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我迷故我在:日本动漫御宅族生活方式研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-1978-2

出版日期:2019-03

页数:312

字数:279.0千字

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图书简介

文化人类学把人们的生活方式作为文化研究的主要内容,文化分析就是阐明一种特殊的生活方式以及这种生活方式隐含或外显的意义和价值。在本书中,御宅族的生活方式指的是御宅族的衣食住行、休闲娱乐方式、消费方式、人际互动方式,以及反映在生活方式中的态度、价值观和世界观等。

日本动漫御宅族是伴随动漫文化以及现代资讯的快速发展而出现的一个独特的社会群体。御宅族与众不同的生活方式创造了各种独特的文本、符号、象征及意义,并催生了动漫亚文化的产生,动漫亚文化是一种生活方式文化。日本作为世界第一大动漫强国,其动漫文化的影响波及世界各国。与此相应,日本御宅族的生活方式、行为方式和审美观也是包括中国在内的其他国家御宅族效仿的样板。中国是日本的邻国,20世纪八九十年代日本动漫传入中国后,日本动漫文化以及日本御宅族的生活方式、思维及行为方式对中国年青一代产生了深远的影响。

本书以日本御宅族这一亚文化群体为研究对象,采用人类学田野调查和文献研究相结合的方法,综合运用人类学、文化社会学及媒体人类学的相关理论,对御宅族的生活方式、思维及行为方式进行深度描述,在此基础上,从文化整体论的视角出发,探析御宅族的生活方式和行为模式背后的意义和价值系统,以期增进对御宅族这一亚文化群体的了解,以及对这一文化现象所承载的知识形式和文化特征的理解。

本书的理论意义表现在:就研究视角而言,通过对动漫文化及御宅族相关研究的文献回顾发现,在这一研究领域中,鲜见人类学、民族学的研究成果。国内学者多是从传播学、心理学和文化产业等方面探讨相关话题,尚未发现从人类学视角对日本御宅族生活方式的深入、系统研究。因而,本书的研究,可以拓展人类学的研究领域和研究内容。就研究方法而言,除了直接接触调查对象搜集第一手资料之外,由于御宅族的主要活动场域是虚拟网络空间,因而,需要将网络作为另一种田野,参与到与御宅族的互动和交流之中,突破人类学田野调查的现场观察和面对面访谈的局限,创新了人类学的研究方法。

本书的实践意义表现在:通过对当代日本御宅族生活方式的深入研究,能够对御宅族研究起到正本清源的作用,为中国的动漫文化研究和御宅族研究提供一定的借鉴。对御宅族这一亚文化群体的观照,也有助于对文化多样性的理解。

本书的主体内容由绪论、正文五章和结语三部分组成。

绪论:介绍本书的选题目的与选题意义、国内外研究现状、研究内容与研究方法、创新之处,并对相关概念和术语进行界定和解释。

第一章:梳理和介绍作为本书分析背景的日本动漫的产生及发展历程,并对日本动漫的基本特征、传播形式和传播渠道进行概括和分析。

第二章:对动漫御宅族的概念进行辨析、界定。厘清御宅族与普通动漫爱好者的异同,分析御宅族产生的主、客观因素。

第三章:首先,分析御宅族群体内外对其形象的认识和评价;其次,在实地调查的基础上,对御宅族的语言使用、审美取向、恋爱、衣着装扮等进行深入阐述;再次,以网络田野和实地田野工作相结合的方法,对御宅族在虚拟空间和现实生活中人—机—人、人—人等特殊的交流互动方式进行分析研究;最后,通过实地调查,重点考察东京秋叶原、池袋乙女路和鹫宫町等三个主要的御宅族“圣地”,揭示御宅族对“圣地”的依存和“圣地”因御宅族而繁盛的过程与原因。

第四章:在对角色扮演概念进行界定,对角色扮演的缘起和发展、角色扮演的具体过程进行梳理和描述的基础上,对秋叶原女仆餐厅和乙女路执事餐厅这两个因角色扮演行为而包含大量动漫元素的场所进行深入的田野调查,探究御宅族在现实生活中追求二次元文化、渴望融入动漫世界的原因和过程。

第五章:从文化人类学、社会学、传播学等相关学科的视角,对御宅族的身份特征、御宅族生活方式的意义系统及其追求意义的途径等进行尝试性分析和阐述。

结语:对正文的主要内容进行逻辑层面的概括、提炼,深入阐述本书的研究主旨及研究结论,并提出了有待进一步研究的问题。

本书的主要观点是:

首先,御宅族生活方式的最大特点表现为生活融入动漫、动漫融入生活。与动漫相融合的生活方式是动漫亚文化的表征。动漫文化内化于御宅族的价值追求和审美取向,外显于御宅族的生活方式与行为方式。

其次,动漫御宅族生活方式的意义,表层是对风格、个性的塑造和张扬,快感的获得;深层是在于自我身份的建构与表达,在于自我认同和群体认同的实现。

再次,日本御宅族群体经过几十年的发展,御宅族文化已经成为具有重要影响力的社会亚文化,并不断向社会主流文化渗透。在以互联网为主导的新媒介时代,御宅族与由大众传媒主导的文化消费模式之间是一种互动的、相互博弈的关系,在此过程中各取所需、相互依存。

最后,御宅族是商业社会和知识经济时代的产物,动漫亚文化是当代社会多元文化的重要组成部分,御宅族的存在是社会活力的表现形态之一,但同时,御宅族对动漫的迷恋表现出一定的过度性,御宅族群体内部的自我认知和群体外部的观感存在一定的差异性。

关键词:日本动漫;御宅族;生活方式;二次元

Abstract

Cultural anthropology is a discipline of cultural study which concentrates on the life style of people,meanwhile cultural analyses attempt to interpret one specific lifestyle and its impicit or explicit siginificance and value.In this dissertation,the lifestyle of otakus(おたく)refers to their the clothing,food,shelter,entertainment,expenditure and communicative interaction.Moreover,it also indicates their attitude,value and view of world in their daily life.

ACG otaku is a peculiar social community which has emerged with the fast development of ACG culture and modern information technology since the 1980s.The unique lifestyle of otakus creates their own texts,signs,symbols and meanings,resulting in the formation of ACG subculture—A culture of lifestyle.Japan is the No.1 ACG power which has a great impact on the countries all over the world.Accordingly,the lifestyle,behavioural pattern and aesthetic consciousness of otakus in the other countries(including China)fall into Japanese-category.In China,the new generation has been influenced strongly by Japanese ACG culture and the lifestyle,thinking and behavioural pattern of otakus since 1980s.

The study object in this dissertation is otaku—A subcutural community in Japan.This dissertation is attempted to explore the lifestyle,thinking and behavioural pattern of otakus.Theoretically it draws on anthropology,cultural sociology and anthropology of mass media.Methodologically,it is a good combination of field investigation and document research.Then it tries to explore the significance and value which is hidden behind the lifestyle and behavioural pattern of otakus in order to enhance our understanding of this subcutural community and its knowledge form and cultural features.

The theoretical significance of this dissertation lies in the following aspects.Through the literature review on otakus and ACG culture,there are few findings which are concerned with anthropology and ethnography in this area.Most of the scholars at home have done some studies from the perspectives of communication,psychology and culture Industry,but there haven't been yet profound and systematic explorations in the lifestyle of Japanese otakus from the angle of anthropology.Therefore,this dissertation will fill this kind of research gap.As far as the methodology is concerned,this dissertation goes beyond the limitations of on-the-spot field investigation and vis-à-vis interview,regarding the internet as a new field and participating in the communicative interaction with Japanese otakus besides collecting firsthand data,because they actually live their lives in vitual cyper-space.

The practical significance of this dissertation is conveyed through the deep exploration of the lifestyle of Japanese otakus,clarifying the confused notions of otakus,providing useful insights into the research in this area in China,and even enhancing our understanding of cultural diversities.

This dissertation is composed of three parts: Introduction,body and conclusion.The introduction part introduces the research goal and the theoretical significance,the research status at home and abroad,the research content,methodology and the innovations;moreover,it also gives the definitions and explanations to some relevant notions and terminologies.

The main body of this dissertation is divided into five chapters.

Chapter one: Introduces the background information about the development journey of Japanese ACG and analyzes its fundamental characteristics,its communication modes and channels.

Chapter Two: Defines the notion of ACG otakus,distinguishing the otakus from common ACG amateurs and analyzing the contributing factors of the emergence of this kind of community.

Chapter Three: Consists of three parts.First,an analysis of the image of otakus which is understood and evaluated by people inside and outside this community is carried out.Secondly,an interpretation on language use,aesthetic value,love,clothing and apparel of otakus is conducted based on field investigation.Thirdly,an exploration in the communicative interactions such as person-to-computer-to-person interaction or person-to-person one in cyper-space by means of cyper field and on-the-spot field investigations.Finally,field investigations are made in Akihabara(あきはばら),Ikebukuro Otome road(乙女ロード)and Washimiya-cho(わしみやまち)which are important shrines for otakus,revealing the close relationship between otakus and their shrines.

Chapter Four: Gives a definition for the“Cosplay”.Drawing on the description of the origin and development of the Cosplay itself,acareful field investigation has been made on a maid cafe in Akihab-ara and a butler cafe in Ikebukuro Otome road,where ACG elements are in abundance,to explore how otakus pursue two-dimensional culture and how they are integrated into the ACG community.

Chapter Five: Carries out a tentative analysis and interpretation of the identity,lifestyle and meaning realization of otakus from the perspective of cultural anthropology and cultural sociology.

The conclusion: Drawn through the interpretation of its major findings,valuable implications,limitations of the present research and suggestions for further research.

The main ideas of this dissertation will be illustrated as follows:

First,the most striking feature of the lifestyle of otakus is the marriage of life and ACG.The integration of life and ACG is represented through ACG sub-culture.The value pursuit and aesthetic awareness are internalized by otakus,meanwhile their lifestyle and behavioural pattern are demonstrated externally.

In the second place,the surface meaning and the deep meaning of the lifestyle of otakus is interpreted.On the one hand,they show off their styles,personalities and attitudes ostentatiously; on the other hand,they attempt to construct self-identities in such a sub-cultural community.

Thirdly,through decades' development,the OTAKU has already been an influential sub-culture,permeating into the mainstream of society.In this new-media age,gambling occur in the process of interactions between the lifestyle of otakus and cultural consumption pattern,where both of them benefit from each other.

Last but not least,otakus originate from commercial society and Knowledge economy,and ACG culture is a fundamental part of diversified culture.Therefore,the existence of this community reveals social dynamism.At the same time,ACG obsession in this community is transitional,because there exists differences between their self-identity and the evaluation of outsider0s.

Key words: Japanese Anime; Otaku; Life Style; Quadratic Element

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
博日吉汗卓娜.我迷故我在:日本动漫御宅族生活方式研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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MLA 格式引文
博日吉汗卓娜.我迷故我在:日本动漫御宅族生活方式研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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APA 格式引文
博日吉汗卓娜(2019).我迷故我在:日本动漫御宅族生活方式研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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