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中国企业综合调查报告.2016

China Enterprise General Survey 2016

ISBN:978-7-5203-5756-2

出版日期:2019-12

页数:288

字数:291.0千字

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CEGS调查之所以能够坚持下来,最重要的就是我在2015年序言中所讲的坚持初心。正是因为对初心的坚持,才能够正确地衡量包括花费的个人时间、投入和精力等似乎得不偿失的成本,才能够真正地从大局、从历史的角度看待企业调查,也才有定力去坚持不懈地做好调查。

初心不单纯是一种情怀,更重要的是一种原始动力,形成了对于CEGS调查必不可少的一套坚韧不拔的运作体系。

首先,坚韧表现在要科学地配置与企业调查相关的各种要素资源。企业调查涉及方方面面,包括要获得企业登记的原始样本,要基于这些样本进行区域、行业和个体的分层抽样;更重要的是要能找到这些样本所在的区域,并且要核实他们的实际状态;以上还是最基础的,更大的挑战还在于能够进入企业,并且能够让企业真实地填报问卷,无论是填报率、准确率都要达到基本要求;数据清洗、回访和统计时间也在一年左右,问卷的设计、测试与定稿时间也需要这么长;更不要说对数以千计的调查员的招募、培训和管理,以及巨大的安全风险和财务投入;除了这些要素外,还要与包括从中央部委一直到最基层的镇村和街道社区以及各种不同类型的企业主体,形成紧密协同的网络调查系统。因而,对于企业调查来说,不仅需要学术能力,更重要的是要有资源配置和系统的管理能力。武大质量院之所以能做成CEGS调查,就在于能够不计得失地将以上工作的细节真正做到位,并且形成了今天这样一个能够持续推进的调查网络生态系统。

其次,坚韧表现在团队成员“努力到无能为力,奋斗到感动自己”的精神气质。企业调查做不成可以有100条理由,要做成,作为一个亲历者来说,我的体会只有一条,那就是“绝不、绝不、绝不放弃”。CEGS 调查,2014年在广东省一些地区做测试时,可以说是屡战屡败,当时也确实有很多人认为,企业调查看来正如其他机构一样很难成功。但是面对这样的挑战,武大质量院依然坚持屡败屡战,又经过多轮的测试、摸索与对规律的总结,最终在2015年,成功地在广东省全面开展,2016年更是拓展到广东和湖北两省。企业拒绝填报问卷,以及关键的财务、销售等数据不填报,更是企业调查中的常态。CEGS面对这些困难,不是找理由为自己解释,而是想尽一切办法去解决它。对此,我们将调查时间安排为3—4周,这样就将更多的时间,放在与企业上上下下不同人员的深度沟通上,从而为填报赢得了时间。同时,我们科学分工团队的人员结构,让不同的调查员与企业不同部门进行对接,从而实现沟通与填报的专业化,这样也解决了企业因为嫌麻烦而拒绝调查的问题。更重要的是,我们坚持为企业数据保密的信用底线,迄今为止,没有一起因为CEGS管理不善,而使企业个体的原始数据外泄的事件发生,从而赢得了在企业持续调查的良好声誉。我们不认为调查只是使学术机构单向受益,而是在每次调查完成之后,都为每一个被调查区域的政府机构,特别是每个企业,回馈一份该区域的企业综合调查报告,这些报告都得到了当地政府、企业的高度肯定和采纳应用。

最后,坚韧表现在对“质量第一”的坚守。从调查第一天开始,我们就将质量作为生命,而且通过一系列的系统管理,将这一理念真正地落在每一个行为之中。在调查机制上,CEGS将调查的执行和调查的质量控制,分为两个互不隶属的并列系统,每个调查区域的每一份问卷是否能够审核通过,都不由该区域或上级机构的管理者所决定,而是由总部所设立的质控中心直接决定。在调查手段上,CEGS开发了智能化调查软件系统。该系统能够精准定位调查员在调查期间的业务行为,通过智能审核和智能计算功能,能够实时提醒调查员所填报内容的准确性和逻辑自洽性。特别是系统所拥有的知识管理和知识交流功能,为调查员和被调查对象正确理解问项要求提供了支撑。在调查管理上,CEGS设置了过程管理的流程表单,覆盖了调查的每一道程序和相关的细节内容,使得调查拥有了统一的质量标准,而且每天晚上12时都要统计和发布各区域的调查进展与质量状况,通过PK激发各区域的每日过程改进与日清日高。

《中国企业综合调查报告(CEGS)——2016》,依然由我作为调查的总负责人,提出总体构思和篇章逻辑,并组建参与本书写作的团队成员,对每章的具体内容提出写作要求,定期开展讨论修改,并最后修改定稿;由罗连发和李丹丹作为调查的核心组织参与者,具体带领团队开展每一章节的统计研究与内容写作;参与具体章节写作的成员有:贾旭、白云、陈佳、王岚、马娟霞、张伟、金荷、李媛媛、黄圆圆、董一鸣、沈笑寒、代丹、吕宵、张伟、陈佳、吴成强、许宁翰、王俊苏、方宁静、肖轶伦、赵晓松、郜蕊、谭俊、谢超鹏。

武汉大学质量发展战略研究院院长

武汉大学中国企业调查数据中心主任

程虹

于珞珈山

2019年11月29日

The most important reason why the CEGS survey has survived is the persistence of the original intention I said in the 2015 preface. It is precisely because of the persistence of the original intention that we can correctly measure the costs that seem to be more than worth the loss, including personal time, investment and energy, and can we truly look at the enterprise survey from the perspective of the overall situation and history, and only then can we have the determination to persistently do a good job. The original intention is not simply a feeling, but more importantly, an original driving force, forming a set of tenacious operation system that is indispensable for CEGS investigation. First of all, tenacity is manifested in the scientific allocation of various element resources related to enterprise surveys. Business surveys cover all aspects, including obtaining a raw sample of business registrations based on stratified sampling of regions, industries and individuals; It is more important to be able to find the area where these samples are located and verify their actual status; The above is still the most basic, the greater challenge is to be able to enter the enterprise, and to allow the enterprise to fill in the questionnaire truthfully, whether it is the filling rate and accuracy rate must meet the basic requirements; The data cleaning, return visit and statistics time is also about a year, and the design, testing and finalization time of the questionnaire also needs to take so long; Not to mention the recruitment, training, and management of thousands of investigators, as well as huge security risks and financial investments; In addition to these elements, it is necessary to form a closely coordinated network investigation system with various types of enterprises, including from the central ministries and commissions to the most basic towns, villages and neighborhood communities. Therefore, for enterprise investigation, not only academic ability, but more importantly, resource allocation and systematic management ability are required. The reason why the Quality Institute of Wuhan University can do CEGS investigation is that it can truly put the details of the above work in place regardless of gains and losses, and form such a survey network ecosystem that can continue to be promoted today. Secondly, tenacity is manifested in the mental temperament of team members who "work hard until they can't do anything, and struggle until they move themselves". There can be 100 reasons why a corporate survey cannot be done, and as a first-hand experience, there is only one thing I have learned, that is, "never, never, never give up". The CEGS survey, which was tested in some parts of Guangdong Province in 2014, was a repeated failure, and many people at the time did believe that the company survey, like other institutions, seemed to be as difficult to succeed. However, in the face of such challenges, the Quality Institute of Wuhan University still insisted on repeated defeats, and after many rounds of testing, exploration and summary of rules, it was finally successfully launched in Guangdong Province in 2015, and expanded to Guangdong and Hubei Provinces in 2016. Refusal of enterprises to fill in questionnaires, as well as failure to fill in key financial, sales and other data, are the norm in enterprise surveys. In the face of these difficulties, CEGS does not find reasons to explain itself, but tries everything possible to solve it. In this regard, we arranged the investigation time for 3-4 weeks, so that more time was spent on in-depth communication with different people up and down the enterprise, thus buying time for filling in the report. At the same time, the personnel structure of our scientific division of labor team allows different investigators to dock with different departments of the enterprise, so as to achieve the specialization of communication and reporting, which also solves the problem that the enterprise refuses to investigate because it is troublesome. More importantly, we adhere to the credit bottom line of confidentiality of enterprise data, so far, there has not been a single incident of corporate individual raw data leakage due to CEGS mismanagement, thus winning a good reputation in continuous investigation in enterprises. We do not believe that the survey only benefits academic institutions in one direction, but after each survey is completed, we give back a comprehensive survey report of enterprises in each surveyed area, especially each enterprise, which has been highly affirmed and adopted by the local government and enterprises. Finally, tenacity is manifested in the adherence to "quality first". From day one of the survey, we made quality a life, and through a series of systematic management, this concept was truly embedded in every action. In terms of the investigation mechanism, CEGS divides the execution of the survey and the quality control of the investigation into two parallel systems that are not subordinate to each other, and whether each questionnaire in each survey area can be approved is not decided by the managers of the region or the superior organization, but by the quality control center set up by the headquarters. In terms of investigation methods, CEGS has developed an intelligent investigation software system. The system can accurately locate the investigator's business behavior during the investigation, and through intelligent review and intelligent calculation functions, it can remind the investigator in real time of the accuracy and logical consistency of the content filled. In particular, the knowledge management and knowledge exchange functions of the system provide support for investigators and respondents to correctly understand the requirements of the question. In terms of survey management, CEGS has set up a process management process form, covering each procedure and related details of the survey, so that the survey has a unified quality standard, and every night at 12 o'clock to count and release the survey progress and quality status of each region, through PK to stimulate the daily process improvement and daily high in each region. In the "China Enterprise Comprehensive Survey Report (CEGS)-2016", I am still the general leader of the survey, put forward the overall concept and chapter logic, and formed team members to participate in the writing of this book, put forward writing requirements for the specific content of each chapter, regularly discussed and revised, and finally revised and finalized; Luo Lianfa and Li Dandan, as the core participants of the survey, specifically led the team to carry out statistical research and content writing for each chapter; The members who participated in the writing of specific chapters were: Jia Xu, Bai Yun, Chen Jia, Wang Lan, Ma Juanxia, Zhang Wei, Jin He, Li Yuanyuan, Huang Yuanyuan, Dong Yiming, Shen Xiaohan, Dai Dan, Lu Xiao, Zhang Wei, Chen Jia, Wu Chengqiang, Xu Ninghan, Wang Junsu, Fang Jingjing, Xiao Yilun, Zhao Xiaosong, Gao Rui, Tan Jun, Xie Chaopeng. Cheng Hong, Dean of the Institute of Quality Development Strategy of Wuhan University and Director of the China Enterprise Survey Data Center of Wuhan University, November 29, 2019(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
武汉大学质量发展战略研究院,武汉大学中国企业调查数据中心.中国企业综合调查报告.2016[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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MLA 格式引文
武汉大学质量发展战略研究院,武汉大学中国企业调查数据中心.中国企业综合调查报告.2016.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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APA 格式引文
武汉大学质量发展战略研究院和武汉大学中国企业调查数据中心(2019).中国企业综合调查报告.2016.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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