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跨国想象与民族认同:全球化语境下的中国影视文化

ISBN:978-7-5203-0833-5

出版日期:2017-06

页数:294

字数:279.0千字

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20世纪90年代以来,随着世界经济一体化和信息传播业的快速发展,全球化已成为我们这个时代的核心话语。全球化不仅作为一种话语也作为一种动力,作用于世界各国的政治、经济和文化,为各国的相互交流提供了契机。然而,由于各国政治经济文化发展的不均衡,建立在“自由市场、公平竞争”机制上的全球格局,实际上是一个不自由、不公平的世界体系。从根本上说,全球化是以美国为首的西方强国通过资本输出和信息媒介技术等策略,来瓦解任何一种试图保持自身独特性的异质文化,进而完成对世界文化的“同质化”构造过程。正如美国文化批评家杰姆逊所言,对我们许多人来说,全球化的真正问题就是世界文化的标准化。美国的电视、音乐、电影正在取代世界上其他一切东西,由此引起的深层焦虑在于:特定种族/民族的生活方式将在这种文化标准化过程中遭到破坏。4393630

在以强势国家的经济政治文化优势为驱动力的全球化语境中,中国影视文化正在遭遇前所未有的挑战。好莱坞电影借助美国的综合国力,在逐渐占领全球市场的同时对中国影视文化产生了深刻的影响。近年来,中国影视创作为了迎合以美国为主体的国际主流市场,都不约而同地走向了民族虚无主义,普遍缺乏对本土现实及文化传统的真诚关怀,在审美精神的提升上往往差强人意。因此,面对全球化和文化帝国主义的后殖民语境,一种强烈的民族影视文化生存意识日益凸显。而“民族主体性”,作为抗衡文化强权的一种有效力量,理当成为中国影视文化建设的基本立场,成为当代中国影视跨国想象与全球化实践的文化基础。

然而,当下中国影视文化的全球化实践实际上是以民族主体精神为代价的。美国趣味的追逐、技术主义的崇拜、快感哲学的涌动已成为中国影视文化领域的普遍样态。特别是一些有“世界电影”野心的商业大片,在以西方/美国为中心的世界主义格局中,正在遮蔽和改写中国影视的民族身份与文化记忆。有的为了迎合观众,还只是停留在对色情、暴力、阴谋、背叛、复仇等人性阴暗面的展示,缺少审美超越的基本维度。崇高品格的匮乏和英雄人物的稀缺成为电影拜物教作用下的文化病症。中国影视在全球化诉求与民族性焦虑的悖论中,在商业与艺术、产业与文化、现代与传统、技术与人文的多重错位中遭遇发展困境。

中国影视文化的身份危机与发展困境,在某种意义上是全球化和社会转型过程中的社会问题的投射与表征。文化帝国主义的专横、消费娱乐主义的流行、现代科技理性的偏执和国家意识形态的僵硬使中国影视创作自觉不自觉地放逐了与自己族群、历史的血脉联系,而不可避免地走向了民族虚无主义,文化消费主义和科技理性主义。处于全球化进程和社会大转型中的中国影视文化是矛盾和脆弱的。在商业实用主义哲学的诱惑下,中国影视创作越来越背离影视作为艺术的价值立场,对于大多数电影人和投资者来说,想通过电影赚钱的欲望远远压倒了想通过电影表达一种美学理想的冲动。超越性的精神追求与形而上的人文关怀逐渐让位于对金钱赤裸裸地喜好和追逐,整个电影环境弥漫着浓重的拜金主义气息。而票房的高歌猛进无疑又对这种气息起推波助澜作用。

电影物质主义繁盛之时,或许就是电影艺术精神复归之际。毕竟电影作为一种特殊的商品,不仅关乎产业和票房,还关乎人文与心灵。只有那些能够走进观众内心世界、叩问人性与意义、彰显生命尊严和自由的影片,才能真正赢得观众喜爱。因此,回归本土现实,回归电影作为艺术的人文本性,将是中国影视应对“盛极之后”何处去的迂回之路。当观众的视听感官被银幕上的奇观景象一次次震撼之后而再无新奇感时,也正是崇尚技术的中国电影改弦易辙、回归朴素的契机。近年来中国影视文化领域悄然发生的审美变化——由“奇观”到“现实”的转向,为中国影视发展提供了新的可能性。特别是一些中小成本喜剧电影将可能成为消费时代影视文化的美学主流。曾经成功打入国际主流市场的中国“武侠片”,尽管今天由于种种原因在海内外遭遇了发展的瓶颈,但驰名中外的“中国武侠”,将会继续成为中国电影进军国际市场的主打元素。而借镜中国传统电影理论并结合电影创作实践建构武侠电影类型论,对于指导武侠电影创作、促进中国电影更好地“走出去”,不无裨益。

应该说,中国影视不只是一个地理概念,更是一个文化概念。健康的影视生态必然是建立在文化为先、文化为重的价值取向之上。只有从文化属性上界定与体认中国影视,凸显其文化身份和主体意识,中国影视才能走出当前困境,实现真正意义上的跨国想象。因此,机械照搬好莱坞,一味地追逐美国趣味,并非明智之举。实际上,我们需要向美国学习的不是技法和形式,而是努力培育一个具有电影文化的社会,像美国一样培育起自己独特的影视文化。民族的,也是世界的。民族艺术要想屹立于世界艺术之林,必须有自己独特的文化风格。要抗衡好莱坞,优秀的中国电影人不是去拍“好莱坞式”电影以迎合观众,而是必须想办法拍出“好莱坞拍不出”的电影,也就是拍出带有深厚中国文化底蕴、反映中国人日常生活、风土人情而同时又不失“普世价值”的影片。电影最重要的是故事与情怀,而不是技术与场面,来自人类历史或现实社会的生动故事,往往比华而不实的奇观更具感染力。五千年的中华文明孕育了中华民族独特的幽默和智慧,以一种国际性的通用语言讲述民族的故事、讲民族的好故事,是全球化时代中国影视走向世界的有效途径。

而讲述“民族的故事”不应偏狭地理解为对西方世界展示东方病态陋习的视觉奇观,影视作品的民族性必然内蕴着该民族的生存智慧和对人类文明做出的重要贡献;有人性的光辉、崇高的气节、深刻感人的“普世”情感,是以胸怀全球的气度进行的跨国叙事。中国影视创作应以生动的民族故事为依托,通过书写民族文化经验,洞察人类存在,表达人类理想与情感。只有当电影开始关注并追问人类存在的意义和价值时,它的民族性、民族精神、民族特色才有意义,并在创作者升华自身生存经验的过程中自然而然地体现在电影的世界中。当前的全球化表征着人类历史的新纪元,全球化与本土化、世界性与民族性应该构成新的互文关系。

全球化当是与世界的一种对话,是各民族各地方互通有无的文化交流。尽管现实尚非如此,但中国影视文化有责任为促进这一人类和谐愿景的实现而努力。立足本土现实、根植民族传统,以影视作为艺术的审美理想来制衡消费理性和商品逻辑导引的拜金主义、享乐主义、虚无主义,引领中国影视创作回归文化伦理的人文大道,成了当代中国影视文化建设的时代命题。而这不再是具体技法的变化,而是对于精神的、文化的孜孜以求。

本书拟立足于全球化的大背景和后殖民主义语境,通过对中国影视文化生态现状的综合分析,从中国影视文化发展的内外因素与中外环境入手,试图廓清导致中国影视文化身份危机和文化失重的根源,为最终解决民族虚无主义、技术主义、享乐主义的思想难题、促进中国影视文化产业的健康发展、维护人类文化生态平衡为理想诉求,按照“提出问题→分析问题→解决问题”的逻辑思路,展开论述。于是,研究中国影视文化的现实境遇,辨析全球化与民族性的张力关系,探讨中国影视文化发展所面临的挑战和机遇,探索中国影视健康发展的内在机理及全球化实践的路径、策略,探析中国影视文化的民族性建设对于构建多元文化空间和生态和谐社会的影响,最终获得面对文化全球化的一种伦理态度和民族立场,成为该书绕不开的问题。

Since the 90s of the 20th century, with the rapid development of world economic integration and information dissemination industry, globalization has become the core discourse of our time. Globalization acts not only as a discourse but also as a driving force, acting on the politics, economy and culture of countries around the world, providing opportunities for mutual exchange. However, due to the uneven political, economic and cultural development of various countries, the global pattern based on the mechanism of "free market and fair competition" is actually an unfree and unfair world system. Fundamentally speaking, globalization is the use of strategies such as capital export and information media technology by Western powers led by the United States to dismantle any heterogeneous culture that tries to maintain its own uniqueness, and then complete the process of "homogenization" of world culture. As the American cultural critic Jameson has argued, for many of us, the real problem with globalization is the standardization of world culture. The deep anxiety that American television, music, and movies are replacing everything else in the world is that the way of life of a particular race/ethnicity will be undermined in this cultural standardization process. 4393630 in the context of globalization, driven by the economic, political and cultural advantages of powerful countries, Chinese film and television culture is encountering unprecedented challenges. With the help of the comprehensive national strength of the United States, Hollywood films have had a profound impact on Chinese film and television culture while gradually occupying the global market. In recent years, in order to cater to the international mainstream market with the United States as the main body, Chinese film and television creations have invariably moved towards national nihilism, generally lacking sincere care for local realities and cultural traditions, and often unsatisfactory in the improvement of aesthetic spirit. Therefore, in the postcolonial context of globalization and cultural imperialism, a strong sense of survival of national film and television culture has become increasingly prominent. "National subjectivity", as an effective force to counter cultural power, should become the basic position of Chinese film and television culture construction, and become the cultural foundation of contemporary Chinese film and television transnational imagination and globalization practice. However, the current globalization practice of Chinese film and television culture is actually at the expense of the spirit of national subjectivity. The pursuit of American taste, the worship of technocracy, and the surge of pleasure philosophy have become a common pattern in the field of Chinese film and television culture. In particular, some commercial blockbusters with "world cinema" ambitions are obscuring and rewriting the national identity and cultural memory of Chinese film and television in the Western/American-centric cosmopolitan pattern. In order to cater to the audience, some only stay in the display of the dark side of human nature such as pornography, violence, intrigue, betrayal, and revenge, and lack the basic dimension of aesthetic transcendence. The scarcity of noble character and the scarcity of heroic characters became cultural pathologies under the role of film fetishism. In the paradox of globalization demands and national anxiety, Chinese film and television have encountered development difficulties in the multiple dislocations of business and art, industry and culture, modernity and tradition, technology and humanities. The identity crisis and development dilemma of Chinese film and television culture are, in a sense, the projection and representation of social problems in the process of globalization and social transformation. The arbitrariness of cultural imperialism, the popularity of consumer entertainmentism, the paranoia of modern scientific and technological rationality and the rigidity of state ideology have made Chinese film and television creation consciously or unconsciously banish the bloodline ties with its own ethnic group and history, and inevitably move towards national nihilism, cultural consumerism and scientific and technological rationalism. In the process of globalization and social transformation, China's film and television culture is contradictory and fragile. Tempted by the philosophy of commercial pragmatism, Chinese film and television creation has increasingly deviated from the value of film and television as art, and for most filmmakers and investors, the desire to make money through film far outweighs the urge to express an aesthetic ideal through film. The transcendent spiritual pursuit and metaphysical humanistic care gradually gave way to the naked love and pursuit of money, and the entire film environment was permeated with a strong atmosphere of money worship. And the rapid growth of the box office undoubtedly contributes to this atmosphere. When film materialism flourishes, it may be the time when the spirit of film art returns. After all, as a special commodity, movies are not only about the industry and box office, but also about humanity and the heart. Only those films that can enter the audience's inner world, question human nature and meaning, and highlight the dignity and freedom of life can truly win the love of the audience. Therefore, returning to local reality and the humanistic nature of film as art will be a roundabout way for Chinese film and television to cope with where to go after the "boom". When the audience's audiovisual senses are shocked by the spectacle on the screen again and again without a sense of novelty, it is also an opportunity for Chinese films that advocate technology to change their course and return to simplicity. In recent years, the aesthetic changes that have quietly occurred in the field of Chinese film and television culture, from "spectacle" to "reality", have provided new possibilities for the development of Chinese film and television. In particular, some small and medium-cost comedy films may become the aesthetic mainstream of film and television culture in the consumer era. Although Chinese "martial arts films" that once successfully entered the international mainstream market have encountered development bottlenecks at home and abroad for various reasons, the well-known "Chinese martial arts" will continue to become the main element of Chinese films entering the international market. Borrowing from traditional Chinese film theory and combining film creation practice to construct a genre theory of martial arts films is not without benefits for guiding the creation of martial arts films and promoting Chinese films to better "go global". It should be said that Chinese film and television is not only a geographical concept, but also a cultural concept. A healthy film and television ecology must be based on the value orientation of culture first and culture first. Only by defining and understanding Chinese film and television from the perspective of cultural attributes, highlighting its cultural identity and subjective consciousness, can Chinese film and television get out of the current predicament and realize the transnational imagination in the true sense. Therefore, it is not wise to mechanically copy Hollywood and blindly pursue American tastes. In fact, what we need to learn from the United States is not techniques and forms, but strive to cultivate a society with film culture and cultivate its own unique film and television culture like the United States. National, but also world. If national art wants to stand tall in the world art forest, it must have its own unique cultural style. To compete with Hollywood, excellent Chinese filmmakers do not make "Hollywood-style" films to cater to the audience, but must find a way to make films that "Hollywood can't make", that is, films with deep Chinese cultural heritage, reflecting Chinese's daily life and customs, while at the same time losing "universal values". The most important thing in movies is story and feelings, not technology and scenes, and vivid stories from human history or real society are often more infectious than flashy spectacles. The 5,000-year-old Chinese civilization has given birth to the unique humor and wisdom of the Chinese nation, and telling the stories of the nation and telling the good stories of the nation in an international common language is an effective way for Chinese film and television to go to the world in the era of globalization. Telling the "story of the nation" should not be narrowly understood as a visual spectacle showing the sick habits of the East to the Western world, and the national nature of film and television works must contain the survival wisdom of the nation and its important contribution to human civilization; The brilliance of human nature, lofty integrity, and deeply touching "universal" emotions are transnational narratives carried out with a global mind. Chinese film and television creation should rely on vivid national stories, through writing national cultural experience, insight into human existence, and express human ideals and emotions. Only when the film begins to pay attention to and question the meaning and value of human existence, its national nature, national spirit, and national characteristics are meaningful, and are naturally reflected in the world of film in the process of the creator's sublimation of his own survival experience. The current globalization represents a new era in human history, and globalization and localization, cosmopolitanism and nationality should constitute a new intertextual relationship. Globalization should be a dialogue with the world, a cultural exchange between peoples and places. Although this is not yet the case, Chinese film and television culture has a responsibility to work to promote the realization of this vision of human harmony. Based on local reality and rooted in national traditions, taking film and television as the aesthetic ideal of art to balance the money worship, hedonism and nihilism guided by consumer rationality and commodity logic, leading Chinese film and television creation back to the humanistic road of cultural ethics, has become the proposition of the times in the construction of contemporary Chinese film and television culture. And this is no longer a change in specific techniques, but a diligent pursuit of spirituality and culture. Based on the background of globalization and the context of postcolonialism, this book intends to base on the background of globalization and post-colonialism, through a comprehensive analysis of the current situation of China's film and television culture ecology, starting from the internal and external factors of the development of Chinese film and television culture and the Chinese and foreign environment, trying to clarify the root causes of the identity crisis and cultural weightlessness of Chinese film and television culture, and finally solve the ideological problems of national nihilism, technocracy and hedonism, promote the healthy development of China's film and television cultural industry, and maintain the balance of human cultural ecology as the ideal demand, according to the ideal appeal of "asking questions→ analyzing problems → solving problems of logical ideas, expand the discussion. Therefore, this paper studies the actual situation of Chinese film and television culture, distinguishes the tension between globalization and ethnicity, discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by the development of Chinese film and television culture, explores the internal mechanism of the healthy development of Chinese film and television and the path and strategy of globalization practice, explores the impact of the national construction of Chinese film and television culture on the construction of multicultural space and ecological harmonious society, and finally obtains an ethical attitude and national position in the face of cultural globalization, which has become an inescapable problem in the book.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
孙燕.跨国想象与民族认同:全球化语境下的中国影视文化[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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MLA 格式引文
孙燕.跨国想象与民族认同:全球化语境下的中国影视文化.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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APA 格式引文
孙燕(2017).跨国想象与民族认同:全球化语境下的中国影视文化.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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