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内蒙古区域游牧文化的变迁

ISBN:978-7-5161-2157-3

出版日期:2013-04

页数:741

字数:734.0千字

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基金信息: 国家哲学社会科学成果文库 展开
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我在中央民族大学从事民俗学的教学和科研工作30多年,邢旗在内蒙古从事草原方面的科技工作也30多年,我们合作的专著是我们学业和践行的结果。在我们深入草原,瞩目草原的工作期间,得到很多人的鼓励、支持和帮助,感念之情溢于言表……我们是在北京长大和读书的蒙古族,原籍是内蒙古赤峰喀喇沁旗人。祖先的蒙古姓氏为希里德特,是原察哈尔移民的后代。喀喇沁地区逐渐演变为农区,是蒙汉文化交流较早的区域之一,父亲邢复礼先生(蒙古名字锡里居泰)年幼时期除了学习蒙文之外,还学习《四书》、《五经》等汉文典籍。曾与内蒙古大学清格尔泰、陈乃雄等教授一起攻研契丹文字,并且取得了突破性的成果。祖父邢致祥亦是蒙汉兼通,著有蒙文《蒙古帝国史》、《蒙古元朝史》、《热河省蒙古喀喇沁右旗札萨克亲王贡桑诺尔布之略史》、《喀喇沁志略》等。前两本著作存于内蒙古大学图书馆特藏部。从曾祖父一代已经使用汉姓。母亲李松筠先生为汉族。在我们家乡,蒙古族文化和汉族文化在清代就已经互相交融,汉蒙通婚的现象也常出现。我们是在北京读书长大的,与汉族同学无甚差异。但是有两件事至今记忆很深。一是在20世纪50年代我上小学的时候,十世班禅大师来到雍和宫接见众多的蒙民和藏民。父亲回来把一条红丝绳拴在我的脖子上,说这样可以不生病。二是在北京实验中学读高中的时候,父亲令我阅读家存的《蒙古秘史》等蒙古族的史著。我模糊地意识到,我是蒙古族,蒙古族有与汉族不同的历史,那是怎样的一部历史呢?“文革”中断了邢旗的学业,邢旗去内蒙古莫力达瓦旗插队五年,这五年给了她了解草原的机会,并且成为她的终生财富。尔后她主动放弃了进入北京读大学的机会,就读于内蒙古农牧学院草业学专业。从这时起,邢旗这个文学底子很好的才女开始与草原结缘。我在北京首都师范大学中文系毕业后在部队劳动锻炼。1978年由喀喇沁乡亲白荫泰教授推荐在中央民族大学任教。其间我聆听了当代元史专家贾敬颜先生的《元史大纲》,多次得到元史专家翁独健先生、女真文字专家和满族文化专家金启综先生的点拨。我学习了宋蜀华和林耀华两位先生的《民族学通论》,并且有幸聆听了费孝通先生的人类学讲座,不断地学习更新了我的知识结构,启迪了我对人类学、民族学、民俗学的兴趣。人类学、民俗学的魅力吸引着我,草原母亲的召唤使得我们不断地回归草原。在此我首先感谢中央民族大学的人文环境,特别是人类学、民族学、社会学学院的人文环境,他们举办的高质量、高品位的多次讲座使我重整知识结构,这些讲座满足了我求知求真的渴望。从事民俗学和民间文学教学30年有余,20年前我出版了《游牧文化》《草原文化》,后来又出版了《游牧中国》。当时我多次来到了内蒙古草原,那已经是发生了很大变化的草原,而不是想象中的草原了。这激起了我描述内蒙古草原变化的愿望。感谢国家社会科学规划办给予立项的支持,也特别感谢内蒙古大学齐木德·道尔吉教授兼副校长给予这本书的鼓励和关注。这本著作的重要合作者之一应该还有中央民族大学蒙古语言文学系的叁布拉副教授,但是课题刚刚批准之时,他积劳成疾,英年早逝,这成为我们最大的遗憾。没有他的参与,加大了这本书的难度和写作时间的拖延。在这本书的写作期间邢旗承担了“草原监测3S技术应用研究”、“内蒙古退化、沙化草地植被快速恢复及综合改良”等重要研究课题,承担了全区草原遥感调查任务,与他人合作编著了《内蒙古草业可持续发展战略》、《内蒙古草原常见植物》等书,此期间作为内蒙古草原学会副理事长,她于2008年协助中国草学会在呼和浩特市成功举办了世界草地与草原大会。而我除了从事日常的教学工作外,主持完成了中央民族大学985的重大课题《中国少数民族重大节日的调查与研究》一书的出版,并负责拍摄了五部少数民族节日的民俗影视片。在这本书的撰写期间,我们经历了人生的甜酸苦辣。邢旗在草原现场工作时经历了车祸,腰部受伤住院治疗;我们96岁高龄的慈母屡次住院最后辞世;我们的孙辈一个个出生……这本书的背后,是我们各自家庭的生活,但是断而又续,续而又断的调查和撰写是我们生活的重要组成部分,也是我们的精神需求,因为我们的眼前闪烁的是父亲的草原和母亲的河……感谢内蒙古草原勘察规划院的同仁们,他们对草原的勘测、评估和有效的治理为我们提供了科学的论据,这些数据是他们敬业的汗水的结晶;感谢我们所引用的丰富材料的各位作者(在本书的前言中提到的不少文章和专著),他们的前行开启了我们的心智,鼓励我们奋然前行;感谢内蒙古文化厅安泳锝副厅长、赤峰老家的霍天祥、秦义、秦俊、张志勇、特古斯、乌云达来等多位同志,感谢海拉尔鄂温克自治旗的孟丽、希德夫等陪同我们调查;感谢中央民族大学的研究生张曙光、王志清、秦博、王玉光、桂丽等和我一起做的田野考察,还有白丽丽、娜敏、萨日娜、包海青、宋小非等独自的田野考察;感谢王志清、张曙光、周加、姜迎春、靳一萌等提供的照片(还有些照片是作者的多年积累,可能出处不甚准确,也特别表示感谢),感谢接待我们考察的很多牧民及干部,在此我们不可能一一叙说你们的名字,但是我们的脑海里刻印下了永久的记忆,你们的一碗碗奶茶温暖我们到永久。在此还特别感谢塞音、敖其、朋·乌恩、宝力格、孟慧英等教授的支持和关心。著作的定稿是2010年邢莉在美国印安娜大学做访问学者时完成的,其间得到图书馆刘文玲女士的帮助,得以阅览珍贵的文献资料,也一并在此感谢。最后我们以崇高的敬礼仰视内蒙古草原,内蒙古草原源源不断地输送给我们前行的动力,她使我们对人生多一份热情,人性多一份信心。当“成果”公之于世之际,我们首先把她献给父亲的草原、母亲的河,献给在内蒙古草原世代生存的牧人们;此书还献给已经辞世的师长和友人。他们的厚爱和教诲,我们以这本书报答万一。我们把此书献给草业研究专家、生态学者和民俗学者以及一切关注草原发展的不同学科的学者们、同仁们。我们还要把此书献给学识渊博的父亲和善良的茹苦含辛的母亲及不断以深情期许我们的家人。我们把这本书赠给我所有的研究生,在新时代下对知识的渴求激励我不断前行,我铭记与你们相处的岁月。这本书赠给中央民族大学85级文学班的全体毕业生。在校期间,我们心心相印,20多年后我们是朋友,友情绵长。这本书也同时赠给在国外的子孙,这里有我们的心血的灌注和追求,也有我们对国家的责任和对他们的期望——留给他们的一份精神遗产。《内蒙古区域游牧文化的变迁》是一个庞大的课题,在撰写过程中,我们逐渐知道了其不可而黾勉为之,逐渐认识到其意义,敝帚自珍,我们认为辛劳的付出不无价值。但是这样庞大的课题是我们已有的各方面的条件难以为之的,况且由于本身学术水平的限制,会存在一些缺憾,在此我们诚恳地期待学术界的指正,同时也希望有更优秀的著作问世。最后我们向中国社会科学出版社的黄燕生编审和姜阿平编辑致以崇高的敬意,感谢她们在排版付梓的过程中付出的辛勤。回眸遥望,啊,父亲的草原,母亲的河…… 邢莉邢旗 2012.8

I have been engaged in folklore teaching and scientific research at Minzu University of China for more than 30 years, and Xing Qi has been engaged in grassland science and technology in Inner Mongolia for more than 30 years. During our work of going deep into the grassland and paying attention to the grassland, we received encouragement, support and help from many people, and my feelings were overflowing... We are Mongolians who grew up and studied in Beijing, and we are originally from the Karaqin Banner of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. The ancestral Mongolian surname is Hiriddt, a descendant of the original Chahar immigrants. The Karaqin region gradually evolved into an agricultural area, one of the earliest areas of Mongolian-Chinese cultural exchange, and his father, Mr. Xing Fuli (Mongolian name Siri Jutai), studied Chinese classics such as the Four Books and the Five Classics in addition to Mongolian when he was young. He has studied Khitan script with professors Qinggeltai and Chen Naixiong of Inner Mongolia University, and has achieved breakthrough results. His grandfather Xing Zhixiang was also a Mongolian and Han scholar, and he wrote the Mongolian "History of the Mongol Empire", "History of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty", "A Brief History of the Prince of Gongsang Norbu of the Right Banner of the Mongolian Karaqin Right Banner in Rehe Province", "Karaqin Zhiluo" and so on. The first two works are preserved in the Special Collections Department of the Library of Inner Mongolia University. From the generation of great-grandfathers already used Han surnames. His mother, Mr. Li Songjun, is of Han ethnicity. In our hometown, Mongolian culture and Han culture have been blending with each other since the Qing Dynasty, and the phenomenon of Han-Mongolian marriage often appears. We grew up studying in Beijing, not much different from our Han classmates. But two things are still well remembered. First, when I was in elementary school in the 50s of the 20th century, the 10th Panchen Master came to the Lama Temple to meet many Mongolians and Tibetans. My father came back and tied a red silk rope around my neck, saying that I would not get sick. Second, when I was in high school at Beijing Experimental Middle School, my father asked me to read Mongolian historical works such as the "Secret History of Mongolia" that I had preserved. I vaguely realized that I am Mongolian, and Mongolian has a different history from the Han, what kind of history is that? The Cultural Revolution interrupted Xing Qi's studies, and Xing Qi went to Inner Mongolia to join the Molidawa Banner for five years, which gave her the opportunity to learn about the grassland and became her lifelong treasure. Later, she voluntarily gave up the opportunity to enter Beijing University and studied grassland science at Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College. From this time on, Xing Qi, a talented woman with a good literary background, began to bond with the grassland. After graduating from the Chinese Department of Capital Normal University in Beijing, I worked in the army. In 1978, he was recommended by Professor Bai Yintai of Karaqin to teach at the Central University for Nationalities. During this period, I listened to the "Outline of Yuan History" by Mr. Jia Jingyan, an expert in contemporary Yuan history, and received many requests from Mr. Weng Dujian, an expert in Yuan history, Mr. Jin Qijian, an expert in Jurchen characters and an expert on Manchu culture. I studied the "General Theory of Ethnology" by Mr. Song Shuhua and Lin Yaohua, and had the privilege of listening to Mr. Fei Xiaotong's anthropology lectures, which constantly updated my knowledge structure and inspired my interest in anthropology, ethnology, and folklore. The charm of anthropology and folklore attracts me, and the call of Mother Prairie keeps us returning to the prairie. First of all, I would like to thank the humanistic environment of Minzu University of China, especially the humanistic environment of the School of Anthropology, Ethnology and Sociology, and the high-quality and high-grade lectures they have held have enabled me to reorganize my knowledge structure, and these lectures have satisfied my desire for knowledge and truth. I have been teaching folklore and folklore for more than 30 years, and 20 years ago I published "Nomadic Culture", "Grassland Culture", and later "Nomadic China". At that time, I came to the grassland of Inner Mongolia many times, and it was already a grassland that had changed a lot, not the grassland I imagined. This inspired my desire to describe the changes in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. I would like to thank the National Social Science Planning Office for its support for the establishment of the project, and especially to Professor Qimud Dorji and Vice President of Inner Mongolia University for his encouragement and attention to this book. One of the important collaborators of this book should be Associate Professor Sambra of the Department of Mongolian Language and Literature of the Minzu University of China, but when the project was first approved, he died young, which became our greatest regret. Without his participation, the difficulty of the book and the delay in writing the time were increased. During the writing of this book, Xing Qi undertook important research topics such as "Application Research of 3S Technology for Grassland Monitoring", "Rapid Restoration and Comprehensive Improvement of Vegetation of Degraded and Desertified Grassland in Inner Mongolia", undertook the task of remote sensing survey of grassland in the whole region, co-edited books such as "Sustainable Development Strategy of Inner Mongolia Grassland", "Common Plants of Inner Mongolia Grassland" and other books, during this period, as the vice president of the Inner Mongolia Grassland Society, she assisted the Chinese Grassland Society to successfully hold the World Grassland and Grassland Conference in Hohhot City in 2008. In addition to my daily teaching work, I presided over the publication of the book "Investigation and Research on Major Ethnic Minority Festivals in China" on the major project of 985 of the Central University for Nationalities, and was responsible for shooting five folk film and television films on ethnic minority festivals. During the writing of this book, we experienced the bitterness of life. Xing Qi experienced a car accident while working at the grassland site and was hospitalized for a back injury; Our 96-year-old loving mother was repeatedly hospitalized and died; One by one, our grandchildren were born... Behind this book is the life of our respective families, but the intermittent investigation and writing is an important part of our lives and our spiritual needs, because what flashes before our eyes is the father's steppe and the mother's river... Thanks to the colleagues of the Inner Mongolia Grassland Survey and Planning Institute, they have provided us with scientific arguments for the survey, evaluation and effective governance of the grassland, and these data are the crystallization of their dedicated sweat; Thanks to the authors of the wealth of material we have cited (many of the articles and monographs mentioned in the preface to this book), their journey has opened our minds and encouraged us to move forward; We would like to thank An Yongxiang, deputy director of the Inner Mongolia Department of Culture, Huo Tianxiang, Qin Yi, Qin Jun, Zhang Zhiyong, Tegus, Wuyundalai and many other comrades from Chifeng's hometown, and Meng Li and Xidev of the Hailar Evenk Autonomous Banner for accompanying us in the investigation; I would like to thank Zhang Shuguang, Wang Zhiqing, Qin Bo, Wang Yuguang, Gui Li, etc., graduate students of Minzu University of China, for doing fieldwork with me, as well as Bai Lili, Namin, Sarina, Bao Haiqing, Song Xiaofei and others for their independent fieldwork; Thanks to Wang Zhiqing, Zhang Shuguang, Zhou Jia, Jiang Yingchun, Jin Yimeng, etc. for the photos provided (some photos are accumulated by the author for many years, the source may not be accurate, and special thanks), thank you for receiving many herdsmen and cadres for our inspection, here we cannot say your names one by one, but our minds are engraved with permanent memories, and your bowls of milk tea warm us to eternity. Special thanks to professors such as Sai Yin, Ao Qi, Peng Wuen, Baolige, Meng Huiying and other professors for their support and concern. The final draft of the book was completed in 2010 when Xing Li was a visiting scholar at Innova University in the United States, during which she was able to read the precious literature with the help of Ms. Liu Wenling of the library. Finally, we look up to the Inner Mongolia grassland with high respect, and the Inner Mongolia grassland continuously sends us the motivation to move forward, which makes us more enthusiastic about life and more confident in human nature. When the "fruit" is made public, we first dedicate her to her father's grassland, mother's river, and to the herders who have survived in the grassland of Inner Mongolia for generations; The book is also dedicated to the deceased teachers and friends. Their love and teachings, we repay with this book. We dedicate this book to Pratacultural experts, ecologists and folklorists, as well as scholars and colleagues from different disciplines who are concerned with the development of grasslands. We also dedicate this book to our learned father and the kind and bitter mother and to our family who constantly look forward to our affection. We gave this book to all my graduate students, and my thirst for knowledge in the new era inspired me to keep going, and I remember the years I spent with you. This book was donated to all graduates of the 85-level literature class of Minzu University of China. During our time at school, we were close to each other, and after more than 20 years, we are friends and friendships are long-lasting. This book is also given to our children and grandchildren abroad, where our painstaking efforts and pursuits, as well as our responsibility to the country and our expectations for them - a spiritual legacy left to them. "The Changes of Nomadic Culture in the Inner Mongolia Region" is a huge topic, and in the process of writing, we gradually learned that it is impossible to do, gradually realized its significance, and cherished ourselves, and we believe that hard work is not without value. However, such a huge subject is difficult to achieve in all aspects of our existing conditions, and due to the limitations of our own academic level, there will be some shortcomings, and we sincerely look forward to the correction of the academic community, and at the same time hope that more excellent works will come out. Finally, we would like to pay high tribute to Huang Yansheng and Jiang Aping, editors of China Social Sciences Press, and thank them for their hard work in the process of typesetting and payment. Looking back, ah, father's steppe, mother's river... Xing Li Xing Qi 2012.8(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
邢莉,邢旗.内蒙古区域游牧文化的变迁[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2013
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MLA 格式引文
邢莉,邢旗.内蒙古区域游牧文化的变迁.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2013E-book.
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APA 格式引文
邢莉和邢旗(2013).内蒙古区域游牧文化的变迁.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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