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中国现代化经济体系建设理论与实践

ISBN:978-7-5203-5070-9

出版日期:2019-11

页数:181

字数:181.0千字

丛书名:《当代中国经济发展理论与战略论丛;中共北京市委党校 北京行政学院学术文库系列丛书》

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习近平总书记在党的十九大报告中鲜明地提出了“建设现代化经济体系”的重要思想,既深刻阐明了为什么要建设现代化经济体系、建设什么样的现代化经济体系以及怎样建设现代化经济体系等基本问题,也对建设现代化经济体系做出了全面部署。为此,我们要认真学习、深刻领会,进一步弄通建设现代化经济体系的重要意义、科学内涵和主要任务,依据问题和目标导向,具体制定路线图和时间表,扎实推进新时代背景下的现代化经济体系建设,为确保实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴中国梦奠定坚实基础。

一 充分认识建设现代化经济体系的重要意义

建设现代化经济体系是建设现代化强国的中心任务。早在20世纪80年代,党中央就提出了我国社会主义现代化建设分三步走的战略目标。党的十八大进一步明确了实现“两个一百年”的奋斗目标。党的十九大站在新的历史起点上,以21世纪的国际高标准,把握中国特色社会主义新时代发展的大趋势和新要求,明确部署了决胜全面建成小康社会、开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的战略目标:到2020年,全面建成小康社会;到2035年,基本实现社会主义现代化;到21世纪中叶,把我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。要实现这一宏伟战略目标和愿景,我国必须牢牢抓住经济建设这个中心,坚定不移把发展作为党执政兴国的第一要务,加快形成先进的生产力,构建雄厚的经济基础;必须加快建设现代化经济体系,推动新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展,显著提高发展质量,不断壮大我国经济实力和综合国力。

建设现代化经济体系是紧扣我国社会主要矛盾转化、推进经济高质量增长的客观要求。长期以来,我国社会的主要矛盾是人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾。改革开放以来,我国的社会生产力获得极大解放和发展。2017年我国GDP高达82.7万亿元,位居世界第二5921917;工农业生产、基础设施、科技创新、市场建设也都取得长足进步,社会生产总体上已不再落后。但我国发展不平衡、不充分、不可持续的问题十分突出,总体发展水平仍然属于发展中国家,与发达国家有很大差距,与人民对美好生活需要也有很大差距。2016年我国人均GDP仅为8123美元,远低于同期10191美元的世界人均GDP水平。5921918当前,我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要与不平衡不充分发展之间的矛盾。要根本解决这一矛盾,我国就必须坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,处理好经济发展和环境保护的关系,推动社会经济全面协调发展,实现国内发展与对外开放良性互动,尽快确立现代化经济体系。

建设现代化经济体系是适应我国经济发展由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段的必然要求。从国内看,我国经济发展进入“新常态”,呈现增速转轨、结构转型、动能转换的特点。同时,长期积累的结构性、体制性和周期性矛盾仍然突出。由此决定,我国发展的总体形势是:改革已进入深水区、攻坚期和窗口期,全面建成小康社会进入决胜期,国民经济正处在转变发展方式、优化经济结构、转换增长动力的攻关期。面对这种新形势,我国只有以创新为驱动力,紧扣供给侧结构性改革的主线,攻坚克难,稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期,实现优质高效发展,才能推动经济建设再上新台阶。从国际看,国际金融危机的深层次影响还在持续,世界经济复苏进程仍然曲折,保护主义、单边主义、民粹主义以及逆全球化思潮抬头。我国只有实现创新发展和高质量发展,才能在激烈的国际竞争中赢得主动,推进人类命运共同体的建设。建设现代化经济体系,是我国发展的战略目标,更是跨越关口,建设科技强国、质量强国和现代化强国的迫切要求。只有真正建设好现代化经济体系,我国经济才能获得更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续的发展。

二 深刻领会建设现代化经济体系的科学内涵

建设现代化经济体系突出强调坚持质量第一、效益优先的根本方针,以明晰高质量发展的主攻方向,实现新旧动能转换,建立现代产业体系,推动城乡区域协调发展,提高全要素生产力,让人民有更多获得感。高质量发展是强国之基、立业之本、转型之要,而提高效率、效益则是发展的永恒主题。应当看到,党的十八大以来,我国企业生产经营效益水平和整体经济质量效益水平已经有了很大提高。根据2016年联合国工发组织发布的全球工业竞争力指数,我国与美国、德国、日本、韩国并列全球前5位;2013—2016年我国高技术产业年均增长11.3%,装备制造业年均增长9.4%,战略性新兴产业年均增长10.5%,远超工业同类指标6.7%;工业出口交货值47万亿元,其中高技术占44.7%;2013—2016年我国工业主营业务收入、利润总额、资产总计年均分别增长5.9%、5.3%和8.8%,经营收益水平明显提高。5921919但也应当承认,我国现实经济发展仍然存在质量和效益不高的突出问题,迫切需要把提质增效放到经济工作的首位,融入经济发展的各领域、各环节和全过程,推动经济发展的质量变革、效率变革和动力变革,切实提高劳动生产率、资本产出率、全要素生产率。

建设现代化经济体系的关键是建设现代产业体系,即构筑实体经济、科技创新、现代金融、人力资源协同发展的产业体系。实体经济泛指工农业生产,是我国经济的主体;科技是第一生产力,创新是引领发展的第一动力;现代金融是现代经济的血脉和核心,具有与实体经济和其他产业的融合力、推动力;人力资源是世界上最宝贵的资源。只有把科技创新、劳动力与人才、资本等生产要素组合起来,协同投入实体经济,才能有力地促进企业技术进步、行业供求衔接和产业优化发展。建设现代产业体系的着力点,是以供给侧结构性改革为主线,把各种要素调动好、配置好、协同好,发挥科技创新成果转化为现实生产力的作用,发挥资本、投资、负债支持产业发展的作用,发挥各类劳动者和人才投身于创业创新的作用,去产能、去库存、降成本、优杠杆、补短板、占领全球产业价值链的中高端,打造新业态、新产业和新的商业模式,协同促进实体经济和产业体系优质高效发展。

建设现代化经济体系的根本保障是构建市场机制有效、微观主体有活力、宏观调控有度的经济体制。经过40年的改革开放,我国社会主义市场经济体制不断完善。特别是近年来,按照“互联网+政府服务”的运作模式,深化“放管服”改革,简化行政审批事项和程序,消除“信息孤岛”,建立诚信监管“红黑名单”奖惩机制,完善政府服务规制和标准,实施行政审批“一网办”“一窗办”“一次办”“限时办”“代理办”“免费办”“督查办”等有效措施,高效便捷服务创新创业和企业发展,有力激发和释放了市场活力。同时,宏观调控方式不断创新,实施正确的宏观经济政策,采取区间调控、定向调控、相机调控、精准调控等措施,经济运行保持在合理区间。但也应看到,我国经济运行时常出现“一统就死、一放就乱”的现象,说明我国经济体制仍然需要进一步完善。只有处理好政府、市场和企业“三位一体”的关系问题,我国建设现代化经济体系才能获得体制机制保障。要进一步完善经济体制,我国必须坚持社会主义市场经济的改革方向,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,坚持简政放权、放管结合、优化服务,完善基本经济制度、现代市场体系和宏观调控体系,充分调动各类市场主体自主决策、自主经营的积极性、主动性和创造性,促进各级政府履行好经济调节、市场监管、公共服务、社会管理的应尽职责,从体制机制上保障我国经济创新力和竞争力不断增强。

三 进一步明确建设现代化经济体系的主要任务

建设现代化经济体系面临多方面的主要任务。其中,深化供给侧结构性改革是建设现代化经济体系的主线和重大战略举措。随着我国社会的主要矛盾发生根本性变化和经济转向高质量发展阶段,制约我国经济可持续健康发展的因素,既有供给侧问题也有需求侧问题,既有结构问题也有总量问题,既有周期性惯性问题也有逆周期调控问题,既有短期存量调整阵痛问题也有长期增量提质增效问题,尽管矛盾复杂、叠加,但供给侧结构性问题始终是主要矛盾和矛盾的主要方面。如果供给结构失衡,就不能适应需求结构的新变化;如果供给质量不高,就不能满足人民对美好生活的需求;如果金融、人才等资源配置存在“脱实向虚”现象,就势必影响了发展的基础。因此,我国必须摆脱对短期需求侧调控的过度依赖,立足长期供给侧结构性改革,把发展经济的着力点放在实体经济上,把提高供给体系质量作为主攻方向,努力提升我国经济发展的质量和效益水平。我国供给侧结构性改革应集中在四个方面:一是推动产业优化升级,加快发展先进制造业、战略性新兴产业、现代服务业和现代农业,加强基础设施网络建设,促进我国产业迈向全球价值链的中高端;二是加快形成新动能,鼓励更多社会主体投身于创新创业,在中高端消费、创新引领、绿色低碳、共享经济、现代供应链、人力资本服务等领域培育更多新的增长点,打造新经济、新产业和新业态,开辟新消费市场;三是改造提升传统动能,推动互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济深度融合,支持传统产业优化升级;四是坚持去产能、去库存、优杠杆、降成本、补短板,优化存量资源配置,扩大优质增量供给,实现供求动态平衡。

加快建设创新型国家是建设现代化经济体系的战略支撑。经过长期努力,我国科技发展成就显著。2016年我国研发经费投入1.6万亿元,同比增长10.6%,其中,企业占77.5%,同比增长11.6%;研发经费投入强度2.11%,已超过欧盟2.08%的平均水平。2016年中国境内专利申请数328.1万件,其中,发明专利申请119.3万件,分别比2012年增长74.0%和128.1%;发明专利占36.4%,比2012年提高8.7%。我国拥有专利文献1.09亿件,覆盖112个国家和地区,处于世界领先水平。2016年我国各类众创空间4200家,孵化器、加速器4000多家,中央企业双创平台409个,星创天地638家,双创示范基地28个,国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金760亿元,国家科技成果转化引导基金173亿元。2016年在我国参与调查的72.6家规模以上企业中,有28.4万家开展创新活动,占39.1%;分行业看,工业和服务业开展创新活动的企业分别占48.5%和28.9%。59219202012年以来,我国取得一大批重大标准性科研创新成果,载人航天、探月工程、实践十三号卫星、超级计算机、第五代移动通信、量子通信、诱导多功能干细胞、高铁、第三代核电、新能源汽车等已进入世界先进行列。但总体评价,我国科技创新能力与经济实力还很不相称,一些关键领域和核心技术仍然落后,受制于人,与经济建设主战场和人民美好生活的需求相距甚远。因此,我国必须坚定不移贯彻创新发展理念,深入实施科教兴国战略、人才强国战略、创新驱动发展战略,努力实现到2035年跻身创新型国家前列的目标。可采取的主要措施有:一是加强国家创新体系建设,强化基础研究、应用研究和关键核心技术研究,提升战略科技力量,实现重大突破和颠覆性创新;二是建立以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研用深度融合的技术创新体系,促进科技成果转化;三是倡导创新文化,支持大众创业、万众创新,强化知识产权保护;四是实行更加积极、更加开放、更加有效的人才政策,培养和造就一大批具有国际水平的人才和高水平创新团队。

实施乡村振兴战略是建设现代化经济体系的重要基础。进入21世纪以来,我国农业已经连续十几年获得丰收,粮食产量连续5年超过6亿吨,2017年为6.2亿吨5921921;农民收入增速连续8年快于城镇居民收入增速,2017年农村居民人均可支配收入增长8.6%,城镇居民人均可支配收入增长8.3%。5921922现在,我国农业的主要矛盾已由总量不足转变为结构性失衡,矛盾的主要方面在供给侧。我国必须始终把解决“三农”问题作为全党工作重中之重,建立健全城乡融合发展的体制机制和政策体系,加快推进农业农村现代化,深化农业供给侧结构性改革。可采取的主要措施有:一是确保国家粮食安全,把中国人的饭碗牢牢端在自己手中;二是构建现代农业产业体系,发展多种形式规模经营,实现小农户和现代农业发展有机衔接;三是促进农村第一、第二、第三产业融合发展,拓宽农民就业创业和增收渠道;四是巩固和完善农村基本经营制度,深化农村土地制度改革,深化农村集体产权制度改革;五是加强农村基层基础工作,健全乡村治理体系,建设社会主义新农村。

实施区域协调发展战略是建设现代化经济体系的内在要求。我国幅员辽阔,各地发展很不平衡,必须坚持协调发展理念,优化区域发展格局,完善区域协调发展机制,推进新型城镇化建设,逐步缩小区域发展差距。可采取的主要措施有:一是要建立和完善区域战略统筹机制、区域市场一体化发展机制、区域合作机制、区域互助机制、区域利益补偿机制、区域基本公共服务均等化机制、区域政策调控机制、区域发展保障机制;二是按照主功能区规划和城市群发展规划,协调推动西部大开发、东北振兴、中部崛起、东部率先发展;三是协调推动“一带一路”相关地区开放开发、京津冀协同发展、环渤海合作发展、长三角一体化发展、长江经济带保护发展以及粤港澳大湾区建设;四是支持老少边穷地区加快发展,支持资源型地区经济转型发展,加快边疆发展,加快建设海洋强国;五是以城市群为主体构建大中小城市和小城镇协调发展的城镇格局,提高城市承载能力,加快农业转移人口市民化。

加快完善社会主义市场经济体制是建设现代化经济体系的制度保障。推动经济转型升级,要害在创新,关键靠改革。我国必须以完善产权制度和要素市场化配置为重点,深化经济体制改革,坚决破除制约发展活力和动力的体制机制障碍,着力做好三个方面的工作:一是坚持和完善我国社会主义基本经济制度和分配制度,毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,毫不动摇鼓励支持引导非公有制经济发展,完善国有资产管理体制,深化国有企业改革,支持民营企业发展;二是深化商事制度改革,全面实施市场准入负面清单制度,加快要素价格市场化改革,完善市场监管体制;三是创新和完善宏观调控,发挥国家的发展规划战略性导向作用,健全财政、货币、产业、区域、消费、投资等经济政策协调机制,加快建立现代财政制度,深化金融体制改革。

推动形成全面开放新格局是建设现代化经济体系的必要条件。我国必须贯彻全面开放的发展理念,统筹国内国际两个大局,坚持对外开放的基本国策,发展更高层次的开放型经济,着力做好四个方面的工作:一是以“一带一路”建设为重点,坚持“引进来”和“走出去”并重,形成陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的开放格局;二是拓展对外贸易,培育外贸新业态、新模式,构建自由贸易区网络体系,优化进出口结构;三是全面实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单的管理制度,大幅度放宽市场准入,扩大服务业对外开放,优化区域开放布局,逐步消除关税和非关税壁垒,积极参与国际贸易与投资的治理;四是创新对外投资方式,促进国际产能合作,形成面向全球的贸易、投资、生产、服务网络体系,构建互利共赢的人类命运共同体。

四 本书内容安排和特色

本书是中共北京市委党校马克思主义理论研究中心继《新常态下的中国经济大趋势》《中国供给侧结构性改革研究》《中国生态文明建设理论与实践》之后,对现代化经济体系建设的理论、政策和实践经验进行研究的阶段性成果。研究团队根据研究特长,合理分工,密切合作,坚守问题导向与目标导向相统一、战略性对策与实操性建议相结合的原则,主要从两个方面,对建设现代化经济体系的理论与实践进行了深入研究:一是建设现代化经济体系的基本理论研究;二是我国建设现代化经济体系的政策、规制和实践探索。这两方面的研究和探索,对新时代我国大力推进现代化经济体系建设意义重大,研究团队力求取得新成果、新观点、新政策、新启示和新方案,以用于指导实践。本书由两部分构成:上篇为基础理论,侧重于对建设现代化经济体系的理论探索;下篇为政策实践,重点研究有关建设现代化经济体系的政策和实践问题。主要建树和重点内容概述如下。

上篇基础理论,探索了建设现代化经济体系的理论基础、主要内容和重点抓手。朱晓青教授认为,现代化经济体系的范畴,不仅与现代化和经济体系的范畴相联系,而且与我国新时代转变发展方式,建设科技强国、质量强国和现代化强国,实现中华民族伟大复兴的长远目标相关。在对现代化、经济体系、现代化经济体系等概念进行深入解析的基础上,其认为建设现代化经济体系的内涵应包括目标、思路、主攻方向、运作模式和战略格局等内容,而实现目标的基本思路、主攻方向、运作模式和战略格局聚焦于六个方面:一是一个理念,即创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享五大新发展理念;二是一条主线,即供给侧结构性改革;三是两个优先,即质量第一、效益优先;四是三大变革,即质量变革、效率变革、动力变革;五是“三有”经济体制,即市场机制有效、微观主体有活力、宏观调控有度;六是“四协同”现代产业体系,即实体经济、科技创新、现代金融、人力资源协同发展。目标与这六个方面的思路、战略格局联系起来,构成了我国建设现代化经济体系的“蓝图”和行动指南。

盖艳梅教授强调要以新的发展理念指导现代化经济体系建设,要牢牢抓住深化供给侧结构性改革这条主线,抓住创新这个牵动经济社会发展全局的“牛鼻子”,依靠创新驱动,更多发挥先发优势的引领性作用,依靠科技创新、体制创新和商业模式创新,加快推进中国制造向中国创造的转变、中国速度向中国质量的转变、制造大国向制造强国的转型升级。要坚持协调发展理念,统筹乡村振兴和区域协调发展,大力推进京津冀协同发展、长江经济带和“一带一路”三大国家区域发展战略或倡议的落实与实施。要贯彻落实开放发展理念,统筹国内国际两个大局,以“一带一路”倡议为重点,坚持“引进来”和“走出去”并重,加快培育国际经济合作与竞争新优势。

孙玉秀副教授认为,经过40年的对外开放,我国从一个相对封闭的经济体转变成为与世界经济深度融合的、日趋开放的经济体。进入新时代,如何主动参与和推动经济全球化进程、发展更高层次的开放型经济的问题越发重要。在辨析开放型经济概念、深入阐释构建开放型经济新体制的历史背景下,基于党的十八届三中全会以来,习近平总书记有关开放型经济战略目标的新要求,系统梳理了构建开放型经济新体制的主要内容,强调要推动形成陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的全面开放新格局,在此基础上进一步提出了实现开放型经济新体制的实施路径。

薛文平博士认为,加快建设现代财政制度是加快完善社会主义市场经济体制的重要一环,也是贯彻新发展理念、建立现代化经济体系的重要内容之一。沿着现代财政制度从何而来,为何要替代公共财政的提法,现代财政制度的内涵是什么,加快建设现代财政制度的意义何在的叙事逻辑,重点阐释了现代财政的核心构成:一是建立权责清晰、财力协调、区域均衡的中央与地方财政关系;二是建立全面规范透明、标准科学、约束有力的预算制度,全面实施绩效管理;三是深化税收制度改革,健全地方税系。

下篇政策实践,对我国建设现代化经济体系的政策制定和实践经验及其现存突出问题进行了多维度、多侧面的阐释。王昊教授认为,产业的转型升级是居民消费需求趋向个性化、多样化和高端化的客观要求,是解决社会经济主要矛盾的根本途径,是建设现代化经济体系的核心内容。然而,当前制约我国产业转型升级的结构性因素主要有三个:一是用地结构。住宅用地和工业用地比例的不合理,反映出城市空间结构的不合理,也反映出生产和生活二者关系的不平衡。二是劳动力结构。劳动力数量红利呈现下降趋势,致使下一步基本实现现代化的目标难度加大。三是技术结构。多个角度的分析显示,我国对外技术依赖程度较高,自主创新能力还不够强。要解决结构性问题,有效推动我国产业转型升级,很有必要采取优化用地结构、开发劳动力质量红利、加强供给侧结构性改革、推动国企发展和民企转型等措施。

杨东德副教授认为,建设现代化国家创新体系,要充分考虑创新系统各个要素的作用,尊重市场规律和科技创新规律,围绕从基础理论研究到技术开发再到创新成果商业化的整个创新链条,加强研发基础设施建设,营造有利于创新的社会文化环境,制定鼓励创新的配套创新政策体系,建立起政府、市场、大学、科研机构、企业、消费者、金融机构、科技中介及服务机构协同发力的创新生态体系。在国家创新体系构建方面,强调不能照搬别国经验,必须突出以政府为主导的中国特色。

贺燕副教授指出,改革开放以来我国城乡经济都取得了前所未有的成就,为实施乡村振兴战略奠定了基础。但现存突出问题依然不少,包括城乡发展不平衡和乡村发展衰落等,严重影响了整个国民经济的发展。要解决问题,必须围绕“乡村产业振兴、乡村人才振兴、乡村文化振兴、乡村生态振兴、乡村组织振兴”开展工作。为此,贺燕副教授重点阐释了北京乡村振兴的实践,为全国实施乡村振兴战略发挥示范效应提供了宝贵的经验。

李诗洋副教授认为,打造雄安新区金融科技集聚区,借助区块链、金融云、互联网信用风险控制、生物识别、数字货币建设等最新金融科技手段,支撑雄安新区高端服务业的快速增长,有助于加快北京市经济发展方式转变和产业结构升级,进而在京津冀区域乃至全国发挥创新发展的示范效应。李诗洋副教授指出,雄安新区的金融发展应侧重于吸引高科技的市场化金融要素,大力打造债券市场、企业票据市场、区域股权交易市场等多层次资本市场体系,鼓励各项金融创新和金融科技新业态的入驻发展。要注意完善金融信用环境建设和金融人才制度,优化金融软环境,加强对新兴金融科技业态的监管,化解金融风险,使区域金融市场规范、有序、高效运行。要充分发挥出金融对新区经济社会发展的核心支撑作用。

陆园园副教授指出,在经济日益全球化的趋势下,企业集群作为一种特殊的企业空间组织形态,在许多国家经济体系中表现出了非凡的活力,引起了众多领域研究者和决策者的热切关注。经过40年的改革开放,我国各种类型的企业集群已经成为经济高速发展的主要支撑和中坚力量。然而,企业集群的相关理论研究都还处于一个成长阶段,很多问题研究尚待深入。鉴于这种情况,陆园园副教授采用案例分析的方法,将集群视为一个复杂适应性系统,借用复杂性理论研究企业集群共同演进的过程,尝试将自然科学领域的复杂性理论引入集群问题研究,力求开辟新领域,吸引相关研究关注,进一步丰富这一方面的理论。

李中副教授指出,集成电路产业是信息技术产业的核心,关乎国家核心竞争力和国家安全,其重要性怎么强调都不会显得过分,“中兴事件”令中国ICT产业“缺芯少魂”的问题再次严峻地摆在国人面前。实践证明,世界供应链在政治面前是脆弱的,要想实现科技强国之梦,必须要有自主研发的“中国芯”。伴随着国家一系列政策的密集出台,技术攻关与产业突围并举,我国已成功解决了集成电路“从无到有”的问题,而且产业生态得到全面改善。但我国集成电路产业长期以来发展基础薄弱、投资强度不足、企业融资瓶颈突出、骨干企业自我“造血”机能差等诸多问题尚未得到根本解决。为此,李中副教授在深入系统研究国外集成电路产业发展经验和做法的基础上,对未来我国集成电路产业发展提出了相应的政策建议。

本书在撰写出版的过程中,有幸得到有关领导和学者的大力帮助。特别是北京市社科规划办基地处处长刘军同志,以及北京市委党校的常务副校长王民忠同志、副校长袁吉富同志和科研处处长鄂振辉同志,为本书的出版提供了很多帮助与支持。中国社会科学出版社为本书的出版做了精心安排。姜文武、武小东、赵天翔、宋小娜、黄亚娟、王功涛、胡晓琴、库元坤、于久臣、迟莉莉、齐军亚、刘铭铭、郭浩、孙秀霞、何旭、殷剑锋、李梓萌、张红梅、陈红、贾晓佳、段虎、刘卫军和郑俊俊等同志先后参与了本书的资料收集、实地调研、案例分析、文字编辑等方面的工作。在此,对这些同志表示衷心感谢!

朱晓青 李中

2019年1月8日

In the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping clearly put forward the important idea of "building a modern economic system", which not only profoundly expounded the basic issues of why to build a modern economic system, what kind of modern economic system to build, and how to build a modern economic system, but also made comprehensive arrangements for building a modern economic system. To this end, we should conscientiously study, deeply understand, further understand the importance, scientific connotation and main tasks of building a modern economic system, formulate a road map and timetable according to the problem and goal orientation, solidly promote the construction of a modern economic system in the context of the new era, and lay a solid foundation for ensuring the realization of the "two centenary goals" and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. I. Fully understand the great significance of building a modern economic system and building a modern economic system is the central task of building a modern and powerful country. As early as the 80s of the 20th century, the Party Central Committee put forward the strategic goal of China's socialist modernization construction in three steps. The 18th CPC National Congress further defined the goal of achieving the "two centenary years." Standing at a new historical starting point, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China grasped the general trend and new requirements of the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era with high international standards in the 21st century, and clearly deployed the strategic goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way and starting a new journey of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way: by 2020, build a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way; By 2035, socialist modernization will be basically realized; By the middle of the 21st century, China will be built into a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious and beautiful modern socialist power. To achieve this grand strategic goal and vision, China must firmly grasp economic construction as the center, unswervingly regard development as the first priority for the party to govern and rejuvenate the country, accelerate the formation of advanced productive forces, and build a solid economic foundation; We must speed up the construction of a modern economic system, promote the simultaneous development of new-type industrialization, informationization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, significantly improve the quality of development, and continuously strengthen China's economic strength and comprehensive national strength. Building a modern economic system is an objective requirement for closely following the transformation of the main contradictions in our society and promoting high-quality economic growth. For a long time, the main contradiction in our society has been the contradiction between the people's growing material and cultural needs and backward social production. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, China's social productive forces have been greatly liberated and developed. In 2017, China's GDP reached 82.7 trillion yuan, ranking second 5921917 the world; industrial and agricultural production, infrastructure, scientific and technological innovation, and market construction have also made great progress, and social production on the whole is no longer backward. However, the problems of unbalanced, insufficient and unsustainable development in our country are very prominent, and the overall level of development still belongs to developing countries, which is far from that of developed countries and the needs of the people for a better life. In 2016, China's per capita GDP was only $8,123, far lower than the world's per capita GDP level of $10,191 in the same period. 5921918 at present, the main contradiction in our society has been transformed into a contradiction between the people's growing need for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. To fundamentally solve this contradiction, China must adhere to the new development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing, make overall plans to promote the overall layout of the "five-in-one", coordinate the promotion of the "four comprehensive" strategic layout, properly handle the relationship between economic development and environmental protection, promote comprehensive and coordinated social and economic development, realize the benign interaction between domestic development and opening up, and establish a modern economic system as soon as possible. Building a modern economic system is an inevitable requirement for adapting China's economic development from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development stage. From a domestic point of view, China's economic development has entered a "new normal", showing the characteristics of growth rate transformation, structural transformation and kinetic energy transformation. At the same time, the structural, institutional and cyclical contradictions accumulated over a long period of time are still prominent. It is decided that the overall situation of China's development is: reform has entered a deep water area, a period of tackling tough problems and a window period, the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society has entered a decisive period, and the national economy is in a critical period of transforming the mode of development, optimizing the economic structure, and transforming the driving force of growth. In the face of this new situation, China can only promote economic construction to a new level by taking innovation as the driving force, closely following the main line of supply-side structural reform, overcoming difficulties, stabilizing employment, finance, foreign trade, foreign investment, investment, and expectations, and achieving high-quality and efficient development. Internationally, the deep-seated impact of the international financial crisis is still continuing, the process of world economic recovery is still tortuous, and protectionism, unilateralism, populism and anti-globalization are on the rise. Only by achieving innovative development and high-quality development can China win the initiative in the fierce international competition and promote the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind. Building a modern economic system is the strategic goal of China's development, and it is also an urgent requirement for crossing the threshold to build a strong country in science and technology, a strong country in quality and a modern power. Only by truly building a modern economic system can China's economy achieve higher quality, more efficient, fairer and more sustainable development. 2. Deeply understand the scientific connotation of building a modern economic system, build a modern economic system, highlight the fundamental policy of adhering to quality first and efficiency first, clarify the main direction of high-quality development, realize the conversion of new and old kinetic energy, establish a modern industrial system, promote the coordinated development of urban and rural areas, improve total factor productivity, and let the people have more sense of gain. High-quality development is the foundation of a strong country, the foundation of business, and the key to transformation, and improving efficiency and effectiveness is the eternal theme of development. It should be noted that since the 18th CPC National Congress, the level of production and operation efficiency of China's enterprises and the overall level of economic quality and efficiency have been greatly improved. According to the Global Industrial Competitiveness Index released by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2016, China ranks among the top 5 in the world with the United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea; From 2013 to 2016, China's high-tech industry grew by 11.3% per year, equipment manufacturing industry with an average annual growth rate of 9.4%, and strategic emerging industries with an average annual growth rate of 10.5%, far exceeding the industrial similar indicators of 6.7%; Industrial export delivery value was 47 trillion yuan, of which high technology accounted for 44.7%; From 2013 to 2016, the income, total profit and total assets of China's main industrial business increased by 5.9%, 5.3% and 8.8% respectively annually, and the level of operating income increased significantly. 5921919, it should also be admitted that there are still outstanding problems of low quality and efficiency in China's actual economic development, and it is urgent to put quality and efficiency improvement in the first place in economic work, integrate into all fields, links and processes of economic development, promote the quality, efficiency and power of economic development, and effectively improve labor productivity, capital output rate and total factor productivity. The key to building a modern economic system is to build a modern industrial system, that is, to build an industrial system with the coordinated development of the real economy, scientific and technological innovation, modern finance, and human resources. The real economy generally refers to industrial and agricultural production and is the main body of China's economy; Science and technology is the primary productive force, and innovation is the primary driving force for development; Modern finance is the bloodline and core of modern economy, and has the integration and driving force with the real economy and other industries; Human resources are the most valuable resource in the world. Only by combining scientific and technological innovation, labor, talents, capital and other production factors and synergizing into the real economy can we effectively promote the technological progress of enterprises, the connection between supply and demand of the industry and the optimization and development of the industry. The focus of building a modern industrial system is to take supply-side structural reform as the main line, mobilize various factors well, allocate and coordinate well, give play to the role of scientific and technological innovation achievements in transforming real productivity, give play to the role of capital, investment and debt to support industrial development, give play to the role of all kinds of workers and talents in entrepreneurship and innovation, reduce production capacity, inventory, reduce costs, optimize leverage, make up for shortcomings, occupy the middle and high end of the global industrial value chain, and create new formats, new industries and new business models. Coordinate to promote the high-quality and efficient development of the real economy and industrial system. The fundamental guarantee for building a modern economic system is to build an economic system with effective market mechanisms, vigorous micro-subjects, and moderate macro-control. After 40 years of reform and opening up, China's socialist market economic system has been continuously improved. Especially in recent years, in accordance with the operation mode of "Internet + government services", we have deepened the reform of "decentralization, management and service", simplified administrative examination and approval matters and procedures, eliminated "information islands", established a reward and punishment mechanism for "red and black list" for creditworthiness supervision, improved government service regulations and standards, and implemented effective measures such as "one network office", "one window office", "one-time office", "time-limited office", "agency office", "free office" and "supervision office" for administrative examination and approval, so as to efficiently and conveniently serve innovation and entrepreneurship and enterprise development, and effectively stimulate and release market vitality. At the same time, the macro-control mode continues to innovate, implement correct macroeconomic policies, adopt range regulation, directional regulation, camera regulation, precise regulation and other measures, and maintain economic operation in a reasonable range. However, it should also be noted that the phenomenon of "death if unification is unified, and chaos when it is released" often occurs in the operation of China's economy, which shows that China's economic system still needs to be further improved. Only by properly handling the "trinity" relationship between the government, the market and enterprises can China's construction of a modern economic system be guaranteed by institutional mechanisms. To further improve the economic system, China must adhere to the reform direction of the socialist market economy, make the market play a decisive role in the allocation of resources, give better play to the role of the government, adhere to the simplification of administration and decentralization, the combination of decentralization, and the optimization of services, improve the basic economic system, modern market system and macro-control system, fully mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of all kinds of market entities for independent decision-making and independent operation, and promote governments at all levels to perform their due diligence duties in economic regulation, market supervision, public services and social management. From the perspective of institutional mechanisms, China's economic innovation and competitiveness will continue to increase. 3. Further clarify the main tasks of building a modern economic system, and the main tasks facing the construction of a modern economic system in many aspects. Among them, deepening supply-side structural reform is the main line and major strategic measure for building a modern economic system. With the fundamental changes in the main contradictions of our society and the shift of the economy to a stage of high-quality development, the factors restricting the sustainable and healthy development of China's economy include both supply-side problems and demand-side problems, structural problems and total volume problems, both cyclical inertia problems and counter-cyclical regulation and control problems, both short-term stock adjustment pain problems and long-term incremental quality and efficiency improvement problems. If the supply structure is unbalanced, it cannot adapt to new changes in the demand structure; If the quality of supply is not high, it cannot meet the people's demand for a better life; If there is a phenomenon of "turning from real to virtual" in the allocation of financial, talent and other resources, it will inevitably affect the foundation of development. Therefore, China must get rid of the excessive dependence on short-term demand-side regulation, base on long-term supply-side structural reform, focus on the real economy for economic development, take improving the quality of the supply system as the main direction of attack, and strive to improve the quality and efficiency of China's economic development. China's supply-side structural reform should focus on four aspects: first, promote industrial optimization and upgrading, accelerate the development of advanced manufacturing, strategic emerging industries, modern service industries and modern agriculture, strengthen infrastructure network construction, and promote China's industries to move towards the middle and high end of the global value chain; The second is to accelerate the formation of new momentum, encourage more social entities to devote themselves to innovation and entrepreneurship, cultivate more new growth points in the fields of medium and high-end consumption, innovation leadership, green and low-carbon, sharing economy, modern supply chain, human capital services, etc., create new economies, new industries and new formats, and open up new consumer markets; The third is to transform and enhance traditional kinetic energy, promote the deep integration of the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and the real economy, and support the optimization and upgrading of traditional industries; The fourth is to adhere to reducing production capacity, inventory, optimal leverage, cost reduction, and making up for shortcomings, optimizing the allocation of stock resources, expanding high-quality incremental supply, and achieving a dynamic balance between supply and demand. Accelerating the construction of an innovative country is a strategic support for building a modern economic system. After long-term efforts, China's scientific and technological development has made remarkable achievements. In 2016, China's R&D investment was 1.6 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 10.6%, of which enterprises accounted for 77.5%, a year-on-year increase of 11.6%; The investment intensity of R&D funding is 2.11%, which has exceeded the EU average of 2.08%. In 2016, there were 3.281 million patent applications in China, of which 1.193 million were invention patent applications, an increase of 74.0% and 128.1% respectively over 2012; Invention patents accounted for 36.4%, an increase of 8.7% over 2012. China has 109 million patent documents, covering 112 countries and regions, and is at the world's leading level. In 2016, there were 4,200 public innovation spaces, more than 4,000 incubators and accelerators, 409 central enterprise innovation platforms, 638 star innovation worlds, 28 innovation and innovation demonstration bases, 76 billion yuan of the national emerging industry venture capital guidance fund, and 17.3 billion yuan of the national scientific and technological achievements transformation guidance fund. Among the 72.6 enterprises above designated size surveyed in China in 2016, 284,000 carried out innovative activities, accounting for 39.1%; By industry, 48.5% and 28.9% of enterprises in industry and services carried out innovative activities, respectively. Since 59219202012, China has made a large number of major standard scientific research and innovation achievements, manned spaceflight, lunar exploration project, Shijian-13 satellite, supercomputer, fifth-generation mobile communication, quantum communication, induced pluripotent stem cells, high-speed rail, third-generation nuclear power, new energy vehicles, etc. have entered the world's advanced ranks. However, in the overall evaluation, China's scientific and technological innovation ability and economic strength are still far from commensurate, and some key fields and core technologies are still backward, subject to people, and far from the main battlefield of economic construction and the needs of the people's better life. Therefore, China must unswervingly implement the concept of innovative development, deeply implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, the strategy of strengthening the country with talents, and the innovation-driven development strategy, and strive to achieve the goal of becoming one of the forefront of innovative countries by 2035. The main measures that can be taken are: first, strengthen the construction of the national innovation system, strengthen basic research, applied research and key core technology research, enhance strategic scientific and technological strength, and achieve major breakthroughs and disruptive innovation; The second is to establish a technological innovation system with enterprises as the main body, market-oriented, and deep integration of production, education and research to promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements; The third is to advocate a culture of innovation, support mass entrepreneurship and innovation, and strengthen intellectual property protection; The fourth is to implement a more active, open and effective talent policy, and cultivate and cultivate a large number of talents with international standards and high-level innovation teams. The implementation of the rural revitalization strategy is an important foundation for building a modern economic system. Since entering the 21st century, China's agriculture has achieved bumper harvests for more than ten consecutive years, grain output has exceeded 600 million tons for five consecutive years, and 620 million tons 5921921 in 2017; the growth rate of farmers' income has been faster than the growth rate of urban residents' income for eight consecutive years, and the per capita disposable income of rural residents increased by 8.6% in 2017, and the per capita disposable income of urban residents increased by 8.3%. 5921922 now, the main contradiction of China's agriculture has changed from insufficient total amount to structural imbalance, and the main aspect of the contradiction is on the supply side. China must always take solving the "three rural issues" as the top priority of the whole party's work, establish and improve the institutional mechanism and policy system for the integrated development of urban and rural areas, accelerate the modernization of agriculture and rural areas, and deepen the structural reform of the agricultural supply side. The main measures that can be taken are: first, to ensure national food security and firmly hold the Chinese's rice bowl in their own hands; The second is to build a modern agricultural industrial system, develop various forms of large-scale operations, and realize the organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development; The third is to promote the integrated development of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in rural areas, and broaden the channels for employment and entrepreneurship and income increase for farmers; The fourth is to consolidate and improve the basic rural management system, deepen the reform of the rural land system, and deepen the reform of the rural collective property rights system; Fifth, strengthen the basic work of rural grassroots work, improve the rural governance system, and build a new socialist countryside. The implementation of a coordinated regional development strategy is an inherent requirement for building a modern economic system. China has a vast territory and uneven development in various places, we must adhere to the concept of coordinated development, optimize the regional development pattern, improve the regional coordinated development mechanism, promote the construction of new-type urbanization, and gradually narrow the regional development gap. The main measures that can be taken are: first, to establish and improve the regional strategic coordination mechanism, the regional market integration development mechanism, the regional cooperation mechanism, the regional mutual assistance mechanism, the regional interest compensation mechanism, the regional basic public service equalization mechanism, the regional policy regulation mechanism, and the regional development guarantee mechanism; The second is to coordinate and promote the large-scale development of the western region, the revitalization of the northeast, the rise of the central region, and the first development of the eastern region in accordance with the main functional area planning and the urban agglomeration development plan; The third is to coordinate and promote the opening up and development of the relevant regions of the "Belt and Road", the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the cooperative development of the Bohai Rim, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, the protection and development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area; The fourth is to support the accelerated development of old and young border and poor areas, support the economic transformation and development of resource-based areas, accelerate the development of border areas, and accelerate the construction of a maritime power; The fifth is to build an urban pattern of coordinated development of large, medium-sized and small cities and small towns with urban agglomerations as the main body, improve the carrying capacity of cities, and accelerate the urbanization of agricultural transfer population. Speeding up the improvement of the socialist market economic system is the institutional guarantee for building a modern economic system. To promote economic transformation and upgrading, the key lies in innovation, and the key lies in reform. China must focus on improving the property rights system and the market-oriented configuration of factors, deepen the reform of the economic system, resolutely break down the institutional obstacles that restrict the vitality and motivation of development, and strive to do a good job in three aspects: First, adhere to and improve China's basic socialist economic system and distribution system, unswervingly consolidate and develop the public ownership economy, unswervingly encourage and support the development of the non-public economy, improve the state-owned asset management system, deepen the reform of state-owned enterprises, and support the development of private enterprises; The second is to deepen the reform of the commercial system, fully implement the negative list system for market access, accelerate the market-oriented reform of factor prices, and improve the market supervision system; The third is to innovate and improve macroeconomic regulation and control, give play to the strategic guiding role of the country's development planning, improve the coordination mechanism of fiscal, monetary, industrial, regional, consumption, investment and other economic policies, accelerate the establishment of a modern fiscal system, and deepen the reform of the financial system. Promoting the formation of a new pattern of comprehensive opening up is a necessary condition for building a modern economic system. China must implement the development concept of comprehensive opening up, coordinate the overall situation at home and abroad, adhere to the basic national policy of opening up to the outside world, develop a higher-level open economy, and strive to do a good job in four aspects: First, focus on the construction of the "Belt and Road", adhere to the equal emphasis on "bringing in" and "going out", and form an open pattern of linkage at home and abroad, and mutual assistance between east and west; The second is to expand foreign trade, cultivate new formats and models of foreign trade, build a free trade zone network system, and optimize the import and export structure; The third is to fully implement the pre-establishment national treatment plus negative list management system, greatly relax market access, expand the opening up of the service industry, optimize the layout of regional opening-up, gradually eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers, and actively participate in the governance of international trade and investment; The fourth is to innovate foreign investment methods, promote international production capacity cooperation, form a global trade, investment, production and service network system, and build a community with a shared future for mankind that is mutually beneficial and win-win. IV. The content arrangement and characteristics of this book are the phased results of the research on the theory, policy and practical experience of the construction of a modern economic system by the Marxist Theory Research Center of the Party School of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China, following "China's General Trend of China's Economy under the New Normal", "Research on China's Supply-Side Structural Reform" and "Theory and Practice of China's Ecological Civilization Construction". Based on the research expertise, reasonable division of labor, close cooperation, and adherence to the principle of unifying problem-oriented and goal-oriented, and combining strategic countermeasures with practical suggestions, the research team conducted in-depth research on the theory and practice of building a modern economic system mainly from two aspects: first, the basic theoretical research on building a modern economic system; The second is China's policy, regulation and practical exploration of building a modern economic system. These two aspects of research and exploration are of great significance to China's vigorous promotion of the construction of modern economic system in the new era, and the research team strives to achieve new results, new views, new policies, new enlightenments and new programs to guide practice. The book consists of two parts: the first part is the basic theory, focusing on the theoretical exploration of building a modern economic system; The second part is policy practice, focusing on policy and practice issues related to the construction of a modern economic system. The main achievements and key contents are summarized below. The first part of the basic theory explores the theoretical basis, main content and key points for building a modern economic system. Professor Zhu Xiaoqing believes that the scope of the modern economic system is not only related to the scope of modernization and economic system, but also related to China's long-term goal of transforming the development mode in the new era, building a strong country in science and technology, a strong country in quality and a modern power, and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. On the basis of in-depth analysis of the concepts of modernization, economic system and modern economic system, it believes that the connotation of building a modern economic system should include goals, ideas, main directions of attack, operation mode and strategic pattern, and the basic ideas, main direction of attack, operation mode and strategic pattern to achieve the goals focus on six aspects: one concept, that is, five new development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing; The second is a main line, that is, supply-side structural reform; The third is two priorities, that is, quality first, benefit first; The fourth is three major changes, namely quality change, efficiency change, and power change; Fifth, the "three haves" economic system, that is, the market mechanism is effective, the micro subjects are dynamic, and the macro-control is measured; Sixth, the "four synergy" modern industrial system, that is, the coordinated development of the real economy, scientific and technological innovation, modern finance, and human resources. The goals are linked to the ideas and strategic patterns of these six aspects, and constitute the "blueprint" and action guide for China to build a modern economic system. Professor Gai Yanmei emphasized that it is necessary to guide the construction of a modern economic system with a new development concept, firmly grasp the main line of deepening supply-side structural reform, grasp innovation, which affects the overall situation of economic and social development, rely on innovation-driven, give more play to the leading role of first-mover advantage, rely on scientific and technological innovation, institutional innovation and business model innovation, and accelerate the transformation of China's manufacturing to China's creation, China's speed to China's quality, and the transformation and upgrading of a manufacturing country to a manufacturing power. It is necessary to adhere to the concept of coordinated development, coordinate rural revitalization and coordinated regional development, and vigorously promote the implementation and implementation of the regional development strategies or initiatives of the three major countries of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the "Belt and Road". It is necessary to implement the concept of open development, coordinate the overall situation at home and abroad, focus on the "Belt and Road" initiative, adhere to the equal emphasis on "bringing in" and "going out", and accelerate the cultivation of new advantages in international economic cooperation and competition. Associate Professor Sun Yuxiu believes that after 40 years of opening up, China has transformed from a relatively closed economy to an increasingly open economy deeply integrated with the world economy. In the new era, the issue of how to actively participate in and promote the process of economic globalization and develop a higher-level open economy has become more and more important. Based on the new requirements of General Secretary Xi Jinping on the strategic goals of open economy since the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the main contents of building a new open economy system have been systematically sorted out, emphasizing the need to promote the formation of a new pattern of comprehensive opening up with linkage at home and abroad and mutual assistance between east and west, and on this basis, the implementation path of realizing a new open economic system is further proposed. Dr. Xue Wenping believes that accelerating the construction of a modern fiscal system is an important part of accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system, and it is also one of the important contents of implementing the new development concept and establishing a modern economic system. Along the narrative logic of where the modern fiscal system comes from, why it should replace public finance, what is the connotation of the modern fiscal system, and what is the significance of accelerating the construction of a modern fiscal system, the core components of modern finance are emphasized: first, the establishment of a central and local fiscal relationship with clear powers and responsibilities, coordinated financial resources, and regional balance; The second is to establish a comprehensive, standardized, transparent, scientific and binding budget system, and fully implement performance management; The third is to deepen the reform of the tax system and improve the local tax system. The second part of policy practice provides a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted explanation of China's policy formulation and practical experience in building a modern economic system and its existing outstanding problems. Professor Wang Hao believes that the transformation and upgrading of industry is an objective requirement for residents' consumption demand to become personalized, diversified and high-end, a fundamental way to solve the main contradictions in the social economy, and the core content of building a modern economic system. However, there are three main structural factors restricting China's industrial transformation and upgrading: First, the structure of land use. The unreasonable ratio of residential land and industrial land reflects the irrationality of urban spatial structure and the imbalance of the relationship between production and life. The second is the structure of the labor force. The dividend in the number of labor forces has shown a downward trend, making it more difficult to basically achieve the goal of modernization in the next step. The third is the technical structure. Analysis from multiple angles shows that China's dependence on foreign technology is relatively high, and its independent innovation ability is not strong enough. To solve structural problems and effectively promote China's industrial transformation and upgrading, it is necessary to take measures such as optimizing the structure of land use, developing labor quality dividends, strengthening supply-side structural reform, and promoting the development of state-owned enterprises and the transformation of private enterprises. Associate Professor Yang Dongde believes that to build a modern national innovation system, it is necessary to fully consider the role of each element of the innovation system, respect the laws of the market and scientific and technological innovation, strengthen the construction of R&D infrastructure around the entire innovation chain from basic theoretical research to technology development to commercialization of innovation results, create a social and cultural environment conducive to innovation, formulate a supporting innovation policy system to encourage innovation, and establish governments, markets, universities, scientific research institutions, enterprises, consumers, financial institutions, An innovation ecosystem in which technology intermediaries and service providers work together. In terms of the construction of the national innovation system, it is emphasized that the experience of other countries cannot be copied, and the government-led Chinese characteristics must be highlighted. Associate Professor He Yan pointed out that since the reform and opening up, China's urban and rural economies have made unprecedented achievements, laying the foundation for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. However, there are still many outstanding problems, including the imbalance between urban and rural development and the decline of rural development, which seriously affect the development of the entire national economy. To solve the problem, we must focus on "rural industry revitalization, rural talent revitalization, rural culture revitalization, rural ecological revitalization, and rural organization revitalization". To this end, Associate Professor He Yan focused on explaining the practice of rural revitalization in Beijing, which provided valuable experience for the demonstration effect of the national implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Associate Professor Li Shiyang believes that building a financial technology cluster area in Xiong'an New Area, with the help of the latest financial technology means such as blockchain, financial cloud, Internet credit risk control, biometrics, digital currency construction, etc., to support the rapid growth of high-end service industries in Xiong'an New Area, will help accelerate the transformation of Beijing's economic development mode and industrial structure upgrading, and then play a demonstration effect of innovative development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and even the whole country. Associate Professor Li Shiyang pointed out that the financial development of Xiong'an New Area should focus on attracting high-tech market-oriented financial elements, vigorously build a multi-level capital market system such as bond market, corporate bill market, and regional equity trading market, and encourage various financial innovations and new forms of financial technology to settle in and develop. It is necessary to pay attention to improving the construction of the financial credit environment and the financial talent system, optimizing the financial soft environment, strengthening the supervision of emerging financial technology formats, resolving financial risks, and making the regional financial market standardized, orderly and efficient. It is necessary to give full play to the core supporting role of finance in the economic and social development of the new area. Associate Professor Lu Yuanyuan pointed out that under the trend of increasing economic globalization, enterprise clusters, as a special form of enterprise space organization, have shown extraordinary vitality in many national economic systems, attracting the keen attention of researchers and policy makers in many fields. After 40 years of reform and opening up, various types of enterprise clusters in China have become the main support and backbone of rapid economic development. However, the theoretical research on enterprise clusters is still in a growth stage, and many problems need to be studied in depth. In view of this situation, Associate Professor Lu Yuanyuan adopts the method of case analysis, regards the cluster as a complex adaptive system, borrows complexity theory to study the process of co-evolution of enterprise clusters, and tries to introduce complexity theory in the field of natural science into the study of cluster problems, striving to open up new fields, attract relevant research attention, and further enrich the theories in this regard. Associate Professor Li Zhong pointed out that the integrated circuit industry is the core of the information technology industry, related to the core competitiveness of the country and national security, and its importance cannot be overemphasized. Practice has proved that the world supply chain is fragile in the face of politics, and in order to realize the dream of becoming a scientific and technological power, it is necessary to have a self-developed "Chinese core". With the intensive introduction of a series of national policies, technological research and industrial breakthroughs, China has successfully solved the problem of integrated circuits "from scratch", and the industrial ecology has been comprehensively improved. However, many problems such as China's integrated circuit industry have a weak development foundation, insufficient investment intensity, prominent corporate financing bottlenecks, and poor self-"hematopoietic" function of backbone enterprises have not been fundamentally solved. To this end, on the basis of in-depth systematic research on the development experience and practices of foreign integrated circuit industry, Associate Professor Li Zhong put forward corresponding policy suggestions for the future development of China's integrated circuit industry. In the process of writing and publishing this book, I was fortunate to receive great help from relevant leaders and scholars. In particular, Comrade Liu Jun, Director of the Base Division of the Beijing Municipal Social Science Planning Office, Comrade Wang Minzhong, Executive Vice President of the Party School of the Beijing Municipal Party Committee, Comrade Yuan Jifu, Vice President and Comrade E Zhenhui, Director of the Scientific Research Department, provided a lot of help and support for the publication of this book. The China Social Sciences Press made meticulous arrangements for the publication of this book. Jiang Wenwu, Wu Xiaodong, Zhao Tianxiang, Song Xiaona, Huang Yajuan, Wang Gongtao, Hu Xiaoqin, Ku Yuankun, Yu Jiuchen, Chi Lili, Qi Junya, Liu Mingming, Guo Hao, Sun Xiuxia, He Xu, Yin Jianfeng, Li Zimeng, Zhang Hongmei, Chen Hong, Jia Xiaojia, Duan Hu, Liu Weijun, and Zheng Junjun participated in the work of data collection, field research, case analysis, and text editing in this book. Here, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to these comrades! Zhu Xiaoqing Li Zhong, January 8, 2019(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
中共北京市委党校马克思主义理论研究中心.中国现代化经济体系建设理论与实践[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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MLA 格式引文
中共北京市委党校马克思主义理论研究中心.中国现代化经济体系建设理论与实践.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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中共北京市委党校马克思主义理论研究中心(2019).中国现代化经济体系建设理论与实践.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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