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中国近代社会史(第2版)

ISBN:978-7-5203-2280-5

出版日期:2019-01

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“教学相长”,可谓耳熟能详。《礼记·学记》谓:“是故学然后知不足,教然后知困。知不足然后能自反也,知困然后能自强也。故曰:教学相长也。”这里所说的“教研相长”,则是强调教学和研究的互相促进,互相提高。教学和研究,两者融为一体,相得益彰,那是一个大学教师应该感到很欣慰的事情。

山西大学中国社会史研究中心成立20多年来,秉持教研相长的优良传统,一直强调在做好科学研究的同时,做好本科和研究生的教学工作。既要把自己的研究成果融入教学实践中,又要把教学实践中的问题引入自己的科学研究中,由“知不足”“知困”,到“自反”“自强”,确实朝着“教研相长”的方向不断努力。

2008年5月,在山西大学举行的建校106 周年纪念活动中,我在大会上有一个发言,题目叫作“走向田野与社会的史学”,初步总结了社会史研究中心成立以来立足前沿、学科融合、关注现实、培养人才、教研相长五个方面所谓的“经验之谈”。其中的“教研相长”如此谈道:

教师的天职是教书育人,传道、授业、解惑即为师之本。目前,高校普遍存在的一个令人担忧的现象是重科研而轻教学,它与不合理的各种考核和晋升条件有直接的关联,也与社会风气的影响直接相关。我记得,1985年留校任教后,乔志强先生曾和我有过一次认真的谈话,主题就是讲教学是教师的第一要务,站不稳三尺讲台,就没有立身之本,青年教师要把过好教学关当作工作后的第一关去认真对待,不得丝毫马虎。三十年来,我一直把老师的忠告铭记心间,即使在最近这些年繁重的行政工作压力下,我也尽量给本科生上课,争取上好每一节课。对自己的学生我也如此要求,尽管可能会累一点,但我们作为一个教师,心里实在有一种良心上的满足感。目前,由我带头的《区域社会史研究导论》课程已成为国家优秀精品课程,团队也获得国家优秀教学团队的荣誉。我们还以精品课程为核心,开展了“校园历史文化节”“鉴知精品课程青年教师培训班”两项活动,有关的教材也在积极的编写过程中。事实证明,通过高质量的教学活动,大大促进了科学研究的广度和深度。教研相长绝非空词。

“教研相长”是山西大学中国社会史研究中心成立以来的一个好传统。乔志强先生在世时,不仅开拓性地率先开展社会史的研究,而且带领众弟子编写《中国近代社会史》一书,以此获得了教育部优秀教学成果奖,成为至今许多高校本科生、研究生的必读书和教材。乔先生仙逝后,我们又继承和发扬这一传统,虽然将研究的重心由整体社会史转向区域社会史,但教研相长却一以贯之,努力以赴。围绕10多年前为本科生开设的《区域社会史研究导论》课程,我们组建了“区域社会史”教学团队,获得了国家精品课程、视频公开课、优秀教学团队等荣誉,山西大学历史学科以此成为国家级特色学科,并建立了国家级的校外大学生实践教学基地。2014年,山西大学中国社会史研究中心被人力资源和社会保障部、教育部共同授予“全国教育系统先进单位”的荣誉称号。

毋庸讳言,目前中国高等教育仍然面临着许多挑战和问题,其中重科研轻教学的现象表现比较突出,许多高校的研究机构人员很少甚或没有为本科生上课的教学任务,导致科研与教学的严重脱节。重知识传授轻能力培养,重课堂学习轻研究训练,已经成为普遍诟病的问题。山西大学中国社会史研究中心不足10人,我们既作为研究团队,又作为教学团队,一肩双任,虽苦犹乐,这是因为我们首先是一个大学的老师。在科研和教学的长期实践过程中,我们确实有一份责任感,又有一份快乐感。

“教研相长七书”的一个小小意愿,就是把我们长期以来围绕中国社会史、区域社会史的教学实践公之于世,接受大学生、研究生和社会各界的意见和批评,以便继续深化这方面的工作。

以下就“教研相长七书”分别作以简要的介绍:

一、乔志强主编《中国近代社会史》(人民出版社1992年版)。该书为乔志强先生“和青年教师的集体尝试”,该书分社会构成、社会生活、社会功能三编建构中国近代社会史的知识体系,内容包括人口、家庭、宗族;社区与民族;社层变动;物质生活;精神生活;人际关系;教养功能;控制功能等。有学者称为“乔氏体系,三大板块”。正文之前有乔志强先生撰写的长达35页的“导论”,讨论社会史研究的对象、社会史的知识结构、研究社会史的意义、怎样研究社会史四个问题。这是国内第一本系统的社会史研究著作,有评论认为此书为社会史研究“从理论探讨到实际操作迈出的第一步”,“具有某种划时代的意义”。该书又有台北南天书局1998年6月中文繁体本,已经成为许多大学本科生、研究生的必读教材。

二、行龙主编《区域社会史研究导论》。2004年开始,由我牵头在山西大学历史系开设《区域社会史研究导论》课程,期间,或历史专业选修课,或全校公开课,连续十余年未曾间断。该课程以“集体授课”的形式进行,中国社会史研究中心的8位教师共同担当本课程的授课任务。2007年,该课程被评为国家级精品课程,次年区域社会史教学团队被评为国家级优秀教学团队;2013年,该课程作为教育部精品视频公开课向社会开放。授课的同时,我们就在进行着相关教材的编写,结合授课实际和学生的反映,大家一起讨论,反复修订,课程讲授—田野考察—修订教材,不断地循环往复,终于完成了这本经过10余年努力而成的教材。该书共七章一个绪论,讲授区域社会史研究的趋向、学科定位、区域特性、小地方与大历史、区域社会史研究的理论、方法、资料等内容,意在提供给学生一个怎样研究区域社会史的入门教材。

三、行龙主编《近代山西社会研究——走向田野与社会》(中国社会科学出版社2002年版)。本书为“山西大学百年校庆学术丛书”之一种,“是我和近几届硕士研究生共同完成的”。“本书除前面两篇有关社会史及区域社会史的理论问题(行龙:《中国社会史研究中的几个问题》;乔志强、行龙:《近代华北农村社会变迁论——兼论地域社会史研究的理论与方法》)外,对近代以来山西人口、水资源及水案、灾荒、集市、民教冲突、祁太秧歌等分专题进行了研究。应当说这些问题都是之前很少涉猎或没有研究过的问题,我们试图从社会史的角度对此进行探讨。”时间过得真快,一晃该书已面世14个年头,昔日的硕士生已成长为大学的教授,我感到很是欣慰。又,正是本书当年的责任编辑郭沂纹先生的肯定和支持,才催生了“教研相长七书”,对此要对她道一声感谢!

四、行龙主编《集体化时代的山西农村社会研究》。此书可以看作前书的姊妹篇,也是社会史研究中心硕士生毕业论文修改而成。集体化时代的农村社会研究,是近年来中心的一个主要研究方向,多篇硕士、博士论文围绕此方向展开。该书所涉内容包括两大类:一类为集体化时代的某个村庄问题的研究,典型农村如西沟、张庄,一般农村如赤桥、剪子湾、道备等;另一类为专题研究,如新区土改、医疗卫生、水土保持、农田水利、文化生活等。需要说明的是,正如前书的副标题一样,各篇论文的形成,都实践和体现了“走向田野与社会”的理念。论文“或以资料翔实见长,或以立题新颖取胜,各位都注意到充分利用田野调查和地方文献,下过一番苦功夫”。现经中心诸位教师讨论,从数十篇中选取十篇结集出版,接受读者的指正与批评。

五、行龙主编、郭永平副主编《在田野中发现历史——学生田野调查报告(永济篇)》。走向田野与社会,是我们多年来从事社会史和区域社会史教研工作中的追求与实践。“这里的田野包含两层意思:一是相对于校园和图书馆的田地与原野,也就是基层社会和农村;二是人类学意义上的田野工作,也就是参与观察实地考察的方法;这里的社会也有两层含义:一是现实的社会,我们必须关注现实社会,懂得从现在推延到过去或者由过去推延到现在;二是社会史意义上的社会,这是一个整体的社会,一个‘自下而上’的社会。”3695934田野工作是中心和历史学专业每一届学生的必修课,多年来,我们一直坚持这一做法,学生收获良多。

位于山西省南部的永济,是我们与永济市人民政府共同建立的国家大学生校外实践教学基地,近年来,山西大学社会史研究中心的教师结合《区域社会史研究导论》课程讲授,带领学生在永济进行了多次田野考察,该书收录的学生作品含学术论文、调查报告、田野日记三部分。虽显稚嫩,但对我们而言却十分重要,因为这是多年来学生田野工作的一次集中展现。

六、行龙著《山西区域社会史十五讲》。该书从我近年来发表的数十篇有关山西区域社会史的论文中辑出。书分六部分内容,涉及山西区域社会史研究的主要脉络,新的研究领域、田野考察、资料发掘、人物研究及山西大学校史的相关问题。这些论文都是在教学过程中“初次亮相”,进而吸收各方意见成稿,也可以说是本人“教研相长”的成果。

七、胡英泽、张俊峰主编《区域社会史研究读本》。这个“读本”,或可叫做“选本”,也就是一个教学参考书。记得我们读大学的时候,有一门课程是“历史要籍介绍及选读”,很受学生欢迎。区域社会史是一个新兴的研究领域,30年来却有那么多的成果出现,既要选的精当,又要使学生爱读,既要有理论方法的引导意义,又要兼顾具体的实践操作,实在也是一件很难的事情。又,这个读本只收录了部分中国学者的作品,限于篇幅未能收录海外学者的作品(有机会可再编一本《海外读本》),意在使读者减少隔膜感而增进亲近感,这样的初衷或许更符合读者的口味。“学识有限,难免挂一漏万,留遗珠之憾”,并非一句客套话。

“教研相长七书”编订之际,既有一分欣慰,又有一分忐忑。我们在长期从事历史研究的过程中,认真地从事了相关的教学工作,从大家的谈论中,从学生的反映中,我们能够感受到做教师的快乐。另外,“教研相长”又是一个需要长期坚持和努力的过程,在目前这样的环境中也是需要比别人付出更多心血的过程。过程之漫长并不可怕,好在这个过程是快乐的。

时值2016年教师节即将来临,新的学期也将开始,愿以“教研相长七书”以为纪念,期望读者诸位多加指教。

“教研相长七书”整理、编排过程中,马维强同志付出了辛勤的劳动,特以致谢。

行龙

2016年8月29日

于山西大学中国社会史研究中心

"Teaching and learning" is familiar. The Book of Rites and Learnings says: "It is to learn and then know the inadequate, and to teach and then to know the difficulties." Knowing the inadequacy and then being able to reflexively also, knowing the difficulty and then being able to improve oneself. Therefore, teaching is also good. The "mutual benefit of teaching and research" mentioned here emphasizes the mutual promotion and mutual improvement of teaching and research. Teaching and research, the integration and complementarity of the two, is something that a university teacher should feel very happy about. Since its establishment more than 20 years ago, the Research Center for Chinese Social History of Shanxi University has adhered to the fine tradition of teaching and research, and has always emphasized the teaching of undergraduate and graduate students while doing a good job in scientific research. It is necessary not only to integrate their own research results into teaching practice, but also to introduce the problems in teaching practice into their own scientific research, from "knowing deficiencies" and "knowing difficulties" to "self-reflexive" and "self-improvement", and indeed make continuous efforts in the direction of "teaching and research mutual benefit". In May 2008, at the commemoration of the 106th anniversary of the founding of Shanxi University, I gave a speech at the conference, entitled "Toward Field and Social Historiography", which preliminarily summarized the so-called "experience talk" in five aspects: based on the frontier, integration of disciplines, attention to reality, cultivation of talents, and mutual benefit of teaching and research since the establishment of the Social History Research Center. Among them, "teaching and research" said: The duty of a teacher is to teach and educate people, and preaching, teaching, and solving confusion are the foundation of teachers. At present, a worrying phenomenon commonly found in colleges and universities is the emphasis on scientific research over teaching, which is directly related to unreasonable assessment and promotion conditions, and also directly related to the influence of social atmosphere. I remember that after staying in the school to teach in 1985, Mr. Qiao Zhiqiang and I had a serious conversation, the theme was that teaching is the first priority of teachers, if you can't stand on a three-foot platform, there is no foundation for standing, and young teachers should take passing the teaching pass as the first pass after work to take it seriously, and must not be sloppy. For thirty years, I have taken my teacher's advice to heart, and even under the pressure of heavy administrative work in recent years, I try to teach undergraduates as much as possible and strive to do every lesson well. I do the same for my own students, and although we may be a little tired, we as teachers really feel a sense of conscience satisfaction. At present, the course "Introduction to Regional Social History Research" led by me has become a national excellent course, and the team has also won the honor of national excellent teaching team. We have also carried out two activities, "Campus History and Culture Festival" and "Training Course for Young Teachers of Appreciation of Excellent Courses", with high-quality courses as the core, and relevant teaching materials are also in the process of being actively compiled. It turns out that the breadth and depth of scientific research are greatly promoted through high-quality teaching activities. Teaching and research are not empty words. "Teaching and research cooperation" is a good tradition since the establishment of the Research Center for Chinese Social History of Shanxi University. When Mr. Qiao Zhiqiang was alive, he not only pioneered the study of social history, but also led his disciples to compile the book "Modern Chinese Social History", which won the Excellent Teaching Achievement Award of the Ministry of Education, and has become a must-read and textbook for many undergraduate and graduate students in colleges and universities. After Mr. Qiao's death, we continued and carried forward this tradition, and although the focus of research shifted from overall social history to regional social history, we continued to work hard in teaching and research. Focusing on the course "Introduction to Regional Social History Research" opened for undergraduates more than 10 years ago, we set up a "Regional Social History" teaching team, which won the honors of national excellent courses, video open courses, excellent teaching teams and other honors, and the history discipline of Shanxi University became a national characteristic discipline, and established a national practical teaching base for off-campus college students. In 2014, the Research Center for Chinese Social History of Shanxi University was jointly awarded the honorary title of "Advanced Unit of National Education System" by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security and the Ministry of Education. Needless to say, at present, China's higher education is still facing many challenges and problems, among which the phenomenon of emphasizing scientific research over teaching is more prominent, and the research institutions of many universities have little or no teaching tasks for undergraduates, resulting in a serious disconnect between scientific research and teaching. Emphasizing knowledge transfer over ability cultivation, and classroom learning over research and training have become a common problem. There are less than 10 people in the Research Center for Chinese Social History at Shanxi University, and we have both a research team and a teaching team, although we are bitter and happy, because we are first and foremost university teachers. In the long-term practice of scientific research and teaching, we do have a sense of responsibility and a sense of happiness. A small intention of the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research" is to make public our long-term teaching practice around Chinese social history and regional social history, and accept the opinions and criticisms of college students, graduate students and all sectors of society, so as to continue to deepen this work. The following is a brief introduction to the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research": 1. Qiao Zhiqiang edited "Social History of Modern China" (People's Publishing House, 1992 edition). The book is Mr. Qiao Zhiqiang's "collective attempt with young teachers", which is divided into three parts: social composition, social life and social function to construct the knowledge system of modern Chinese social history, including population, family, and clan; communities and nationalities; changes in the community; Material; Spiritual; Interpersonal relationship; Parenting functions; Control functions, etc. Some scholars call it "Qiao's system, three major plates". The main text is preceded by a 35-page "introduction" written by Mr. Qiao Zhiqiang, which discusses the object of social history research, the knowledge structure of social history, the significance of studying social history, and how to study social history. This is the first systematic social history research work in China, and some critics believe that this book is "the first step from theoretical discussion to practical operation" and "has some epoch-making significance" for social history research. The book is also Chinese in traditional Chinese by Taipei Nantian Book Bureau in June 1998, and has become a must-read textbook for many undergraduate and graduate students. 2. Xinglong edited "Introduction to the Study of Regional Social History". Since 2004, I have led the course "Introduction to Regional Social History Research" in the Department of History of Shanxi University, during which there has been no interruption for more than ten consecutive years, either as an elective course in history or as an open course for the whole university. The course is conducted in the form of "group teaching", and 8 teachers from the Chinese Social History Research Center are jointly responsible for the teaching of this course. In 2007, the course was rated as a national excellent course, and the following year, the regional social history teaching team was rated as a national excellent teaching team; In 2013, the course was opened to the public as a high-quality video open course of the Ministry of Education. At the same time of teaching, we are compiling relevant teaching materials, combined with the actual teaching and students' feedback, everyone discusses together, repeatedly revises, course teaching - field trip - revision of teaching materials, and constantly repeats the cycle, and finally completes this textbook that has been made after more than 10 years of hard work. The book consists of seven chapters and an introduction, which teaches the trends, discipline orientation, regional characteristics, small local and large history, and theories, methods, and materials of regional social history research, with the intention of providing students with an introductory textbook on how to study regional social history. 3. Xinglong is the editor-in-chief of Social Research in Modern Shanxi: Toward Field and Society (China Social Sciences Press, 2002). This book is one of the "Shanxi University Centennial Academic Series", "which I jointly completed with recent master's students". In addition to the first two theoretical issues on social history and regional social history (Xinglong: Several Issues in the Study of Chinese Social History; Qiao Zhiqiang and Xinglong: "The Theory of Social Change in Rural North China in Modern Times: On the Theory and Methods of Regional Social History Research"), in addition to the study of Shanxi's population, water resources and water cases, disasters, markets, ethnic and religious conflicts, and Qi Tai Yangge in modern times. It should be said that these are questions that have rarely been covered or studied before, and we have tried to explore them from the perspective of social history. "Time has passed so quickly, and I am very pleased that 14 years after the book was published, and the former master's student has grown into a university professor. Moreover, it was the affirmation and support of Mr. Guo Yiwen, the responsible editor of this book, that gave birth to the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research", for which I would like to thank her! 4. Xinglong edited Shanxi Rural Social Research in the Age of Collectivization. This book can be regarded as a companion to the previous book, and it is also a revision of the master's thesis of the Center for Social History. The study of rural society in the era of collectivization has been one of the main research directions of the center in recent years, and many master's and doctoral theses have been carried out in this direction. The content of the book includes two categories: one is the study of a certain village problem in the collectivization era, typical rural areas such as Xigou and Zhangzhuang, and general rural areas such as Chiqiao, Scissors Bay, Daobei, etc.; The other category is special research, such as land reform, medical and health care, soil and water conservation, farmland water conservancy, cultural life, etc. in the new area. It should be noted that, as the subtitle of the previous book, the formation of each paper practices and embodies the concept of "going to the field and society". The thesis "either is rich in information or innovative in its topic, and you have noticed that you have made full use of fieldwork and local literature, and you have put in some hard work." Now, after the discussion of the teachers of the center, ten articles from dozens are selected and published in a collection, and the readers' corrections and criticisms are accepted. 5. Xinglong, editor-in-chief, and Guo Yongping, deputy editor, "Discovering History in the Field - Student Fieldwork Report (Yongji)". Going to the field and society is our pursuit and practice in the teaching and research of social history and regional social history for many years. "The field here contains two meanings: one is the field and field relative to the campus and library, that is, the grassroots society and the countryside; the second is fieldwork in the anthropological sense, that is, the method of participating in observation and field research; The society here also has two meanings: one is the real society, we must pay attention to the real society, know how to postpone from the present to the past or from the past to the present; The second is society in the sense of social history, which is a society as a whole, a society from the bottom up. "3695934 fieldwork is a compulsory course for every cohort of students at the center and history majors, and we have continued to do so for many years, and students have learned a lot. In recent years, teachers from the Social History Research Center of Shanxi University have led students to conduct many fieldwork trips in Yongji in combination with the course "Introduction to Regional Social History Research", which includes three parts: academic papers, investigation reports, and field diaries. Although immature, it is very important to us because it is a concentrated demonstration of the students' fieldwork for many years. 6. Xinglong, "Fifteen Lectures on the Social History of Shanxi Region". The book is compiled from dozens of papers on the social history of Shanxi region that I have published in recent years. The book is divided into six parts, covering the main context of Shanxi regional social history research, new research areas, fieldwork, data exploration, character research, and related issues in the history of Shanxi University. These papers are all "debuted" in the teaching process, and then absorb the opinions of all parties to form the draft, which can also be said to be the result of my "teaching and research". 7. Hu Yingze and Zhang Junfeng, eds., Regional Social History Research Reader. This "reading book" may be called a "selected book", that is, a teaching reference book. I remember when we were in college, there was a course called "Introduction to History and Selected Reading", which was very popular with students. Regional social history is an emerging field of study, but there have been so many achievements in the past 30 years, and it is really difficult to select well, make students love to read, have the guiding significance of theoretical methods, and take into account specific practical operations. Moreover, this reading book only includes some works of Chinese scholars, and it is limited to the space that does not include the works of overseas scholars (if there is an opportunity, another "Overseas Reader" can be compiled), which is intended to reduce the sense of separation and enhance the sense of closeness, which may be more in line with the reader's taste. "Limited knowledge, it is inevitable to hang up a leak and leave a regret of leaving pearls", not a polite sentence. When the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research" was compiled, there was both a sense of relief and a bit of apprehension. In the process of engaging in historical research for a long time, we have seriously engaged in related teaching work, and from everyone's discussion and students' feedback, we can feel the joy of being a teacher. In addition, "teaching and research" is a process that requires long-term persistence and hard work, and in the current environment, it is also a process that requires more effort than others. The long process is not terrible, but the process is happy. As Teachers' Day 2016 is approaching and the new semester will begin, I would like to commemorate the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research", and I hope that readers will give more advice. In the process of sorting out and arranging the "Seven Books of Teaching and Research," Comrade Ma Weiqiang put in his hard work, and I would like to express my special thanks. Xinglong at the Research Center for Chinese Social History at Shanxi University on August 29, 2016(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
乔志强.中国近代社会史(第2版)[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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乔志强.中国近代社会史(第2版).北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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乔志强(2019).中国近代社会史(第2版).北京:中国社会科学出版社
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