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中国转型期农村社会救助问题研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-7489-0

出版日期:2016-03

页数:185

字数:226.0千字

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随着社会经济体制的变革与转轨,我国农村贫困问题呈现出一些新的特征,并已成为影响我国经济发展与社会和谐的重要因素。作为农村社会保障体系中的“最后一道安全网”,农村社会救助对于改善农民生活、缩小贫富差距、维护社会公平、实现社会融合具有非常重要的意义。本书在实地调查和文献解读的基础上,综合运用历史与逻辑相结合、实证与规范分析相结合、共性与特性分析相结合等方法,从理论与实践两个层面对我国转型期农村社会救助问题作一系统探讨,以期为完善农村社会救助政策、提高农村社会救助成效提供些许有益建议。全书共分为五章,其逻辑架构与简要论述如下:第一章为导论。本章首先阐明论文的选题背景和研究意义,并对社会救助的概念进行了界定,就当前学术界关于农村贫困及其社会救助的研究文献进行简要的梳理与评析,介绍了本书的研究方法和相关实证资料的来源,同时说明了本书的研究思路与新意。第二章为社会救助的理论基础与农村贫困现状。本章系统探讨了马克思主义经典作家的社会救助观和党的十六大以来我国关于社会救助指导思想的最新发展,并就转型期我国农村贫困的现状及其形成原因进行了阐述与分析,以为我国农村社会救助政策的发展与完善提供理论基础和现实依据。马克思主义经典作家的社会救助观涵盖广泛,涉及现代社会救助的基本内容。在实际探索中,他们始终坚持历史唯物主义的思想方法,立足于当时社会生产力的发展水平,从人的实际生活需要入手,对社会救助的基本观点进行了论述。在马克思主义社会救助观中,社会救助政策的基本框架已经形成,对推动我国现阶段社会救助事业的发展具有重要的指导意义。改革开放以来,我国采取多种有效救助措施,促进了人们生活水平的显著提高,大幅度缩减了农村贫困人口,但当前我国农村贫困问题依然存在并呈现出一些新的特征。本章论述了农村贫困人口的规模、构成和空间分布,又着重分析了农村贫困问题的产生机制。研究认为,社会转型以及由此产生的社会政策与制度的变革是农村贫困形成的主要原因,因此对农村贫困人群实施救助是政府不可推卸的责任,政府应充分利用社会转型这个有利时机大力发展农村社会救助事业。第三章为中国农村社会救助政策的实践与评析。本章首先简要阐述农村最低生活保障制度、扶贫开发政策、五保供养制度、新型农村合作医疗制度、教育救助制度的发展过程,重点分析各个救助项目在实践中存在的主要弊端,并结合具体情况提出了相应的改进措施。鉴于农村低保制度在农村救助政策体系中的基础性地位,本章从保障资金、保障对象、保障标准、退出机制、法律法规和组织保证等方面对这一制度存在的问题进行了详细解析,并提出应通过建立农村低保资金的筹措机制、加快农村低保制度的立法与配套改革、完善农村低保对象的甄别机制、合理提高农村低保标准和健全农村低保退出机制等方式来加以改进。同时,本章提出政府应注重农村社会救助政策的科学化、系统化、法制化和规范化建设,确立现代救助理念,提升公众救助意识,充分发挥救助对象的主体性作用,做好救助对象扩大后的认定工作,培育救助工作的多元化主体,合理界定各救助主体的权责,健全救助工作的评估与管理机构,建立综合性的农村社会救助体系,在保障农村贫困群体基本生活的基础上,突出其发展性需求,彰显救助工作的人文关怀。第四章为农村社会救助的非政府组织介入。在如何消除农村贫困方面,本章提出非政府组织应积极参与农村社会救助。作为农村社会救助工作的重要社会主体,非政府组织在补充救助资金、提高救助效率和满足救助多样性需求等方面具有独特的优势,并且其救助模式也具有多种类型。由于我国非政府组织介入农村社会救助领域还处于起步阶段,在其发展过程中还存在着一些不规范的地方,主要包括政府的支持力度不够、运行经费短缺、专业人才匮乏、相关法律体系不健全,其原因在于非政府组织的社会认可度和公信力较低、没有法律地位、自身结构不够合理,以及运作模式也不够成熟,因此我们应树立正确的理念与价值观、理顺非政府组织与政府的关系、推进相关的法律体系建设、建立非政府组织救助应对机制、加强非政府组织的自身能力建设,以推动非政府组织的健康发展,充分发挥其在农村社会救助中的积极作用。第五章为完善我国农村社会救助面临的境况与对策。在上述研究的基础上,本章从整体性角度对如何完善我国农村社会救助政策进行了探讨。研究认为我国现阶段在经济、政治与社会条件以及实践经验等方面为农村社会救助政策的发展与完善提供了有利的因素,但由于受经济生活条件和社会发展程度的制约,我国现行的农村社会救助政策在外部和内部两个方面都面临着一些困境。为充分发挥农村社会救助保障农民基本生活、维护社会公平与和谐发展的重要作用,本章提出了实施农村社会救助的目标要求与基本原则,并从优化救助资源的供给系统、注重救助体系建设的衔接配套、健全救助管理体制与工作机制、着力构建城乡一体化的社会救助体系、推进农村社会救助的法制化进程等方面提出对策建议。研究表明:在社会转型期,我国农村社会救助制度框架已经基本形成,但其内容体系尚不完善、运行成效还有待提高,构建适合我国国情的农村社会救助政策体系意义重大,并将是一个长期的过程。各级政府要确立的公平为核心的价值取向,社会各界也应积极参与农村社会救助,以共同推进农村社会救助政策的发展与完善,提高农村社会救助的实施成效。 关键词:农村贫困 社会救助 政策体系 问题 建议

With the reform and transformation of the social and economic system, the problem of rural poverty in China has taken on some new characteristics and has become an important factor affecting China's economic development and social harmony. As the "last safety net" in the rural social security system, rural social assistance is of great significance for improving the livelihood of farmers, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor, maintaining social fairness and achieving social integration. On the basis of field investigation and literature interpretation, this book comprehensively uses methods such as combining history and logic, empirical and normative analysis, and commonality and characteristic analysis, to systematically discuss the issue of rural social assistance in China during the transition period from both theoretical and practical levels, in order to provide some useful suggestions for improving rural social assistance policies and improving the effectiveness of rural social assistance. The book is divided into five chapters, the logical framework and brief discussion are as follows: the first chapter is an introduction. This chapter first clarifies the background and research significance of the paper, defines the concept of social assistance, briefly sorts out and reviews the current academic research literature on rural poverty and its social assistance, introduces the research methods and sources of relevant empirical data in this book, and explains the research ideas and novelties of this book. Chapter 2 is the theoretical basis of social assistance and the current situation of rural poverty. This chapter systematically discusses the concept of social assistance of Marxist classic writers and the latest development of China's guiding ideology on social assistance since the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and elaborates and analyzes the current situation of rural poverty in China during the transition period and its causes, so as to provide a theoretical basis and practical basis for the development and improvement of China's rural social assistance policy. The Marxist classic writers' concept of social assistance covers a wide range and involves the basic content of modern social assistance. In the actual exploration, they always adhered to the ideological method of historical materialism, based on the development level of social productive forces at that time, and started from the actual needs of people's lives, and discussed the basic viewpoint of social assistance. In the Marxist concept of social assistance, the basic framework of social assistance policy has been formed, which has important guiding significance for promoting the development of China's social assistance undertaking at the current stage. Since the reform and opening up, China has adopted a variety of effective relief measures, which have promoted the significant improvement of people's living standards and greatly reduced the rural poor population, but the current rural poverty problem in China still exists and presents some new characteristics. This chapter discusses the size, composition and spatial distribution of the rural poor, and focuses on the mechanisms of rural poverty. The study believes that social transformation and the resulting changes in social policies and systems are the main reasons for the formation of rural poverty, so it is the government's unshirkable responsibility to provide assistance to the rural poor, and the government should make full use of the favorable opportunity of social transformation to vigorously develop rural social assistance. Chapter 3 is the practice and evaluation of China's rural social assistance policies. This chapter first briefly describes the development process of the rural minimum subsistence guarantee system, poverty alleviation and development policy, five-guarantee support system, new rural cooperative medical system, and education assistance system, focuses on analyzing the main drawbacks of each aid project in practice, and puts forward corresponding improvement measures according to the specific situation. In view of the fundamental position of the rural dibao system in the rural aid policy system, this chapter analyzes in detail the existing problems of this system in terms of guarantee funds, protection targets, guarantee standards, withdrawal mechanisms, laws and regulations, and organizational guarantees, and proposes that it should be improved by establishing a financing mechanism for rural dibao funds, accelerating the legislation and supporting reform of the rural dibao system, improving the screening mechanism for rural dibao recipients, reasonably raising the rural dibao standards, and improving the rural dibao withdrawal mechanism. At the same time, this chapter proposes that the government should pay attention to the scientific, systematic, legal and standardized construction of rural social assistance policies, establish modern assistance concepts, enhance public awareness of assistance, give full play to the subjective role of assistance recipients, do a good job in identifying assistance targets after expansion, cultivate diversified subjects of aid work, reasonably define the rights and responsibilities of each aid subject, improve the evaluation and management institutions of aid work, establish a comprehensive rural social assistance system, and on the basis of ensuring the basic livelihood of rural poor groups. Highlight their developmental needs and highlight the humanistic care of rescue work. Chapter IV Intervention of NGOs for Rural Social Assistance. In terms of how to eradicate rural poverty, this chapter proposes that NGOs should be actively involved in rural social assistance. As an important social subject in rural social assistance work, NGOs have unique advantages in supplementing aid funds, improving aid efficiency and meeting diversified aid needs, and their assistance models also have various types. Since the involvement of non-governmental organizations in rural areas is still in its infancy, there are still some irregularities in the process of its development, mainly including insufficient government support, shortage of operating funds, lack of professional talents, and imperfect relevant legal systems, the reason is that non-governmental organizations have low social recognition and credibility, no legal status, their own structure is not reasonable enough, and the operation mode is not mature enough, so we should establish correct concepts and values and straighten out the relationship between non-governmental organizations and the government Promote the construction of relevant legal systems, establish a rescue response mechanism for NGOs, and strengthen the capacity building of NGOs themselves, so as to promote the healthy development of NGOs and give full play to their positive role in rural social assistance. Chapter 5 is to improve the situation and countermeasures faced by China's rural social assistance. On the basis of the above research, this chapter discusses how to improve China's rural social assistance policy from a holistic perspective. The study believes that China's economic, political and social conditions and practical experience at this stage provide favorable factors for the development and improvement of rural social assistance policies, but due to the constraints of economic living conditions and social development, China's current rural social assistance policies are facing some difficulties in both external and internal aspects. In order to give full play to the important role of rural social assistance in ensuring the basic livelihood of farmers and maintaining social equity and harmonious development, this chapter puts forward the goals, requirements and basic principles for the implementation of rural social assistance, and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions from optimizing the supply system of aid resources, paying attention to the connection and supporting of the construction of the aid system, improving the aid management system and working mechanism, focusing on building an integrated urban-rural social assistance system, and promoting the legalization process of rural social assistance. The study shows that in the period of social transformation, the framework of China's rural social assistance system has been basically formed, but its content system is not perfect, and the operational effect needs to be improved, and the construction of a rural social assistance policy system suitable for China's national conditions is of great significance and will be a long-term process. Governments at all levels should establish the value orientation of fairness as the core, and all sectors of society should also actively participate in rural social assistance, so as to jointly promote the development and improvement of rural social assistance policies and improve the implementation effectiveness of rural social assistance. Keywords: rural poverty, social assistance, policy system, issues, recommendations(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
王贤斌.中国转型期农村社会救助问题研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
王贤斌.中国转型期农村社会救助问题研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
王贤斌(2016).中国转型期农村社会救助问题研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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