语经过蒙古语单语、蒙汉双语,迅速过渡到汉语单语。在整个喀喇沁地区,由于蒙古语的社会使用出现断代,蒙古语的濒危趋势已形成。

(六)影响语言转换速度的诸因素。

影响语言转换速度的关键因素是民族接触模式,尤其是居住模式。杂居程度深,兼用、转用彼此的语言是自然选择,随着汉族人口占优势,汉语替代蒙古语的趋势开始形成。居住模式是分离式的,杂居程度较低,蒙古族聚居村落较好地保存了蒙古语;喀喇沁地区蒙汉语言接触实践证明,影响并决定语言使用模式转换的关键因素首先不是使用者绝对人口的多寡,也不是使用者在总人口中所占的比例,而是居民社会中不同民族的居住模式和杂居、交往程度。一定人口规模的自然村是语言社会得以形成和保存的最基本的社会形态。

语言使用场域是影响语言使用模式转换的重要因素。在喀喇沁地区蒙汉杂居社区,家庭是母语激励源,社会是汉语激励源,社区人员的实际语言能力,在一般情况下,接近两种语言使用率的折中值。

地域社会经济文化发展程度影响语用模式的转换。从语言模式转换的速度看,城镇快于乡村,子女快于父母,干部快于农民和学生。

职业对语言使用模式变化有一定影响。在喀喇沁地区蒙古族现时语言中,汉语使用程度最高的是干部,其次是家长,教师最低。

家庭语言中的年龄、等级和性别约束随场景发生变化。事实证明,现时语言使用模式形成的决定性因素是社会语言环境,家庭语言随社会语言环境而发生变化。社会语言环境的影响首先体现在父亲和晚辈语言应用模式上,然后波及祖父母和母亲,逐步向家庭语言渗透。

(七)语言转换和文化迁移不等步,语言选择和语言情感评价不一致。

(八)语言教育与语言转换。

语言文字教育与国家的教育制度和政策运行机制有密切关系。语言文字的使用深受国家制度的约束。语言教育同人口比例、分布及其变动,同居民对语言教育的经济支撑能力,以及受教育者对社会发展的期望值等,都有不可分割的密切联系。本次研究发现,蒙古语文教育对蒙古语的保持和应用具有重要意义,但如果社会环境的汉化趋势强劲,那么学校蒙古语文教育最终将抵挡不住来自社会的压力。

(九)异族通婚与语言转换。

异族通婚对语言模式的演变有重要影响,但不是决定的因素。这一章还讨论了有关语言接触现象的几个基本理论问题。

The book is divided into nine chapters. The first chapter, "Introduction", includes the purpose of the research project, the current status and significance of the research, the design ideas and research content of the project, the research methods, and the main ideas and innovations. The second chapter, "The Origin and Clan Composition of the Karaqin Mongols", argues from different angles that the word "Karaqin" derives from the professional name of the court guard "Xiao Razhen" in the Northern Wei Dynasty; "Karaqin" as a tribal and professional name, mainly from the Kipchak Army and Harachi in the Yuan Dynasty; As an independent and unified tribe, the "Karaqin" was formed in the Ming Dynasty; In the Qing Dynasty, "Karaqin" was the name of a Mongolian tribe and administrative region. The third chapter is "The Use of Mongolian Spoken and Written Languages in the Karaqin Banner of Chifeng City". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that less than 0.6% of the Mongolian population in Karaqin Banner use Mongolian language. People born in the age group of 70-85 born from 1921 to 1936 belong to the era of transition from Mongolian to Mongolian and Chinese, which is the Republican period; People born in the age group of 55-68 born in 1938-1950 belong to the era of bilingualism, which includes the War of Resistance Against Japan, the War of Liberation and the founding of New China; People born between the ages of 17 and 55 born in 1951-1990 belong to the era of switching to Chinese. It is estimated that in another generation, that is, about 30 years, there will be no people in the Karaqin banner who use the Mongolian language in essence. The fourth chapter is "Use of Karaqin Mongolian Languages in Ningcheng County, Chifeng City". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that the Mongolian language in Ningcheng County has entered the endangered stage. In endangered language (dialect) areas, where the family is the source of motivating the mother tongue and the society is the motivator of the Chinese language, the actual language ability of community members is, in general, close to the compromise of the probability of using the two languages. The general process of language mode conversion is, first, the development of bilingualism, the suppression of the use of pure Mongolian, and the gradual expansion of the use of Chinese; Secondly, Mongolian has withdrawn from the field of social communication, the use of bilingual language has declined, and the use of Chinese has steadily increased; Finally, there was a complete switch to Chinese. The speed of language mode conversion is faster in towns than in villages, children faster than parents, and cadres faster than farmers and students. In endangered language (dialect) areas, schools are an important position for the protection of mother tongue and mother culture, and when merging schools, they should be treated separately and handled with caution. Chapter 5 is entitled "Use of Mongolian Languages in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County, Liaoning Province". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that Mongolian speakers account for 15.9% of the total Mongolian population in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County, and less than 10% of the actual users are real. The Mongolian language usage model in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County transitioned from Mongolian monolingualism to Mongolian-Chinese bilingual mode before the founding of New China, and from the beginning of the founding of New China to 1979, and then from Mongolian-Chinese bilingual to Chinese monolingual. The Mongolian language in the Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County has been interrupted in use and has become an endangered indigenous language. Chapter 6 is entitled "The Influence of Geographical Distribution and Population Movement of the Karaqin Region on Ethnic and Linguistic Contacts". Data from the Natural Village Gazetteer Database show that migration has a significant impact on the formation of ethnic contacts and ethnic composition patterns in the Karaqin region, and ethnic contacts and ethnic composition patterns are the most important social factors affecting language contact and language transfer process and progress. Pingquan County began to settle early and on a large scale, and Mongolian villages became a few isolated islands, and in the marginal islands, the Mongolian language was preserved and passed on to varying degrees based on natural villages inhabited by Mongolians. Karaqin Banner migration began early, but due to the restriction of land ownership, the formation of a Mongolian-Han mixed living model, the degree gradually deepened, the use of both languages became a natural selection, the Han population gradually dominated, and the trend of Chinese replacing Mongolian began to form. The migration of Ningcheng County began early, thanks to the support of the Qing court and special development agencies, the immigrants could build villages on a large scale and independently and develop and use the local land and mountains, the living mode was separate, the Mongol and Han ethnic groups kept one side, the degree of mixed living was low, and the Mongolian villages inhabited better preserved the Mongolian language. The migration and living patterns of the Karaqin Left-wing Mongol Autonomous County were deeply affected by the current situation, with the Mongols and Han naturally mixed before the Kangxi Dynasty, and the Han immigrants predominantly after the Qianlong Dynasty, and there was an adjustment process after the founding of the Republic of China and New China, and the degree of mixed living deepened, but not as good as the Karaqin Banner. In the natural villages inhabited by Mongolians, the Mongolian language is better preserved than the Karaqin Banner, but not as good as in Ningcheng County. The data of the "Natural Village Geographical Names Database" also shows that the Mongolian natural village geographical names in the Karaqin area are classified according to their meanings, including four types: physical geography, clan names, occupational division of labor, and settlement households. The natural geographical village name shows that the Karaqin people are mainly mountain settlements; Clan names show that the Karaqin tribe was formed by the fusion of many clans; The name of the village with occupational division of labor shows that the Kalaqin region once had developed animal husbandry, hunting, mountain and forest management traditions, and agriculture and other occupations were gradually developed; The name of the settlement household type shows that the Mongolian villages in the early days of the Karaqin region were mainly 3, 5, 7 and 8 households, and the scale was very small. The name of the natural village of the same name is preceded by a specific qualifier, which is a horizontal expansion form of the natural village, and naming the administrative unit of the natural village at the level above the resident core village is the vertical expansion form of the rural management network. The sinicization of Mongolian place names in the Karaqin region has different processes such as transliteration, transliteration and transliteration, paraphrasing plus transliteration, paraphrasing, two parallelism, and name change. The evolution of geographical names is a type of linguistic evolution. Chapter 7, "Research on Mongolian Bilingual Education in the Karaqin Region," argues that the use of spoken and written languages is deeply constrained by the state system. The combination of the universal function of a particular language and the political power of the state to produce linguistic authority is reflected in the choice of school language and its arrangement order, and the state's regulation of spoken and written language. Language and writing education is closely related to the country's education system and policy operation mechanism. In addition, language education is inextricably and closely related to the proportion, distribution and changes of the population, with the economic support capacity of the population for language education, and with the expectations of the educated for social development. Chapter 8 is entitled "The Impact of Interracial Marriage on the Evolution of Language Use Patterns in the Karaqin Region." Intermarriage has an important influence on the evolution of language patterns, but it is not a determining factor. The influence of interracial marriage is mainly manifested in the fact that Han mothers bring Chinese into the family and affect the family language patterns of their children. The determinant of the evolution of language patterns in intermarried families is the socio-linguistic environment, of which working language and neighborhood language are the most important factors. Mongolian language education is of great significance to the maintenance and application of Mongolian language, but if the trend of sinicization in the social environment is strong, then Mongolian language education in schools will eventually not be able to resist the pressure from society. The basis for the evolution of the view of marriage and language is social practice. There is a history of interracial marriage or interracial marriage in the family, and family members who use Chinese more in society will generally approve or tolerate interracial marriage and switch to Chinese. Families of all language patterns, with or without a basis in practice, endorse bilingualism as a verbal strategy acceptable to all parties in intermarried families. Chapter 9 is "Summary and Theoretical Exploration". The case study can be summarized as follows: (i) The establishment of a unified state and socio-professional roles are important factors in the integration of clans into tribes. (ii) The degree of ethnic contact depends on the mode of contact between ethnic groups, geographical location and migration patterns. (3) Land ownership changes with changes in class relations between and within ethnic groups, and it is the person who lives on the loess who truly protects that land. (4) The sinicization of personal and geographical names is governed by the law of language evolution and language transfer. (5) Language usage patterns, types, and language conversion stages and speeds. The use mode of Mongolian languages in the Karaqin region is divided into three categories: retention, transfer and bilingualism. Bilingual forms are further divided into Mongolian endangered type, Mongolian weak type, and Mongolian decline type. From the establishment of the Karaqin banner to the 30s of the 21st century, a total of less than 400 years, the first 300 years, Mongolian Chinese after a long period of contact, Mongolian gradually lost its dominant position, the next 100 years, Mongolian through Mongolian monolingual, Mongolian and Chinese bilingual, quickly transitioned to Chinese monolingual. Throughout the Karaqin region, the Mongolian language has become endangered due to the interruption of the social use of the Mongolian language. (6) Factors affecting the speed of language conversion. The key factor influencing the speed of language conversion is the pattern of ethnic contact, especially the pattern of residence. With the predominance of the Han population, the trend of replacing Mongolian with Chinese began to take shape. The living mode is separate, the degree of intermingling is low, and the Mongolian language is better preserved in Mongolian villages; The practice of Mongolian and Chinese language contact in the Karaqin region proves that the key factor affecting and determining the transformation of language use mode is not the absolute number of users, nor the proportion of users in the total population, but the living patterns and the degree of intermingling and interaction of different ethnic groups in the resident society. A natural village of a certain population size is the most basic social form in which a linguistic society can be formed and preserved. The language usage field is an important factor affecting the transformation of language usage patterns. In the mixed community of Menghan and Han in the Karaqin region, the family is the source of motivating the mother tongue, the society is the source of Chinese motivation, and the actual language ability of the community personnel is, in general, close to the compromise of the utilization rate of the two languages. The degree of regional, socio-economic and cultural development affects the transformation of pragmatic patterns. In terms of the speed of language mode conversion, towns are faster than villages, children are faster than parents, and cadres are faster than farmers and students. Occupation has an impact on changes in language usage patterns. Among the current Mongolian languages in the Karaqin region, the highest degree of Chinese use is made by cadres, followed by parents and teachers the lowest. Age, rank, and gender constraints in family language change from scene to scene. It turns out that the decisive factor in the formation of current language use patterns is the socio-linguistic environment, and the family language changes with the socio-linguistic environment. The influence of socio-linguistic environment is first reflected in the language application patterns of fathers and juniors, and then affects grandparents and mothers, gradually penetrating into family language. (7) Language conversion and cultural transfer are not equal, and language selection and language sentiment evaluation are inconsistent. (8) Language education and language conversion. Language and writing education is closely related to the country's education system and policy operation mechanism. The use of spoken and written languages is heavily constrained by the national system. Language education is inextricably and closely related to the proportion, distribution and changes of the population, with the economic support capacity of residents for language education, and with the expectations of educated people for social development. This study finds that Mongolian language education is of great significance to the maintenance and application of Mongolian language, but if the trend of sinicization in the social environment is strong, then Mongolian language education in schools will eventually be unable to resist the pressure from society. (9) Interracial marriage and language conversion. Intermarriage has an important influence on the evolution of language patterns, but it is not a determining factor. The chapter also discusses several basic theoretical issues related to the phenomenon of language contact.(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
宝玉柱.蒙古语喀喇沁土语社会语言学研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
宝玉柱.蒙古语喀喇沁土语社会语言学研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
宝玉柱(2015).蒙古语喀喇沁土语社会语言学研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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