收藏 纠错 引文

思维方式差异与中美新闻实务

Different Thinking Patterns between Chinese and American and Journalistic Practice

ISBN:978-7-5004-9811-7

出版日期:2011-05

页数:343

字数:358.0千字

丛书名:《我国对外传播文化软实力研究丛书》

点击量:5570次

引用量:5次

中图法分类:
出版单位:
关键词:
专题:
折扣价:¥25.8 [6折] 原价:¥43.0 立即购买电子书

图书简介

本书是国家社科基金重大项目“我国对外传播文化软实力研究”(项目编号:08&ZD057)的成果之一。“我国对外传播文化软实力研究”中的重要概念是软实力、文化、文化软实力。由于各类著述对它们的界定多种多样,因此,本研究中有必要对它们加以界定,以利明确研究范围。

“软实力”并不是现代才被意识到,古已有之。然而“软实力”作为一个概念被系统地提出并研究是20世纪90年代的事。自1990年美国的约瑟夫·奈(Joseph Nye,曾任克林顿政府国家情报委员会主席和助理国防部部长;后任哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院院长、教授)提出这个概念以来,关于软实力的研究成果纷纷涌现,使这个概念成为一个流行至今的词汇。

约瑟夫·奈认为,一个国家的综合国力=硬实力+软实力。“软实力即一个国家通过内在吸引力在国际上获得其渴望的利益的能力”,软实力是指一种能力,它能通过吸引而不是施压(如军事、经济上的压力)或施惠(如经济、财政、物资上的援助)来达到所预期的目的或效应。“软实力”主要包括国家的政治价值观、军事政策与文化吸引力三层内容。3940935

文化软实力=文化的吸引力,什么是文化吸引力?首先要确定什么是文化?在众多文化的定义中,我们采用了《世界文化多样性宣言》(2001年11月2日,联合国教科文组织185个与会成员国通过)中对文化的界定:“应把文化视为某个社会或某个社会群体特有的精神与物质、理智与情感的不同特点之总和。除了文学和艺术外,文化还包括生活方式、共处的方式、价值观体系、传统和信仰。”这一界定,不仅高度概括了文化的含义,还比较具体地指出了文化的要素。

什么是文化吸引力?主要指文化要素对人们的吸引力。文化要素还可以细分为信仰、价值观、道德、风俗习惯、思维方式、语言符号、非语言符号等方面对人们的吸引力,其中体现文化特征的最主要的是语言符号和价值观,尤以能被各国人们接受的价值观最为重要。

文化与软实力的关系可以作出如下归纳:文化是软实力的重要组成部分,但不是全部来源;不是所有文化要素都可以转化为软实力。约瑟夫·奈对文化中可以对他国产生吸引力的内容的界定非常明确:“有可能获得软实力的国家包括:该国的主导文化和理念更接近于普遍性的全球规范(当前强调自由主义、多元化和自治)”;他一再重申软实力的对象导向维度,即:“软实力因受众而不同……美国的个人主义也许在拉美大行其道,而同时在某些中东国家却被视为放荡不羁。”

虽然“软实力”这一概念已经被诸多学者(特别是中国学者)作了延伸,在对外传播学、国际政治学、外交学和管理学等多个范畴内成为一个高频词汇被使用。但是它仍未脱离其真正成形时期的基本范畴,约瑟夫·奈关于“文化软实力”的观点具有国际政治色彩,包含利用文化“控制”他国的含义。这有悖于当今主张世界文化多元共存的时代潮流,受到了学者的批评。

冷战结束后,国际传播文化格局呈现的特点是:世界贸易组织的建立,把文化产品列入世界贸易组织管理的范围,文化正成为一种产业;美国作为世界上最发达的信息社会,英美文化势力快速扩张,呈现出试图独霸全球之势;美国正通过控制世界电影和电视屏幕将自己的文化和意识形态移植于他国意识中,世界文化多元性受到前所未有的威胁。这促使联合国教科文组织在法国和加拿大等国的推动下,于2001年通过了《世界文化多样性宣言》,2005年订立了《保护和促进文化表现形式多样性国际公约》(2007年春该公约生效)。

上述两个国际文件提出了力求实现的原则之一是:“文化多样性对于人类社会就如同生物多样性对于生物界那样必不可少。国际社会成员应共同担负起维护世界文化多样性的责任。把捍卫文化多样性作为与尊重人的尊严密不可分的一种人们应尽的义务。”越来越多的国家签署了1948年通过的《人权宣言》及之后的《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》以及《经济、社会与文化权利公约》;如果说这昭示着人类社会构成的基本准则为人类所普遍接受,人权最终成为一种公认的普世性价值,那么,《世界文化多样性宣言》的通过和《保护和促进文化表现形式多样性国际公约》的生效,则体现了国际社会关于文化间关系准则的新理解,并成为普世性的价值。这意味着从“地理大发现”以来持续了五个多世纪的西方文化中心论在国际社会中从国际法上丧失了合法性。

在这种国际形势下,约瑟夫·奈的文化软实力理论受到了批评。奈是位国际政治学的学者,他的软实力理论属于国际政治理论。权力概念历来是国际政治最重要的概念之一,也是各派学说思考的起点。在国际政治学领域,权力的基本含义是一种“控制”。正如摩根索(Morgenthau)所说:“权力可以是建立和维持人对人控制的那种任何东西……它可以从物质的暴力到最为微妙的心理约束,通过这些,一个头脑控制了另一个头脑。”这种“控制”的含义,引起了人文学科学者的批评。他们认为,约瑟夫·奈主张软实力与硬实力的软硬兼施,终究只是从国际政治的立场出发,是作为美国世界战略理论而构建的东西,只是为了试图维护和增强美国世界霸权的政治理论。

美国哈佛大学东亚系教授杜维明说,“我基本上不接受‘软实力’的观念,或者说我对‘软实力’的观念很敏感。什么原因呢?因为Soft Power是哈佛肯尼迪政府学院的院长约瑟夫·奈提出的,我跟他还蛮熟的。他提出这个观点基本上是考虑美国如何能够在国际上维持其超级大国地位,除了军事、政治、经济以外,还要有文化。而这个文化力量,就是软实力。软实力观念提出来以后,欧洲、日本和东南亚各方面都有种受到威胁的感觉。现在中国经济也起来了,政治也起来了,现在还有一种力量没发挥,来发挥我们的软实力。这种提法容易为中国威胁论制造者提供借口。我不同意软实力的观点,我认为有另外一种观点,现在应该是时机成熟了——一种真正核心价值的平等互惠对话”3940936

日本学者青木保认为,“说实话,我是反对用政治和战略性的话语来诠释文化的,或者应该说我更主张不要把文化政治化。文化应该放在远离政治和战略的地方加以讨论。因此要探索当今世界的文化问题,我觉得首先要把软实力政治和战略的背景分开,用文化的力量、文化的魅力程度来代替‘软实力’这一说法。因为对于多文化世界来说,追求的软实力,用一句话来概括,就是文化的魅力”。“软实力归根结底是一种力量论,其背后还存在着政治、经济方面的力量扩张论。在相互依存关系、各国联系紧密化日益加深的今天,一国霸权式的扩张非但不能形成世界秩序,还会在很大程度上扰乱世界秩序。我们所期待的世界是一个通过异文化间的相互接触、交流和融合,提升各国文化力量,促使它们发挥彼此的文化魅力,帮助人们更充实地生活和工作的世界”3940937

我国学者北京大学乐黛云教授认为:“美国所谓以文化吸引力为核心的软实力理论所关注的并不是不同文化之间的相互吸引、共同发展,而是对其他文化打压、征服、吞并,以维护其单边统治的文化霸权。具有悠久历史的中国文化当然应大大发展自己的文化吸引力,使之成为推动全球多元文化发展的动力之一。由于目的不同,建构文化吸引力的方式和途径也有所不同。”3940938

我国政府一再申明,中国不发达的时候不称霸,中国即使发达了,也不称霸,永远不称霸。因而,我们课题中所说的提高我国对外传播文化软实力的目的,是遵循《世界文化多样性宣言》和《保护和促进文化表现形式多样性国际公约》规定的原则,促进与世界各国的文化交流,提升中国文化的吸引力和“魅力”,而不是对他国的“控制力”。为构建多元文化与和谐的世界而努力,促进人类社会的和平与发展,而不是想在文化上称霸世界。正如费孝通先生所说,中国与各国在文化上是“各美其美,美人之美,美美与共,天下大同”,这是我们提高中国对外传播文化软实力与奈提高美国文化软实力的本质区别。

开展我国对外传播文化软实力的研究,具有重要的现实应用价值和学术价值。2007年胡锦涛总书记在党的十七大报告中指出:“要坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向,兴起社会主义文化建设新高潮,激发全民族文化创造活力,提高国家文化软实力”,“加强对外文化交流,吸收各国优秀文明成果,增强中华文化国际影响力”。标志着我国已经把提高国家文化软实力,增强中华文化国际影响力作为国家发展的重大战略目标。具体来说,研究如何提高我国对外传播文化软实力的应用价值和学术价值主要有四点:

第一,这是中国和平发展国策的需要。现在我国的经济在迅速发展,致使一些外国人心存疑虑,误认为我国要和历史上崛起的帝国主义大国一样,强大以后必然要称霸。国际上不断出现的中国威胁论就是表现。加强对外传播中国文化,让外国民众了解中国人的性格、价值观和观念,相信中国不会走武力扩张的路,才能解除他们的疑虑,提升我国的国家形象和国际亲和力,扩大中华文化的国际影响,使我国在激烈的国际竞争中赢得更大的主动权,从而为中国持续发展创造良好的国际环境,促进世界的和平与发展。

第二,这是改变我国文化产品贸易严重“入超”的需要。改革开放30年来,我国文化软实力得到了增强,我国对外传播取得了不小成就。但是与我国经济日新月异的发展速度相比,我国对外传播文化软实力的发展相对滞后。据联合国教科文组织的统计,1980、1994和1996年,英语著作被译成其他文字出版物的数量为22415、28642和36528种。同期,汉语著作被译成其他语种的数量分别是187、187和247种,只占前者的0.83%、0.65%和0.68%。因此研究我国对外传播文化软实力是改变我国文化产品贸易严重“入超”的需要。

第三,这是加强和改善我国对外传播的需要。现在很多西方民众对中国的认识与了解,仍然来源于西方的报道与描述。2008年西藏“3·14”事件和2009年新疆“7·5”事件发生后即成为全球媒体的关注焦点,一些西方主流媒体进行了连篇累牍的歪曲报道。这些报道违背了新闻真实性原则,歪曲事实,混淆视听,造成我国在西藏和新疆问题上的被动局面,并且在中国媒体以事实披露事件真相后,仍然置若罔闻。这说明我们的对外传播文化软实力不够强大。我国对外传播中的机制问题、投入问题、策略问题都有待改进。国际传播是一种跨文化传播,本课题力图从跨文化传播等多种理论视角,并结合我国对外传播主要媒体及民间交流活动来探讨我国对外传播问题,将有助于进一步提高我国对外传播和交流的效果。

第四,有助于跨文化传播学理论的发展。跨文化传播学(intercultural communication)从20世纪80年代末从美国传入中国内地后,主要在中美跨文化传播领域得到一定的发展,在中国与其他国家或其他大文化集团的相应研究领域则十分薄弱。根据对近10年以来我国跨文化传播学发展的研究,在许多领域里的跨文化传播研究都是空白。3940939了解跨文化传播理论的传播学者,鲜有精通英语以外的其他语言,精通其他语言的学者对跨文化传播理论理解不深,因而本课题研究有助于跨文化传播学理论的多学科、多语种间的交叉发展和创新。本课题从国际传播学、跨文化传播学和国际关系学等多学科的角度,对我国对外传播文化软实力进行跨学科的梳理,将会促进跨文化传播学在我国的发展。

目前已经有一些文献涉及中国对外传播文化软实力的论述。国外学者们普遍更注重中国软实力提高对国际格局及各国发展可能造成的后果或影响。2006年,约瑟夫·奈在《华尔街日报》撰文“中国软实力的崛起”。同年5月18日,艾斯特·潘在《外交》杂志上发表了一篇题为《中国的软诱惑》的文章,预言:“今天,你的孩子穿中国服装,玩中国玩具。不难想象,他们在不远的将来会听中国的流行音乐,喜欢上中国的电影”;在一种类似于“零和博弈”思想的影响下,潘得出这样一个结论:“随着美国国际地位的丧失,中国正在试图予以取代。”美国学者约书亚·库尔兰齐克则在《魅力攻势:中国的软实力如何改变世界》一书中详细梳理了中国软实力如何对亚洲乃至整个世界发展产生的影响,从奈到库尔兰齐克,美国学术界越来越热衷于研究中国软实力的发展,不少人甚至表示了担忧,成为一种新的“中国威胁论”式论调。

国内学者普遍关注于如何提高我国文化软实力这一课题。而在中国,如何发展软实力,尤其是文化软实力的对外传播则成为学术界热议的焦点课题。在《开展“软实力”与对外传播的研究》一文中,沈苏儒提出了我国对外传播中几个亟待解决的问题:(1)机制问题,包括对外新闻、国际广播、卫星电视、网络传播等18个种类的对外传播媒介的机制研究;(2)投入问题;(3)策略问题,包括对负面宣传的应对策略、分层次应对策略以及保持平衡的策略。明安香将文化软实力和对外传播两个概念与中国崛起一起进行考量,认为中国文化极具潜力,关键是如何进行对外传播;两者对于我国在全球化的环境中赢得一席之地具有重要意义。3940940

文化软实力的投射是一种传播过程,在对外传播中是一种跨文化的传播,因而它与传播学的一个分支——跨文化传播学密切相关。在美国,跨文化传播学主要是研究来自不同文化背景个人之间的交流问题,从跨文化传播学的视角研究国家软实力问题的文献尚未见到。在国内跨文化传播学(或跨文化交际学)研究中,虽然有文章谈及文化的影响、国家形象、文化帝国主义的问题,但鲜有涉及对外传播文化软实力的研究性文献。

综上所述,就课题组的初步查阅,尚没有见到文献系统地从跨文化传播学的视角来研究对外传播文化软实力的问题。因而本课题的“新增长点”是:以跨文化传播学的视角研究对外传播文化软实力问题。在科学发展观指导下提高我国对外传播文化软实力的理论和政策是一个具有重大意义的课题,但现有的直接研究并不多,系统的理论研究比较缺乏,因此,极有开拓和创新的必要。

“我国对外传播文化软实力研究”是一项研究意义重大、研究内容宏大的课题,要圆满完成这项课题,绝非一两个专家所能胜任,需要一支实力雄厚的研究队伍,列出专题,分工协作。

本课题由北京大学新闻与传播学院教授、博士生导师关世杰任首席专家。课题共分14个子课题,各子课题及负责人是:子课题1:全球文化软实力格局研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院陈开和副教授。子课题2:美国受众分析及中美文化比较研究。负责人为关世杰。子课题3:印度受众分析及中印文化比较研究(上)、对印传播渠道个案研究(下)。负责人为北京大学国际关系学院尚会鹏教授。子课题4:俄罗斯受众分析及中俄文化比较研究(上)、对俄传播渠道个案研究(下)。负责人为北京大学外国语学院李玮教授。子课题5:德国受众分析及中德文化比较研究(上)、对德传播渠道个案研究(下)。负责人为中国科学院研究生院人文学院王异虹副教授。子课题6:日本受众分析及中日文化比较研究(上)、对日传播渠道个案研究(下)。负责人为北京大学国际关系学院梁云祥副教授。子课题7:海外华人受众分析(上)、中文电视对外传播研究(下)。负责人为中央电视台国际频道新闻编辑部编辑、北京大学新闻与传播学院博士生李宇。子课题8:CCTV-9对外传播研究。负责人为中央电视台何明智博士。子课题9:社交网站对外传播研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院杨伯溆教授。子课题10:中国六大对外网站研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院胡泳副教授。子课题11:新华社对外传播研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院徐泓教授。子课题12:书籍出版对外传播研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院肖东发教授。子课题13:孔子学院及民间交流研究。负责人为关世杰教授。子课题14:我国对外传播文化软实力战略研究。负责人为北京大学新闻与传播学院关世杰教授和程曼丽教授。

本课题研究的基本内容是:从研究全球文化软实力格局起步,调研美国、俄罗斯、德国、日本、印度五国民众对我国文化软实力态度的现状入手,探讨中外跨文化传播学的基础理论,把理论研究结果应用于我国对外传播文化软实力的典型传播渠道的研究,对提高我国对外传播文化软实力提供对策和战略建议。总体研究框架和逻辑思路及子课题负责人见图1。

图1 总体研究框架和逻辑思路及子课题负责人

本研究涉及的研究领域较多,根据不同的研究内容拟采用不同的研究方法。本课题拟采用定量与定性相结合的方法,主要包括文献法、问卷调查法、专家深度访谈、焦点小组、内容分析法、个案研究、比较研究法、田野调查法和建立传播模式法等多种方法,将理论研究与实证分析相结合,将国内研究与国外研究相比较,采用传播学、社会学、国际关系学、心理学等相关学科的方法和原理,从跨文化传播学的视角对提高对外传播文化软实力进行深入系统的研究。拟采用的研究方法在各个子课题中按照研究要求进行应用。

本课题的重点:在进行系统深入调查研究的基础上,加以论证和发掘理论,以贯彻落实科学发展观,提高我国对外传播文化软实力的理论和政策,并开展综合实验研究。

本课题的难点:本课题涉及不同国家的受众研究和效果分析,因而对这两个问题的把握成为一项比较有挑战性的任务,是本课题的主要难点;在受众国的实地调查,会遇到较多困难;跨文化传播理论和媒体专项分析以及对策的有机结合难度较大。

本课题的创新点:第一次就我国对外传播文化软实力在五个国家进行较具规模的实地调查;通过科学方法对我国对外传播文化软实力研究进行理论创新;将对外传播文化软实力的理论同对外传播实践进行创造性的结合;提出对外文化传播效果的监测手段;提出提高我国对外传播文化软实力的战略以及对策建议。

本课题的主要特色:以跨文化传播学、国际关系学、新闻学等跨学科手段,多语种相互辅助,学界、业界和政界多部门相互联合,重点依托媒体、图书音像版权贸易和对外汉语教学等多种传播渠道,在此基础上,本课题将理论分析和实证研究结合起来,通过比较中外跨文化差异,探讨对外传播文化软实力的基本规律,为改进我国对外传播文化软实力的内容、形式、人才培养和发展机制等提出对策,为中国文化软实力的加快“走出去”提出战略建议。

本课题研究的稳步推进,得到了全国哲学社会科学规划办公室、北京大学社科部、北京大学新闻与传播学院等领导部门的支持与资助,得到了所有课题组成员的积极参与和通力合作。先后参加本课题研究的有五十多人,他们是:中国国际广播电台黄慎、刘岩,新华社记者黄慧文,《环球时报》资深记者段聪聪。中央电视台英语频道主编郭醇,记者肖小外、王奚清和路岩。北京大学俄语系刘浩副教授、马兰讲师,北京大学外国语学院德语系胡蔚讲师,北京大学新闻与传播学院副教授王秀丽博士,对外经济贸易大学外国语学院德语系潘亚玲副教授,浙江师范大学外国语学院张生祥副教授。中国科学院研究生院人文学院杨益民副教授,北京大学新闻与传播学院的博士生:范小青、张文彦、蔡玉沛、权玹廷、陈曦、巩向飞、古俊伟、尹博,北京大学国际关系学院博士生杜晓军,北京大学新闻与传播学院的硕士生毕南怡、张倩、杜丽梅、何苏鸣、成艳、刘川、白玫佳黛、宋静丽、王一、张小溪、张晓萍、赵盛楠、陈瑶、彭博、钟意、何倩、陈玥、叶青、聂瑶,方堃,北京大学外国语学院俄语系硕士研究生谢晓东,中国科学院研究生院人文学院硕士生江晓川、张晓玮、丁洁、龙新蔚、李克。参与者还有国外友人和留学生:美国加州查普曼大学贾文山副教授、日本共同社记者水野雅央、德国汉诺威再保险公司王岩博士、德国洪堡大学博士生陈正、汉堡大学硕士生Vanessa Leun等,各子课题也有不少参与者,在此不一一列举。

本书是子课题2“美国受众分析及中美文化比较研究”的成果之一,美国有3亿多人口,是世界人口第三大国,是当今世界上最发达的国家,对世界形势的发展举足轻重。美国是我国对外传播的主要对象国,也是我国软实力对外投射的重要对象。近年来,中美的跨文化传播研究取得了长足的发展,也出现了多本相关著作,但是,尚没有专门研究思维方式差异对中美新闻实务影响的专著。作为本课题的研究成果,《思维方式差异与中美新闻实务》一书填补了这方面研究的空白。该书从中美文化深层核心要素——思维方式探讨了思维方式差异对新闻实务技巧上的影响,较为深入地探讨中国新闻对美传播中尚待改进和提高的地方以及相关策略和建议。本书的研究涉及跨文化传播学、新闻学、心理学等在内的多个学科,并在跨文化传播学和国际新闻实务的结合方面做了有益的尝试。

本课题研究只是对这一重大问题进行的一种探索和尝试。在本课题的各项研究成果中,会存在不足和疏漏,敬请读者们批评指正。

关世杰

2010年5月9日

于北京大学新闻与传播学院215室

This book is one of the results of the major project of the National Social Science Foundation of China "Research on the Soft Power of China's Foreign Communication Culture" (project number: 08&ZD057). The important concepts in "Research on China's Foreign Communication Cultural Soft Power" are soft power, culture and cultural soft power. Since they are defined in various writings, it is necessary to define them in this study in order to clarify the scope of the study. "Soft power" is not a modern realization, it has existed since ancient times. However, "soft power" as a concept was systematically proposed and studied in the 90s of the 20th century. Joseph Nye, Chairman of the National Intelligence Committee and Assistant Secretary of Defense in the Clinton administration, since 1990; Later dean and professor at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government) proposed the concept, research on soft power has emerged, making the concept a popular term today. Joseph Nye believes that a country's comprehensive national strength = hard power + soft power. "Soft power is the ability of a country to obtain the desired benefits internationally through internal attraction", and soft power refers to the ability to achieve the desired purpose or effect by attracting rather than exerting pressure (e.g., military, economic pressure) or favors (e.g., economic, financial, material assistance). "Soft power" mainly includes three layers of national political values, military policy and cultural attractiveness. 3940935 cultural soft power = cultural attraction, what is cultural attraction? The first thing to determine is culture? Among the many definitions of culture, we adopt the definition of culture contained in the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (adopted by the 185 participating Member States of UNESCO on 2 November 2001): "Culture should be regarded as the sum of the different characteristics of the spirit and material, the intellectual and the emotional characteristic of a society or a social group." In addition to literature and art, culture includes lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions, and beliefs. This definition not only highly summarizes the meaning of culture, but also points out the elements of culture more specifically. What is cultural attraction? It mainly refers to the attraction of cultural elements to people. Cultural elements can also be subdivided into beliefs, values, morality, customs, ways of thinking, language symbols, non-verbal symbols and other aspects of people's attraction, among which the most important thing that reflects cultural characteristics is language symbols and values, especially the values that can be accepted by people in all countries are the most important. The relationship between culture and soft power can be summarized as follows: culture is an important part of soft power, but not the whole source; Not all elements of culture can be translated into soft power. Joseph Nye's definition of what makes culture attractive to other countries is very clear: "Countries with the potential to acquire soft power include: the dominant culture and ideas of that country are closer to universal global norms (currently emphasizing liberalism, pluralism and autonomy)"; He repeatedly reaffirms the object-oriented dimension of soft power, namely: "Soft power varies depending on the audience... American individualism may be rampant in Latin America, while at the same time it is seen as bohemian in some Middle Eastern countries. Although the concept of "soft power" has been extended by many scholars (especially Chinese scholars), it has become a high-frequency term used in many fields such as foreign communication, international politics, diplomacy and management. But it is still not out of the basic category of its real formative period, and Joseph Nye's ideas about "cultural soft power" have international political overtones, including the meaning of using culture to "control" other countries. This runs counter to the current trend of the times that advocates the coexistence of diverse cultures in the world, and has been criticized by scholars. After the end of the Cold War, the pattern of international communication culture was characterized by: the establishment of the World Trade Organization, cultural products were included in the scope of WTO management, and culture was becoming an industry; As the most developed information society in the world, the United States has rapidly expanded its cultural power, showing a trend of trying to dominate the world; The United States is transplanting its own culture and ideology into the consciousness of other countries by controlling the world's film and television screens, and the world's cultural diversity is threatened like never before. This led to the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity by UNESCO in 2001, facilitated by France and Canada, and the International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005 (which entered into force in spring 2007). One of the principles set out in the two international documents is that "cultural diversity is as essential to human society as biodiversity is to the biological world." Members of the international community should share the responsibility for preserving the world's cultural diversity. The defence of cultural diversity is an obligation that is inseparable from respect for human dignity. "An increasing number of States have signed the Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, and subsequently the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; If this indicates that the basic norms of the constitution of human society are universally accepted by humankind and that human rights have finally become a universally recognized universal value, the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the entry into force of the International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions reflect a new understanding of the norms governing intercultural relations in the international community and become universal values. This means that Western cultural centrism, which has lasted for more than five centuries since the Discoveries, has lost its legitimacy in international law in the international community. In this international context, Joseph Nye's theory of cultural soft power has been criticized. Nye is a scholar of international politics, and his theory of soft power belongs to international political theory. The concept of power has always been one of the most important concepts in international politics and the starting point for the thinking of various schools of thought. In the field of international politics, the basic meaning of power is a kind of "control". As Morgenthau said: "Power can be anything that establishes and maintains man's control over man... It can range from material violence to the most subtle psychological restraints through which one mind controls another. This meaning of "control" has attracted criticism from humanistic scientists. They believe that Joseph Nye's advocacy of soft power and hard power is ultimately only from the standpoint of international politics, and is something constructed as a US world strategic theory, just a political theory that tries to maintain and enhance US world hegemony. Tu Weiming, a professor at the Department of East Asia at Harvard University in the United States, said, "I basically do not accept the concept of 'soft power', or I am very sensitive to the concept of 'soft power'." What is the reason? Because Soft Power was proposed by Joseph Nye, president of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, I know him well. He basically made this point of view to consider how the United States could maintain its superpower status internationally, in addition to military, political, and economic, but also cultural. And this cultural power is soft power. Since the concept of soft power was introduced, there has been a sense of threat in Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia. Now China's economy has also risen, politics has also risen, and now there is still a power that has not been exerted to exert our soft power. This formulation easily provides an excuse for the makers of the China threat. I disagree with the soft power view, I think there is another view, and the time is ripe – a dialogue of equality and reciprocity of real core values 3940936. Japanese scholar Ho Aoki said, "To be honest, I am opposed to using political and strategic discourse to interpret culture, or I should say that I am more advocating not politicizing culture." Culture should be discussed far from politics and strategy. Therefore, in order to explore cultural issues in today's world, I think it is first necessary to separate the political and strategic background of soft power, and replace the term "soft power" with the power of culture and the degree of charm of culture. Because for the multicultural world, the soft power pursued, summed up in one sentence, is the charm of culture." "Soft power is ultimately a theory of power, and behind it there is also a theory of political and economic power expansion. Today, when interdependence and countries are becoming more and more closely interconnected, the hegemonic expansion of one country will not only fail to form a world order, but will also disrupt it to a large extent. We want a world in which through contact, exchange, and integration between different cultures enhances the cultural power of each country, prompts them to exert each other's cultural charm, and helps people live and work more fully 3940937." Professor Le Daiyun of Peking University, a Chinese scholar, said: "The so-called soft power theory of the United States with cultural attraction as the core is not concerned with the mutual attraction and common development of different cultures, but the suppression, conquest and annexation of other cultures in order to maintain the cultural hegemony of their unilateral rule." Chinese culture, with its long history, should certainly greatly develop its own cultural appeal and make it one of the driving forces for the development of global multiculturalism. Depending on the purpose, there are different ways and means of constructing cultural appeal. "3940938 our government has repeatedly affirmed that China will not seek hegemony when it is underdeveloped, and even if China is developed, it will not seek hegemony and will never seek hegemony. Therefore, the purpose of improving China's soft power in cultural dissemination to the outside world is to follow the principles stipulated in the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, promote cultural exchanges with other countries in the world, and enhance the attractiveness and "charm" of Chinese culture, rather than "control" over other countries. We should strive to build a multicultural and harmonious world and promote peace and development of human society, rather than seeking cultural dominance in the world. As Mr. Fei Xiaotong said, China and other countries are culturally "each with its own beauty, the beauty of the beauties, the beauty of the United States, and the unity of the world", which is the essential difference between us improving China's soft power in foreign communication culture and Nelly's improvement of the soft power of American culture. Carrying out research on China's soft power in foreign communication culture has important practical application value and academic value. In 2007, General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out in his report to the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: "It is necessary to adhere to the direction of progress of advanced socialist culture, raise a new upsurge in socialist cultural construction, stimulate the vitality of national cultural creation, and improve the soft power of national culture", "strengthen foreign cultural exchanges, absorb the outstanding achievements of civilization of various countries, and enhance the international influence of Chinese culture". It shows that China has taken improving the soft power of national culture and enhancing the international influence of Chinese culture as a major strategic goal of national development. Specifically, there are four main points in studying how to improve the application value and academic value of China's soft power of foreign communication culture: First, this is the need of China's national policy of peaceful development. At present, China's economy is developing rapidly, which has caused some foreigners to have misgivings, mistakenly believing that China, like the imperialist powers that have risen in history, will inevitably seek hegemony after becoming strong. The emerging theory of the China threat in the international community is a manifestation. Only by strengthening the dissemination of Chinese culture to the outside world, letting foreign people understand the character, values and concepts of Chinese, and believing that China will not take the road of military expansion, can we dispel their misgivings, enhance China's national image and international affinity, expand the international influence of Chinese culture, and enable China to win greater initiative in fierce international competition, so as to create a good international environment for China's sustainable development and promote world peace and development. Second, this is the need to change the serious "overreach" of China's trade in cultural products. In the past 30 years of reform and opening up, China's cultural soft power has been enhanced, and China's external communication has made considerable achievements. However, compared with the rapid development of China's economy, the development of China's soft power in foreign communication culture is relatively lagging behind. According to UNESCO, in 1980, 1994 and 1996, 22,415, 28,642 and 36,528 English works were translated into other languages. During the same period, the number of Chinese works translated into other languages was 187, 187 and 247 respectively, accounting for only 0.83%, 0.65% and 0.68% of the former. Therefore, studying China's soft power in spreading culture to the outside world is the need to change the serious "super-entry" of China's cultural product trade. Thirdly, this is the need to strengthen and improve our external communication. At present, many Western people's knowledge and understanding of China still comes from Western reports and descriptions. After the March 14 incident in Tibet in 2008 and the July 5 incident in Xinjiang in 2009, they became the focus of global media attention, and some Western mainstream media carried a series of distorted reports. These reports violate the principle of truthfulness, distort the facts, confuse the public, create a passive situation in our country on the Tibet and Xinjiang issues, and still turn a deaf ear after the Chinese media disclose the truth of the incident with facts. This shows that our soft power in external communication culture is not strong enough. The mechanism, input and strategy problems in China's external communication all need to be improved. International communication is a kind of cross-cultural communication, this project strives to explore China's external communication from a variety of theoretical perspectives such as cross-cultural communication, combined with China's main external communication media and non-governmental exchange activities, which will help to further improve the effect of China's external communication and exchange. Fourth, it contributes to the development of cross-cultural communication theory. After intercultural communication was introduced from the United States in the late 80s of the 20th century Chinese mainland, it has developed mainly in the field of cross-cultural communication between China and the United States, but the corresponding research fields in China and other countries or other large cultural groups are very weak. According to the research on the development of cross-cultural communication in China in the past 10 years, cross-cultural communication research in many fields is blank. 3940939 communication scholars who understand cross-cultural communication theory, few are proficient in languages other than English, and scholars who are proficient in other languages do not have a deep understanding of cross-cultural communication theory, so this research project is conducive to the multidisciplinary and multilingual cross-development and innovation of cross-cultural communication theory. From the multidisciplinary perspectives of international communication, cross-cultural communication and international relations, this project will promote the development of cross-cultural communication in China. At present, there are some literature on China's soft power in spreading culture to the outside world. Foreign scholars generally pay more attention to the possible consequences or impacts of China's improvement of soft power on the international pattern and the development of various countries. In 2006, Joseph Nye wrote in the Wall Street Journal "The Rise of China's Soft Power." On May 18 of the same year, Esther Pan published an article in Foreign Affairs magazine titled "China's Soft Temptation", predicting: "Today, your children wear Chinese clothes and play with Chinese toys. It is not difficult to imagine that they will listen to Chinese pop music and like Chinese movies in the near future"; Under the influence of a zero-sum game-like mentality, Pan concluded that "as the United States loses its international standing, China is trying to replace it." American scholar Joshua Kurranzik in the book "Glamour Offensive: How China's soft power changes the world" in detail sorted out how China's soft power has had an impact on the development of Asia and even the whole world, from Nye to Kurlanzik, the American academic community is more and more enthusiastic about the development of China's soft power, and many people have even expressed concern, becoming a new "China threat" style argument. Domestic scholars are generally concerned about how to improve China's cultural soft power. In China, how to develop soft power, especially the external dissemination of cultural soft power, has become a hot topic in the academic circles. In the article "Carrying out Research on "Soft Power" and External Communication", Shen Suru put forward several urgent problems to be solved in China's external communication: (1) mechanism issues, including the mechanism research of 18 types of external communication media such as foreign news, international broadcasting, satellite television, and network communication; (2) input issues; (3) Strategic issues, including coping strategies for negative publicity, hierarchical coping strategies, and strategies to maintain balance. Ming Anxiang considers the two concepts of cultural soft power and external communication together with the rise of China, and believes that Chinese culture has great potential, and the key is how to communicate it to the outside world; Both are important for our country to gain a place in a globalized environment. The projection of 3940940 cultural soft power is a communication process, and it is a kind of cross-cultural communication in external communication, so it is closely related to a branch of communication - cross-cultural communication. In the United States, cross-cultural communication studies mainly study the communication between individuals from different cultural backgrounds, and the literature on the issue of national soft power from the perspective of cross-cultural communication has not yet been seen. In the study of cross-cultural communication (or intercultural communication) in China, although there are articles on the influence of culture, national image, and cultural imperialism, there are few research literature on the soft power of foreign communication of culture. In summary, as far as the preliminary review of the research group is concerned, we have not seen the literature systematically studying the problem of external communication of cultural soft power from the perspective of cross-cultural communication. Therefore, the "new growth point" of this project is to study the soft power of foreign communication culture from the perspective of cross-cultural communication. Under the guidance of the scientific outlook on development, the theory and policy of improving China's soft power in foreign communication is a topic of great significance, but there are not many direct studies and systematic theoretical research is relatively lacking, so it is extremely necessary to explore and innovate. "Research on the soft power of China's foreign communication culture" is a research project of great significance and grand research content, in order to successfully complete this topic, it is by no means one or two experts who can competent, and a strong research team is required, listing topics, and division of labor. Guan Shijie, professor and doctoral supervisor of the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University, is the chief expert of this project. The project is divided into 14 sub-topics, each sub-topic and the leader is: Sub-topic 1: Research on the Soft Power Pattern of Global Culture. The person in charge is Chen Kaihe, associate professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, Peking University. Sub-topic 2: U.S. Audience Analysis and Comparative Studies of Chinese and American Cultures. The person in charge is Guan Shijie. Sub-topic 3: Audience Analysis in India and a Comparative Study of Sino-Indian Culture (I), Case Study of Communication Channels in India (Part II). The person in charge is Professor Shang Huipeng of the School of International Studies, Peking University. Sub-topic 4: Russian audience analysis and comparative study of Chinese and Russian culture (I), case study of communication channels in Russia (Part II). The person in charge is Professor Li Wei of the School of Foreign Chinese of Peking University. Sub-topic 5: German audience analysis and comparative study of Sino-German culture (I), case study of communication channels in Germany (Part II). The person in charge is Associate Professor Wang Yihong, School of Humanities, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Sub-topic 6: Japanese audience analysis and comparative study of Chinese and Japanese culture (I), case study of communication channels in Japan (Part II). The person in charge is Associate Professor Liang Yunxiang, School of International Studies, Peking University. Sub-topic 7: Overseas Chinese Audience Analysis (I), Research on Chinese Television External Communication (Part II). The person in charge is Li Yu, editor of the news editorial department of CCTV International Channel and doctoral student of the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University. Sub-topic 8: CCTV-9 external communication research. The person in charge is Dr. He Mingming, CCTV. Sub-topic 9: Research on the external communication of social networking sites. The person in charge is Professor Yang Boyi from the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University. Sub-topic 10: Research on China's six major external websites. The person in charge is Associate Professor Hu Yong of the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University. Sub-topic 11: Xinhua News Agency's external communication research. The person in charge is Professor Xu Hong from the School of Journalism and Communication, Peking University. Sub-topic 12: Research on external communication of book publishing. The person in charge is Professor Xiao Dongfa from the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University. Sub-topic 13: Confucius Institutes and Non-governmental Communication Research. The person in charge is Professor Guan Shijie. Sub-topic 14: Strategic Research on China's Soft Power in Communicating Culture to the Outside World. The leaders are Professor Guan Shijie and Professor Cheng Manli from the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University. The basic content of this research project is: starting from the study of the global cultural soft power pattern, investigating the current situation of people's attitudes towards China's cultural soft power in the United States, Russia, Germany, Japan and India, discussing the basic theories of cross-cultural communication between China and foreign countries, applying the theoretical research results to the research of typical communication channels of China's foreign communication cultural soft power, and providing countermeasures and strategic suggestions for improving China's foreign communication cultural soft power. The overall research framework, logical ideas and sub-project leaders are shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Overall research framework, logical ideas and sub-project leadersThis research involves many research fields, and different research methods are proposed according to different research contents. This project intends to adopt a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, mainly including literature method, questionnaire survey method, expert in-depth interview, focus group, content analysis method, case study, comparative research method, fieldwork method and establishment of communication model method, etc., combining theoretical research with empirical analysis, comparing domestic research with foreign research, and adopting methods and principles of communication, sociology, international relations, psychology and other related disciplines. From the perspective of cross-cultural communication, this paper conducts in-depth and systematic research on improving the soft power of foreign communication culture. The proposed research methodology is applied in each sub-topic according to the research requirements. The focus of this project: On the basis of systematic and in-depth investigation and research, demonstrate and explore theories to implement the scientific outlook on development, improve the theory and policy of China's soft power in foreign communication culture, and carry out comprehensive experimental research. Difficulties of this topic: This topic involves audience research and effect analysis in different countries, so the grasp of these two issues has become a more challenging task and is the main difficulty of this topic; Field research in the target country will encounter more difficulties; It is difficult to organically combine cross-cultural communication theory and media special analysis and countermeasures. The innovation of this topic: the first large-scale field investigation on China's external communication of cultural soft power in five countries; Theoretical innovation in the research of China's foreign communication culture soft power through scientific methods; creatively combine the theory of cultural soft power in external communication with the practice of external communication; Propose means of monitoring the effect of foreign cultural communication; Put forward strategies and countermeasures to improve China's soft power in foreign communication culture. The main features of this project: cross-cultural communication, international relations, journalism and other interdisciplinary means, multi-language mutual assistance, academic, industry and political circles multi-department cooperation, focusing on media, books, audio-visual copyright trade and teaching Chinese as a foreign language and other communication channels, on this basis, this project combines theoretical analysis and empirical research, through comparing the cross-cultural differences between China and foreign countries, discusses the basic laws of foreign communication cultural soft power, in order to improve the content, form, and foreign communication of cultural soft power in China. Talent training and development mechanisms put forward countermeasures, and put forward strategic suggestions for accelerating the "going out" of China's cultural soft power. The steady progress of this research project has been supported and funded by the National Office of Philosophy and Social Science Planning, the Department of Social Sciences of Peking University, the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University and other leading departments, and has been actively participated and cooperated by all members of the research group. More than 50 people have participated in the research of this topic, namely: Huang Shen and Liu Yan of China Radio International, Huang Huiwen, a reporter from Xinhua News Agency, and Duan Congcong, a senior reporter for the Global Times. CCTV English Channel editor-in-chief Guo Yan, reporters Xiao Xiaowai, Wang Xiqing and Lu Yan. Associate Professor Liu Hao and Lecturer Ma Lan of the Department of Russian Language of Peking University, Lecturer Hu Wei of the Department of German of the School of Foreign Chinese of Peking University, Dr. Wang Xiuli, Associate Professor of the School of Journalism and Communication of Peking University, Associate Professor Pan Yaling of the Department of German of the School of Foreign Chinese, University of International Business and Economics, and Associate Professor Zhang Shengxiang of the School of Foreign Chinese of Zhejiang Normal University. Associate Professor Yang Yimin, School of Humanities, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PhD students from School of Journalism and Communication, Peking University: Fan Xiaoqing, Zhang Wenyan, Cai Yupei, Quan Yingting, Chen Xi, Gong Xiangfei, Gu Junwei, Yin Bo, PhD student Du Xiaojun from School of International Studies, Peking University, Bi Nanyi, Zhang Qian, Du Limei, He Suming, Cheng Yan, Liu Chuan, Bai Meijiadai, Song Jingli, Wang Yi, Zhang Xiaoxi, Zhang Xiaoping, Zhao Shengnan, Chen Yao, Peng Bo, Zhong Yi, He Qian, Chen Yue, Ye Qing, Nie Yao, Fang Kun , Xie Xiaodong, master's student of the Department of Russian Language, School of Foreign Chinese, Peking University, Jiang Xiaochuan, Zhang Xiaowei, Ding Jie, Long Xinwei and Li Ke, master's students of the School of Humanities, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Participants also included foreign friends and international students: Associate Professor Jia Wenshan of Chapman University in California, USA, Mizuno Masao Mizuno, reporter of Japan's Kyodo News Agency, Dr. Wang Yan of Hannover Reinsurance Company in Germany, Chen Zheng, doctoral student of Humboldt University in Germany, and Vanessa Leun, a master's student at the University of Hamburg, etc. There are also many participants in each sub-project, which will not be listed here. This book is one of the results of sub-topic 2 "American Audience Analysis and Comparative Study of Chinese and American Cultures", the United States has a population of more than 300 million, is the third most populous country in the world, and is the most developed country in the world today, which plays a pivotal role in the development of the world situation. The United States is the main target country of China's external communication, and it is also an important object of China's soft power projection to the outside world. In recent years, the study of cross-cultural communication in China and the United States has made great progress, and a number of related books have appeared, but there are no monographs that specifically study the impact of differences in thinking styles on Chinese and American journalistic practices. As a research result of this topic, the book "Differences in Thinking Styles and Sino-US Journalistic Practice" fills the gap in this research. The book explores the impact of different ways of thinking on journalistic practical skills from the deep core element of Chinese and American culture, and discusses in depth the areas that need to be improved and improved in the communication of Chinese news to the United States, as well as relevant strategies and suggestions. The research of this book involves many disciplines including cross-cultural communication, journalism, psychology, etc., and makes useful attempts to combine cross-cultural communication with international journalism practice. This research project is only an exploration and attempt to explore this major issue. There will be deficiencies and omissions in the research results of this topic, and readers are kindly requested to criticize and correct them. Guan Shijie at Room 215, School of Journalism and Communication, Peking University, May 9, 2010(AI翻译)

展开

作者简介

展开

图书目录

本书视频 参考文献 本书图表

相关词

阅读
请支付
×
提示:您即将购买的是电子书,不是纸书,只能在线阅读,不能下载!!!

当前账户可用余额

余额不足,请先充值或选择其他支付方式

请选择感兴趣的分类
选好了,开始浏览
×
推荐购买
×
手机注册 邮箱注册

已有账号,返回登录

×
账号登录 一键登录

没有账号,快速注册

×
手机找回 邮箱找回

返回登录

引文

×
GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
关世杰,刘澜.思维方式差异与中美新闻实务[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2011
复制
MLA 格式引文
关世杰,刘澜.思维方式差异与中美新闻实务.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2011E-book.
复制
APA 格式引文
关世杰和刘澜(2011).思维方式差异与中美新闻实务.北京:中国社会科学出版社
复制
×
错误反馈