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多维视野中的《野草》研究概论

Overview of W ild Grass Research: A Multidimensional Perspective

ISBN:978-7-5203-2159-4

出版日期:2018-04

页数:297

字数:332.0千字

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基金信息: 国家社会科学基金后期资助项目[项目批准号:14FZW048] 展开
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国家社会科学基金后期资助项目“多维视野中的《野草》研究概论”即将以同名出版物出版,作者嘱我写一小序。从全书的内容看,读者不难发现:作者的整个研究过程确实花费了大量的心血。

研究《野草》,是对于心智结构的一次挑战,如果仅仅在文学文本中寻找精神的入口,可能会遗漏些什么。《野草》背后隐含的哲思和诗意的存在,纠缠着存在的要义和精神的突围的渴望。而在智慧表达上一反文章学的理念,在“非文”“非诗”中流动着文之魅力与诗之趣味。这种前所未有的自我寻觅带来的精神盘旋,抵达了士大夫者流未曾有的精神之巅,像尼采一般给我们带来思想的惊异和阅读的快感。多少年来,许多读者驻足于此,一唱三叹之余,对于汉语的魅力被再次激活而深感欣慰。

在鲁迅的作品中,《野草》是最有魅力的文本。从整部散文诗集看,开篇的《秋夜》蕴含着“铁马冰河入梦来”的味道,末篇《一觉》带着起然烟卷觉新暖的情怀,显然已经走出了“凉”的、冷的、灰色的梦境,是觉醒、反思,还是看到了希望?这里流露着从梦到醒的轨迹,抑或是从死灭中崛起,实现了新生。看似24篇单篇作品,实则各篇之间是有内在联系的,是有作者思路在的。语言方面时时吸引着读者的是,用字用词造句都十分稀奇古怪,不同寻常。如“蛊惑”“恶鸟”“被这笑声所驱逐”“那冷气已使我的指头焦灼”“而死尸已在坟中坐起”“颓败的身躯的全面都颤动了”,等等。如此新奇的造语,无疑增加了读者的好奇心,吸引读者去思考、探索文本的世界。然而,比结构、语言更重要的,则是晦涩玄奥的内容,这是更吸引人的。就《野草》的内容、意蕴看,已有的诠释多种多样,可谓是五花八门。说其生命探索者有之,说其存在主义者有之,说其苦闷忧郁者有之,说其婚恋道德者有之,等等。无论是“探秘”说,还是“解码”说,都意图揭开鲁迅蒙在《野草》上面的面纱,打开通向《野草》世界的大门。然而,研究者所做的这一切,其实都是以意为之。在《野草》的世界里,鲁迅在和自己对话,在自言自语,外人是听不懂的。鲁迅说过《野草》是写给他自己看的,不希望青年人看之类的话。实际上《野草》中有消极的情绪,鲁迅不想由此而给他人带来不良影响。有人说,仅凭一部《野草》,就能映射出鲁迅的伟大,这话是对的。

正因为《野草》有无穷的魅力,所以一直吸引着众多研究者。研究者孜孜不倦地解读、诠释,而且不会有下限。崔绍怀就是其中的一位执着的研究者,十年来一直在思考着、探索着。在搜集资料方面,他是很用心的,下了很大的功夫。他并不完全依赖互联网,还到一些图书馆查阅纸质本的书报杂志等。因为有些材料,或由于技术原因,或由于作者的意愿,或由于版权、保密等各种原因,是不上传到互联网上的。互联网上显示的、实有的《野草》研究资料,他都找来了。互联网上没有的,他也找到了较为令他惊喜的相关材料。还有这样一部分《野草》研究资料:有作者,有题目,有出处,但没有具体的文献内容。他通过馆际互借的方式,也搜集到了这些材料。在梳理、分析《野草》研究发展历程时,占有丰富的文献资料,显然是十分必要的。大而言之,从事科学研究,以大量的材料作为研究基础,由此而凝练成的观点、论据、结论,其效度就越可靠,可信度就越高。所以,掌握丰富的文献资料是研究的基础,是研究中至关重要的环节。

很早就有人提出了“《野草》学”的概念,研究者们为之不断添砖加瓦,贡献自己的智慧。作为一门学科,需要具备作品、作品研究、作品研究史、作品研究史论等关键要素。在“《野草》学”学科建设中,前三个要素是具备的。从国内外研究现状看,目前还没有人出版《野草》研究史论方面的专著。因此,就作品研究史论而言,《多维视野中的〈野草〉研究概论》这一成果的出版,显然拓展了“《野草》学”的研究空间,会被更多的学人所关注。从目前的相关研究成果看,孙玉石、张梦阳、王吉鹏、张娟等的《野草》研究史是具有很大的启发意义的。即便如此,构建多维视野中的《野草》研究概论仍然是一项庞大的工程,这从该著的论证、分析过程中是能看得出来的。从该著在把握诗学、美学、哲学、文化学、社会学、心理学等视野中的《野草》研究发展历程方面看,该著作一方面观照了“多维视野”,一方面又在“概”字上面狠下功夫。在“概论”这一类的著作中,不可能将所有有关的成果都纳入进来,也不必观照所有的视野,但是有代表性的、产生过较大影响的研究成果也是不能漏掉的。从全书所使用的文献史料看,作者是有这方面的考量的。在“《野草》学”学科建设过程中,该著作具有开创意义,显然促进了“《野草》学”学科的发展。应该说,该著作在撰写过程中遇到的困难是可想而知的,毕竟没有参照,但从其对《野草》研究历程多维视角、综合性、客观性方面的分析看,还是妥当的。当然,只就“概论”方面的著作而言,仅有这一部著作显然是不够的,仍然需要更多的学者在更高层次、更广视野中予以关注,并持续探讨。

在研究方法上,该著作所使用的史论融通、文献研究等方法是有启发的,更契合实际需要。因为撰写研究史论,既需要史实,也需要史述,更需要做到有史有论、论从史出、史论融通。在具体的论证、分析过程中,该著作或按照从研究论著到研究论文的逻辑思路,或按照时间先后顺序进行研究。如分析、梳理哲学视野中《野草》研究发展历程时,该著作从最初的《野草》哲学探索,中经《野草》哲学研究的曲折发展,一直写到当下《野草》哲学研究的继承与创新,并总结出《野草》哲学研究的启示等,在史述中展示了论证过程、哲学思考等。如在分析婚恋说视野中的《野草》研究时,作者先逐一讨论的《野草》爱情主题著作研究的内容,然后梳理、归纳的这一主题的研究论文的内容,不仅尊重史实,而且极为严肃、认真。因为人们对鲁迅家庭生活、个人情感的话题是敏感的,也是谨慎的。再如,该著作在分析比较视野中的《野草》研究、《野草》争鸣的辨析研究时,是需要花大力气才能完成的。这里,绝不是表面化的辨析、比较,而是思维的比较。实际上还有很多富于鲁迅及其《野草》,以及相关史料的内涵的东西在论述中的。像尼采、厨川白村、波特莱尔对鲁迅的思想意识方面的影响,像东欧弱小民族的作家作品的精神实质对鲁迅的影响,像《彷徨》和《野草》之间潜在的精神联系等,该著作都是注意到了的。其实,该著作的文献研究法是与史论融通法交织在一起的。

当然,该著作也是有提升空间的。佛教语境、基督教语境与尼采语境如何被鲁迅所自由运用,小说家感觉与诗人体验怎样被调适在空间里,几代研究者面对鲁迅文本时的知识结构的差异导致的误读何在,都值得深入探讨。相信作者在今后的研究中,会克服诸多困难,为鲁迅研究的推进而做出更多的尝试。

孙郁3322721

2017年11月4日

The National Social Science Foundation funded the project "Introduction to the Study of "Weeds" in a Multidimensional Perspective" is about to be published in a publication of the same name, and the author asked me to write a short preface. From the content of the book, it is not difficult for readers to find that the entire research process of the author has indeed spent a lot of effort. Studying "Weeds" is a challenge to the structure of the mind, and if you only look for spiritual entrances in literary texts, you may miss something. The philosophical and poetic existence behind "Wild Grass" is entangled with the essence of existence and the desire for spiritual breakthrough. In the wisdom of expressing the concept of anti-literary studies, the charm of literature and the interest of poetry flow in "non-literary" and "non-poetry". This spiritual spiral brought about by unprecedented self-search reaches the spiritual peak that has never been seen in the flow of scholars, and brings us the wonder of thought and the pleasure of reading like Nietzsche. Over the years, many readers have stopped here, sang and sighed, and were deeply pleased that the charm of the Chinese language was reactivated. Among Lu Xun's works, "Wild Grass" is the most attractive text. Judging from the entire collection of prose poetry, the opening "Autumn Night" contains the taste of "the iron horse glacier into dream", and the last "One Sleep" carries the feeling of fresh warmth, obviously has walked out of the "cool", cold, gray dream, is it awakening, reflection, or seeing hope? It shows the trajectory from dream to awakening, or rising from death and achieving a new life. It seems that there are 24 single works, but in fact, there is an intrinsic connection between each of them, and there is an author's thought. What always attracts readers in terms of language is that the use of words and sentences is very strange and unusual. Such as "demagoguery", "evil bird", "expelled by this laughter", "the cold air has made my fingers burn", "and the dead body has sat up in the grave", "the whole body of the decay trembles", and so on. Such a novel creation of words undoubtedly increases the curiosity of the reader, attracting the reader to think and explore the world of the text. However, more important than structure and language is the obscure content, which is more attractive. In terms of the content and meaning of "Weeds", there are various interpretations, which can be described as varied. There are those who say that there are explorers of life, there are those who say that they are existential, there are those who say that they are depressed and melancholy, there are those who say that they are morally married, and so on. Whether it is the "exploration" theory or the "decoding" theory, they both intend to unveil Lu Xunmeng's veil on "Weeds" and open the door to the world of "Weeds". However, all of this researchers do is actually intentional. In the world of "Weeds", Lu Xun is talking to himself and talking to himself, which outsiders cannot understand. Lu Xun said that "Wild Grass" was written for himself and did not want young people to read such things. In fact, there are negative emotions in "Wild Grass", and Lu Xun does not want to bring bad influence to others. Some people say that just one "Weeds" can reflect Lu Xun's greatness, and this is correct. Because of its infinite charm, "Wild Grass" has always attracted many researchers. Researchers work tirelessly to interpret and interpret, and there is no lower limit. Cui Shaohuai is one of the persistent researchers, who has been thinking and exploring for ten years. In terms of collecting information, he is very attentive and puts a lot of effort into it. He did not rely entirely on the Internet, but also went to some libraries to consult hard books, newspapers and magazines. Because some materials, or for technical reasons, or due to the wishes of the author, or due to copyright, confidentiality, etc., are not uploaded to the Internet. He found all the actual "Weeds" research materials displayed on the Internet. What was not available on the Internet, he also found relevant materials that surprised him. There is also such a part of the "Weeds" research materials: there is an author, a title, and a source, but there is no specific literature content. He also collected these materials through interlibrary loan. When combing and analyzing the research and development process of "Weeds", it is obviously necessary to have rich literature. In general, the more reliable and credible the validity and credibility of opinions, arguments, and conclusions condensed from scientific research, a large number of materials as the basis for research. Therefore, mastering rich literature is the basis of research and a crucial part of research. The concept of "weeds" was proposed very early, and researchers continued to add bricks and contribute their wisdom to it. As a discipline, it is necessary to have key elements such as works, work research, work research history, and work research history. In the discipline construction of "Weed" Studies, the first three elements are present. Judging from the current research situation at home and abroad, no one has yet published a monograph on the history of "Weeds". Therefore, as far as the history of work research is concerned, the publication of the achievement of "Introduction to the Study of "Weeds" in a Multidimensional Perspective" obviously expands the research space of "Weeds" and will attract more scholars' attention. Judging from the current relevant research results, the research history of "Wild Grass" by Sun Yushi, Zhang Mengyang, Wang Jipeng, Zhang Juan and others is of great enlightening significance. Even so, constructing an introduction to the study of "Weeds" in a multidimensional perspective is still a huge project, which can be seen from the process of demonstration and analysis of the book. Judging from the perspective of grasping the research and development process of "Weeds" from the perspectives of poetics, aesthetics, philosophy, cultural studies, sociology, psychology, etc., the work on the one hand observes the "multidimensional vision", and on the other hand, it makes great efforts on the word "general". In a work such as "Introduction", it is impossible to include all relevant results, nor do you have to look at all the horizons, but representative and influential research results cannot be omitted. Judging from the historical sources used throughout the book, the author has this consideration. In the process of the construction of the discipline of "Weeds", this work is of pioneering significance and obviously promotes the development of the discipline of "Weeds". It should be said that the difficulties encountered in the writing of this work can be imagined, after all, there is no reference, but from its analysis of the multi-dimensional perspective, comprehensiveness and objectivity of the research process of "Weeds", it is still appropriate. Of course, as far as the "incomprehension" work is concerned, this work alone is obviously not enough, and more scholars are still needed to pay attention to it at a higher level and from a broader perspective, and continue to discuss it. In terms of research methods, the methods used in this work such as historical integration and documentary research are enlightening and more in line with practical needs. This is because writing and studying historical theories requires both historical facts and historical descriptions, and more importantly, it is necessary to achieve historical discussions, discussion from history, and historical theory integration. In the process of specific argumentation and analysis, the work is either studied according to the logical line from research treatise to research paper, or in chronological order. For example, when analyzing and sorting out the development process of "Weeds" research from the philosophical perspective, the work has written from the initial philosophical exploration of "Weeds", the tortuous development of "Weeds" philosophical research, to the inheritance and innovation of the current philosophical research of "Weeds", and summarized the enlightenment of the philosophical research of "Weeds", etc., showing the argumentation process and philosophical thinking in the historical narrative. For example, when analyzing the research of "Weeds" from the perspective of marriage and love, the author first discusses the content of the research on the theme of "Weeds" one by one, and then sorts out and summarizes the content of the research papers on this theme, which not only respects historical facts, but also is extremely serious and serious. Because people are sensitive and cautious about the topics of Lu Xun's family life and personal emotions. For another example, this work requires great effort to complete the analysis of the research of "Weeds" and the discriminating research of "Weeds" in the comparative perspective. Here, it is by no means superficial analysis and comparison, but a comparison of thinking. In fact, there are many things rich in the connotation of Lu Xun and his "Weeds" and related historical materials in the discussion. Like the influence of Nietzsche, Kitchen Chukawa Shiramura, and Botlair on Lu Xun's ideology, like the influence of the spiritual essence of the works of writers of weak and small Eastern European countries on Lu Xun, and the potential spiritual connection between "Wandering" and "Weeds", this work has all been noted. In fact, the documentary research method of this work is intertwined with the method of historical integration. Of course, there is room for improvement in this work. How the Buddhist context, Christian context, and Nietzsche context are freely used by Lu Xun, how the novelist's feelings and poets' experiences are adjusted in space, and how the misreading caused by the differences in the knowledge structure of Lu Xun's texts by generations of researchers is worth exploring in depth. It is believed that the author will overcome many difficulties in future research and make more attempts to promote Lu Xun's research. Sun Yu 33227212017 November 4(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
崔绍怀.多维视野中的《野草》研究概论[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2018
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MLA 格式引文
崔绍怀.多维视野中的《野草》研究概论.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2018E-book.
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APA 格式引文
崔绍怀(2018).多维视野中的《野草》研究概论.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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